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in memoriam tribute to albert ellis
1. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Elliot D. Cohen Albert Ellis’s Philosophical Revolution: An In Memoriam Tribute
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Albert Ellis is widely recognized as one of the most influential psychologists in the history of psychology. However, his importance as a pioneer of applied philosophy is not as widely acknowledged. This paper, in memoriam, pays tribute to Ellis’s contributions to applied philosophy. In particular it discusses his revolutionarily important applications of philosophy to the field of psychology and briefly discusses his influence on the emerging field of philosophical counseling.
2. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
William Hare Why Philosophy for Educators?
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Is philosophy of benefit to educators? It is argued here that philosophy can be of great practical value to anyone quite apart from its intrinsic interest. Many examples are subsequently deployed to show how the ways in which philosophy is generally useful can translate into tangible benefits for teachers, administrators, and others who work in the field of education.
3. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
D. R. Cooley Non-Heterosexuals in Heterosexual Marriages as a Form of Spousal Abuse
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When non-heterosexual spouses come out of the closet to their husbands or wives, attention is generally focused upon the non-heterosexual member of the relationship. He or she is often lauded for having the strength to openly acknowledge and pursue a central component of his or her personal identity.Although the attention is justified in many cases, left unexplained is how the heterosexual spouse was treated prior to the revelation. I argue that many heterosexual-non-heterosexual pairings involve spousal abuse. The maltreatment stems from the deceived being treated as a mere means, and prevented from exercising her autonomy and receiving a nurturing marriage the heterosexual spouse expects and deserves.
4. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
James Edwin Mahon A Definition of Deceiving
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In this article I consider six definitions of deceiving (that is, otherdeceiving, as opposed to self-deceiving) and reject them all, in favor of a modified version of a rejected definition that avoids all of the objections to the previous definitions. According to this new definition, deceiving is necessarily intentional, requires that the deceived person acquires or continues to have a false belief, and must involve the agency of the deceived person; furthermore, the deceiver must know or truly believe that the false belief that the deceived person acquires or continues to have is false.
5. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Stephen Haller Grave Concerns: Concepts of Self and Respect for the Dead
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This paper is concerned with the ethics of dealing with the dead. In particular, it examines the case of the Kennewick Man—a skeleton discovered in Washington State in 1996. This archaeological find has created a conflict between scientists, who have much to learn by the study of such bones, and some Native Americans, who believe that studying these bones is disrespectful to the dead. A law-suit was launched with the aim of preventing scientific study of the remains of Kennewick Man, but this law-suit was decided in favour of the scientists. I consider three concepts of Selfhood and relate them to the case. First, I consider the concept of Self as an autonomous entity with interests that arise from individual goals. I discuss the limits of such interests after death. Second, I consider the holistic concept of Self described by Deep Ecologists and others. Third, I describe the relational self associated with some feminist philosophers and communitarians to conclude that this idea provides an argument for respecting the dead. It does this in virtue of how it solves “the problem of the nonexistent subject.” Of these threeconceptions of selfhood, only one, the social-relational view, could serve to ground any injunction to leave ancient bones undisturbed. The KennewickMan case could be described as a debate over whether Kennewick Man meets this relational definition of selfhood.
6. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
A. T. Nuyen Knowing the Unknown and Informed Consent
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It is now widely accepted that experiments using human subjects without their informed consent is unethical. However, in certain kinds of experiment, such as placebo trials, informing participants about what will happen will invalidate research results. Some authors have suggested that the principle of informed consent has to be modified, others claim that ethical concerns can be set aside in the interest of advancing medical research. I argue that these attempts at justifying withholding information from participants are inadequate. Drawing from a debate in epistemology between so-called internalists and externalists, I claim thatwe can know on a different level that we are not to know certain details about an experiment, and argue that consent given on the basis of such knowledge is informed consent and is ethically sufficient.
7. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Fernando Suárez Müller On Futuristic Gerontology: A Philosophical Evaluation of Aubrey de Grey’s SENS Project
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This article is an ethical evaluation of the SENS bio-engineering program of Aubrey de Grey. After a general introduction, section 2 is a refutation of the claim that not to cure aging is immoral. It analyses the conceptual identification made by de Grey between “aging” and “disease.” This identification has important moral implications. It is argued that from a physiological standpoint the identification makes sense but from an evolutionary point of view it is highly questionable. Section 3 is a refutation of the answer given by transhumanists to objections concerning the desirability of physical immortality. It is argued that the objections (which involve possible futuristic doom-scenarios questioning the desirability of physical immortality and continuous rejuvenation) have not been adequately answered.
symposium on legal reasoning
8. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Julie C. Van Camp How Religion Co-opts Morality in Legal Reasoning: A Case Study of Lawrence v. Texas
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Some recent commentators have acquiesced in the efforts of some religious groups to co-opt concepts of morality, thus leading many—inappropriately, I believe—to think we must keep all morality out of our civic life and especially out of the reasoning in our legal system. I review examples of the confusion in characterizing the 2003 Lawrence v. Texas decision as a conflict between constitutional rights and religious moral precepts. I argue that this approach capitulates to particular views of morality as religious morality. I consider the appeals to morality in the dissent and the ensuing confusion among commentators about the significance ofthis opinion. I review alternate readings of the Lawrence majority opinion, including proposals that it be considered from the perspectives of the ethicalframeworks of Locke, Mill, or Kant.
9. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Clifton Perry Exhuming the Body of the Corpus Delicti Rule
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The Corpus Delicti Rule prohibits the introduction of the defendant’s confession to a crime to count as evidence against the defendant in the absence of independent evidence of the crime in question. The common law rule, designed to protect the defendant who confesses to the commission of a fictitious crime, has fallen out of favor with federal courts and a number of state courts. Moreover, the rule has its academic detractors. This essay is an attempt to investigate the value of the rule, the academic criticisms of the rule and to analyze the federal substitute for the rule. If the analysis is not completely astray, the rule serves a most admirable social purpose. The academic arguments are not so telling as to justify jettisoning the rule. Finally, the federal rule is argued to be either completelyinadequate a protection or an adequate protection only to the extent that the federal substitute is coextensive with the rule it is designed to replace, namely, the original Corpus Delicti Rule.
symposium on cultural change
10. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Robert Albin Journalists as Agents of Cultural Change: From Rationality Back to Nature
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which journalism—print and electronic—shapes our cultural fabric and modes of discourse. Journalists report facts and comment on them in a provocative style. They stimulate us with captivating images and colorful language, shifting our minds from a more intellectual contemplation of reality. Finally, journalists bring death into our lives through grim pictures of wars and natural disasters. I suggest that these relatively recent trends in journalism are responsible for a gradual transformation in public discourse. Emotions, rather than rational thinking, are becoming our basis for understanding current events. As a result, journalists are minimizing the distance between us, as rational creatures of culture, and nature.
11. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Steven Weimer Polyglot Multiculturalism and Social Progress
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Robert Goodin has usefully distinguished two models of liberal multiculturalism: “Protective multiculturalism,” which justifies multiculturalist policies, such as granting minority cultures group rights, on the grounds that such policies may be necessary to defend those cultures against oppression, and “Polyglot multiculturalism,” which positively values multiculturalism for sake of its benefits to society at large. Typically, it is the autonomy of a society’s members that multiculturalism is thought to benefit. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to several other possible benefits of multiculturalism. We find in Mill’s discussion of “individuality” three suggestions as to how the social diversity brought by multiculturalism may promote well-being: through self-development, through individuals’ identification of suitable pursuits, and through social progress. While I believe that all three of Mill’s suggestions are worthy of reexamination, inthis paper I focus my attention on defending the latter.
about the contributors
12. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
About the Contributors
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symposium on abortion and men
13. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Bertha Alvarez Manninen Pleading Men and Virtuous Women: Considering the Role of the Father in the Abortion Debate
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Far too often in our society, the input of a potential father is not deemed relevant in a woman’s abortion decision. Men, however, can suffer emotional strains due to the abortion of their potential child, and given this harm it seems that morality must make room for a potential father’s voice in the abortion decision. I will argue that a man cannot have the right to veto a woman’s decision to procure an abortion, yet there may be times where a woman may exercise her right to an abortion in a manner not indicative of a virtuous character. This is especially a danger in the face of a dissenting man who may suffer greatly if his potential child is abortedand thus I will delineate circumstances where a virtuous woman would concede to carrying a fetus to term in order to give a man the child he so desperately desires. In addition to using virtue ethics to make the argument, I will incorporate certain aspects of care ethics in order to further what may seem to some to be a rather contentious claim.
14. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Rebecca Hanrahan The Decision to Abort
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Is a woman ever morally obligated to forgo an abortion for the sake of the man who has impregnated her? In “Fathers and Fetuses,” George Harris contends that in some situations women are so obligated. Harris argues that a woman who lies to her partner about her desire to have children, becomes pregnant, and then decides to abort, will, if she acts on this decision, violate her partner’s autonomy and harm him in so far as she will harm his fetus. To avoid these wrongs, a woman must therefore carry this fetus to term. I argue that this conclusion depends on a principle for which Harris offers no argument, namely that the conditions under which a fetus is to be considered a man’s are the same conditions under which a fetus is to be considered a woman’s. Evaluating this principle andconsidering related cases leads to important conclusions about a parent’s relationship with the fetus. Specifically, I challenge the notion that we should ever consider a fetus ‘his’ or even ‘hers.’
15. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Daniel Holbrook All Embryos are Equal?: Issues in Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, IVF Implantation, Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and Therapeutic Cloning
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The focus here is the question of the moral status of viable human embryos for the first few days of their existence. More precisely, my focus is the human embryo from its conception, through its becoming a mass of undifferentiated cells, to its first differentiation when the initial stem cell mass appears. Naturally, this would occur in the first week of the embryo’s existence, whether in vitro (in a laboratory) or in vivo (in the uterine tubes or uterus). With cryogenics, the process can be frozen at any stage. In this essay, I identify four categories of human embryos and argue that differences between these categories support the view that embryos are not all equal in terms of their moral status, which, in turn, supports the legitimacy of some medical and research procedures that put embryos at risk.
16. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
James Stacey Taylor Autonomy, Responsibility, and Women’s Obligation to Resist Sexual Harrassment
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In a recent paper Carol Hay has argued for the conclusion that “a woman who has been sexually harassed has a moral obligation to confront her harasser.” I will argue in this paper that Hay’s arguments for her conclusion are unsound, for they rest on both a misconstrual of the nature of personal autonomy, and a misunderstanding of its relationship to moral responsibility. However, even though Hay’s own arguments do not support her conclusion that women have a duty to resist sexual harassment this conclusion can draw support from arguments that are independent of hers. Women, then, do indeed have a moral obligation to confront those who sexually harass them.
17. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Kalynne Hackney Pudner “Comment Me Back”: Expectations of Intimacy in the Culture of Blog
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Electronic communication raises challenges to our understanding of the ethics of interpersonal relationship. This paper examines one area of electronic communication, the practice of journal blogging, and its correlation to one form of interpersonal relationship, intimacy. Analyzing intimacy in terms of knowledge, esteem, and assimilation, the paper argues that while journal blogging would seem to enhance and facilitate these relational elements, the practice in fact and in principle undermines them.
18. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Brian Schrag Ethical Obligations of Museum Trustees and the Looting of Our Collective Heritage
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Museums have a long history and practice of trafficking in looted antiquities. An account of the moral mission of museums and the moral obligations of museum trustees is given. Based on that account, a moral critique of the actions of museums and their trustees is provided, addressing some of the rationales that museums and their trustees have offered for justifying this activity of trafficking. Some of the rationale examined involves arguments regarding collective responsibility. It is argued that the loss of provenance and provenience resulting from this practice is a particularly significant moral harm done to humanity as a whole. I argue that it is a mistake to categorize human remains and cultural artifacts as property and doing so is one source of the morally problematic activity.
19. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Todd R. Long Is it True that ‘Evolution Is a Theory, Not a Fact’?
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The teaching of evolutionary theory in U.S. public school science classes has been called into question via numerous school board mandated “evolution is a theory, not a fact” disclaimers that have appeared on science textbooks in recent years and which have been the subject of recent court cases. I evaluate the scientific reasonability of such disclaimers by engaging in conceptual analysis on the crucial terms in the key claim: “evolution is a theory, not a fact.” Assessing various interpretations of the key claim, I argue that, for any interpretation, it is either clearly false, or trivially true, or not even marginally reasonable as a rationale, of the sort pertaining to science, that justifies the use of the disclaimer or the advice it recommends to students. I conclude that such disclaimers haveno scientific merit. Finally, I offer brief remarks about what we may learn from the use of the disclaimers, as well as a word about the relevance of methodological naturalism to current disputes, and likely ones in the near future, over evolution.
20. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 1
Jane Duran Canine Minds, Human Minds
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Sheldrake’s work on canine cognition is examined from more than one standpoint. His use of the terms “social field” and “morphic field” is delineated, and in addition recent work on ethology and cognition, done by Allen and Bekoff, is set out and contrasted with Sheldrake’s theorizing. The importance of the allusion to a number of comparatively unexamined concepts, including some borrowed from research on extrasensory perception, is analyzed and it is concluded that Sheldrake has yet to establish his case in acceptable terms.