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1. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Die Herausgeber Vorwort
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2. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
The editors Preface
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3. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Karel Lambert Set Theory and Definite Descriptions: Four Solutions in Search of a Common Problem
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This paper offers an explanation of the maj or traditions in the logical treatment of definite descriptions as reactions to paradoxical naive definite descriptiontheory. The explanation closely parallels that of various set theories as reactions to paradoxical naive set theory. Indeed, naive set theory is derivable from naive definite description theory given an appropriate definition of set abstracts in terms of definite descriptions.
4. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Dirk Greimann "No Entity Without Identity":: A Reductionist Dogma?
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Quine has persuasively shown that the empiricist "dogma of reductionism", which is the belief that each meaningfiil statement of science can be reduced to statements about immediate sense experience, must be abandoned. However, Quine's methodology of ontology seems to incorporate an analogous physicalistic dogma according to which the identity conditions of each scientifically respectable sort of abstract objects can be reduced to the identity conditions of physical objects. This paper aims to show that the latter dogma must be abandoned, too. In section 1, the reductionist methodology underlying Quine's prescript "No Entity without Identity" is reconstructed in detail. In section 2 and 3, this methodology is criticized on the ground that Quine's individuation of sets offendsagainst the reductive Criteria of adequacy for individuations that are presupposed by his criticism of the ontological recognition of intensional objects. Finally, in section 4 an alternative holistic conception of individuation is outlined.
5. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
J.P. Moreland Issues and Options in Individuation
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Construed metaphysically, the problem of individuation is the problem of offering an ontological assay of two entities that share all their pure properties in common so as to offer an account of what makes them distinct particulars. This article provides a survey of the major contemporary attempts to answer this problem. To accomplish this goal, the most important contemporary advocates of each solution is analyzed: the trope nominalism of Keith Campbell, the realism of D. M. Armstrong, the Leibnizian essence view of Alvin Plantinga, and the bare particular position of Gustav Bergmann. As a secondary purpose, the article provides a brief critique of the first three solutions and a brief defense of the fourth.
6. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Gregg A. Ten Elshof A Defense of Moderate Haecceitism
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The identity of indiscernibles is false. Robert Adams and others have argued that if the identity of indiscernibles is false, then primitive thisness must be admitted as a fundamental feature of the world (i.e. haecceitism is true). Moreover, it has been suggested that if haecceitism is true, then essentialism is false - that accounting for individuation by means of haecceities precludes a thing's having essential qualitative properties. I will argue that this suggestion is misguided. In so doing, I will be defending what Adams has labeled 'moderate haecceitism'.After working through some preliminary issues, I will attempt (in section I) to motivate haecceitism. I will begin by reviewing Adams' arguments against the doctrine of the identity of indiscernibles. Next, I will examine altemative accounts of individuation which concede the falsity of that doctrine. I will reject these accounts and conclude that primitive thisness has an essential role to play in any satisfying account of individuation. In section II , I will surface the alleged tension between haecceitism and essentialism. In section III , I will suggest that Adams' moderate haecceitism avoids the tension surfaced in section II. Finally, in section IV, I will raise a difficulty for Adams' view and suggest a different understanding of the nature of haecceities. I will argue that the alleged tension between haecceitism and essentialism rests on a conflation of the metaphysical problem of individuation either with the epistemological problem which goes by the same name or with problems involving the unity of a thing. I will conclude with a few brief comments about the significance of moderate haecceitism for modal epistemology.
7. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Matthias Steup Unrestricted Foundationalism and the Sellarsian Dilemma
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I propose a version of foundationaUsm with the following distinctive features. First, it includes in the class of basic beliefs ordinary beliefs about physical objects. This makes it unrestricted. Second, it assigns the role of ultimate justifiers to A-states: states of being appeared to in various ways. Such states have propositional content, and are justifiers if they are presumptively reliable. The beliefs A-states justify are basic if they are non-inferential. In the last three sections of the paper, I defend this version of foundationalism against Sellars's famous anti-foundationalist dilemma, according to which sense-experiential states can't be justifiers ifthey lack propositional content, and can't terminate the justificatory regress if they have propositional content. I argue that the latter of these two claims is false. A-states can play the role of justifiers because they have propositional content, and they can terminate the justificatory regress because they themselves are capable of neither being true or false, nor being justified or unjustified.
8. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Mylan Engel, Jr. Intemalism, the Gettier Problem, and Metaepistemological Skepticism
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When it comes to second-order knowledge (i.e. knowing that one knows), internalists typically contend that when we know that p, we can, by reflecting, directly know that we are knowing it. Gettier considerations are employed to challenge this internalistic contention and to make out a prima facie case for internalistic metaepistemological skepticism, the thesis that no one ever intemalistically knows that one internalistically knows that p. In particular, I argue that at the metaepistemological second-order level, the Gettier problem generates three distinct problems which, taken together, seriously undermine the possibility of anyone possessing second-order internalistic knowledge.
9. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Robert A. Imlay The Skeptical Argument from Error: A Diagnosis and a Refutation
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I seek to show that the skeptical argument from error turns crucially on the following assumption: because Bill1 with the same degree of evidence as Bill2 failed merely by virtue of John's1 absence to know that John1 would be at the party, then Bill2 must have got things right by coincidence if he got them right at all, as to the actual attendance of John2. And so he does not have knowledge. But the conclusion that coincidence entered here is a non-sequitur.
10. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Friedrich Christoph Dörge Illokutionäre Akte und Konventionalität
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The Speech act models of Searle and Bach/Hamish mistakenly reconstruct Austin's concept of "illocutionary act". In Austin's view, "illocutionary acts" are not pure acts of communication but social acts achieved by communicative behavior. Following Searle's "Speech Acts" and Strawson's "Intention and Convention in Speech Acts" today's speech act theory looks upon illocutionary acts as pure acts of communication, involving "conventionality" (in a certain sense) only as part of speaker's meaning. However, following Austin, to perform an illocutionary act is to bring about conventional consequences which are not adequately dealt with in the speech act models of Searle and Bach/Hamish.
11. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Richard Schantz Selbstbewußtsein und Objektbewußtsein bei Kant: Eine Studie zu den Paralogismen der reinen Vernunft
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In the Paralogisms of Pure Reason Kant casts a critical glance at that doctrine of the soul which was called "rational psychology" by the classical metaphysics of his time, and which can best be understood as a systematic reconstruction of Descartes' theory of mind. Kant agrees with the proponents of rational psychology that our representation of a subject of experience is necessarily the representation of a simple, unitary and persisting subject. But Kant's decisive objection to his opponents is that from these necessary truths about how a subject must represent itself no conclusions about the ontological constitution of the subject in itself can be derived. Despite the brilliance and profundity of his criticism, however, Kant himself remains, in a certain sense, trapped in the methodological solipsism of his predecessors.
12. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Matt Taylor The Consistency of Husserl's Theory of Meaning
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My aim in this paper is to examine two related issues in the debate surrounding the work of Edmund Husserl. I wish to clarify his theories of meaning and noema, and also to challenge the assumption that Husserl's Logical Investigations is inconsistent with the first book of his Ideas with respect to meaning. I also suggest that misunderstandings in these areas are in part responsible for a misunderstanding of the relationship between Husserl and Frege. Commentators have noted Husserl's claim that meaning is a universal which is instantiated by particular acts of meaning, yet characteristically they fail to provide any account of what Husserl takes a universal to be. Here I will provide such an account which will allow me to clarify the relevant issues.
13. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Andreas Blank Die kategoriale Unbestimmtheit der Gegenstände in Wittgensteins Tractatus
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This paper has two aims: In the first part it is argued, that - contrary to a predominant line of interpretation in recent literature - Wittgenstein holds no implicit (positive or negative) assumptions conceming the categorial status of objects in the Tractatus. The second part tries to explain the categorial indeterminacy of Tractarian objects as a consequence of Wittgenstein's concept of logic and his distinction between "logic" and "application of logic".
