Cover of Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy
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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Valentin Ageyev Self-development of Man and Socium as the Creative Education Mission
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The article reveals the adaptive character of modern education. It is illustrated that adaptation is implemented on the basis of two types of psychic mechanisms: causal and purposive determination. The conclusion is drawn that both these mechanisms are incapable of providing the upbringing of the Man capable of self-development. The difference is shown among adaptation, development and self-development. It is alleged that self-development is possible only provided that the student has the ability for creating his own development determinants. Transcending, ensuring historical determination, is suggested as the mechanism, ensuring the training of ability for self-development. The creative approach to education is described, and the internal mechanics of the new meanings genesis is revealed. It is shown that historical determination removes the problem of subject-objective opposition. As soon as the objective genesis is implemented in the subjective form, the historical role of Man in the social and cultural development becomes clear. Thereby, from the psychological point of view the historical role of Man in social and cultural development is grounded.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Jove Jim S. Aguas Teaching: a Dialogical Relation for Continual Learning and Growth
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One of the noblest of all professions is teaching, in fact all the other professions depend on the profession of teaching. Teaching is a channel of knowledge and the teacher acts as an instrumental cause in the acquisition of knowledge of others. At the center of the learning process and teaching profession is not the teacher, but the student – the human person to whom teacher concentrates his entire energy and effort, the reason and end of the learning process. The teacher however is an indispensable agent in the formation of the lives and careers of his students; he helps in cultivating the natural talents and abilities of his students. He plays a critical role in the molding of one’s character and personality. He guides and creates a learning atmosphere for the students to develop their own potentials and talents. The dialogical relation between the student and the teacher is anchored on certain elements: namely, the trusting