review article
14. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
G. Aldo Antonelli Origins of Logical Empiricism
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critical note
15. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 60
Clemens Sedmak Österreichische Philosophie von Brentano bis Wittgenstein
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16. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 58/59
Rudolf Haller Ein abschließendes Vorwort
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17. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 58/59
Barry Smith Philosophie, Politik und Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Zur Frage der Philosophie in Österreich und Deutschland
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Die Entwicklung der Philosophie in Österreich unterscheidet sich in markanter Weise von der Hauptlinie der philosophischen Entwicklung in Deutschland. Dabei fällt bei der österreichischen Philosophie vor allem die konsequente Orientierung an den Wissenschaften auf. In der philosophiegeschichtlichen Forschung sind für diese Besonderheit der österreichischen Philosophie z. B. von Otto Neurath, Rudolf Haller, Friedrich Stadier und J.C. Nyiri verschiedene Erklärungen vorgeschlagen worden. In diesen spielen in jeweils unterschiedlicher Weise Faktoren der spezifisch österreichischen Entwicklungen in historischer, institutioneller, politischer und religiöser Hinsicht eine Rolle. Der vorliegende Aufsatz kritisiert demgegenüber bereits die diese Erklärungsversuche tragende Fragestellung: Die philosophischen Entwicklungen in Österreich bedürfen - so lautet die neue These - gar nicht einer besonderen Erklärung; denn sie stellen den geistesgeschichtlichen Normalfall dar. Vielmehr ist eine Erklärung dafür notwendig, daß sich die wissenschaftliche Philosophie und die mit ihr verbundenen Charakterzüge stilistischer Klarheit, technischer Kompetenz, systematischer Orientierung, Spezialisierung und Professionalisierung im gleichen Zeitraum nicht auch in Deutschland entwickelt haben. Eine solche Erklärung läßt sich - so eine weitere These des Aufsatzes - ziemlich leicht aus der besonderen Rolle der (traditionellen idealistischen) Philosophie im deutschen Nationalbewußtsein herleiten.
18. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 58/59
Herbert Hochberg Facts, Truths and the Ontology of Logical Realism
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The paper sets out a version of a correspondence theory of truth that deals with a number of problems such theories traditionally face, problems associated with the names of Bradley, Meinong, Camap, Russell, Wittgenstein and Moore and that arise in connection with attempts to analyze facts of various logical forms. The line of argument employs a somewhat novel application of Russell's theory of definite descriptions. In developing a form of "logical realism" the paper takes up various ontological issues regarding classes, causal laws, modality, predication, negation and relations. It does so in connection with critical discussions of alternative views recently proposed by Armstrong, Bergmann, Lewis and Putnam.
19. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 58/59
Mauro Antonelli Franz Brentano und die Wiederentdeckung der Intentionalität: Richtigstellung herkömmlicher Mißverständnisse und Mißdeutungen
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Ausgehend von Franz Brentanos berühmter Intentionalitätspassage aus der Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt wird dargelegt, daß die vorherrschende ontologische Deutung seines sogenannten frühen Intentionalitätsgedankens unhaltbar ist. Unter Berücksichtigung von Brentanos Quellen, vor allem Aristoteles' Wahmehmungslehre und Theorie der Relativa, wird die Auffassung des sogenannten intentionalen bzw. immanenten Objektes als bewußtseinsimmanenter Entität abgelehnt und die Kontinuität hervorgehoben, die zwischen Brentanos früher und späterer, sogenannter reistischer Intentionalitätsauffassung besteht.
20. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 58/59
Werner Sauer Erneuerung der Philosophia Perennis: Über die ersten vier Habilitationsthesen Brentanos
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Die ersten vier von Brentanos 25 Habilitationsthesen fordern eine Erneuerung der Philosophie - worauf diese Forderung jedoch abzielt, ist nicht so klar. Vielfach wird behauptet, daß dieses Ziel eng verwandt mit der Konzeption einer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie im Sinne Russells und des Logischen Empirismus sei. Diese insbesondere auch von Rudolf Haller vertretene Auffassung setzt aber voraus, daß der katholisch-klerikale Kontext, in den der junge Priester Brentano eingebunden war, nur die unwesentliche Hülle eines eigentlichen Kernes bildet. Dagegen wird gezeigt, daß dieser Kontext nicht so ablösbar, sondern vielmehr für das Verständnis der Habilitationsthesen unabdingbar ist. Es ergibt sich, daß das, worauf die vier ersten Thesen abzielen, eine Erneuerung der philosophia perennis aus dem Geiste des Thomas von Aquin und im Rahmen der Vorgaben der Kirchenlehre ist.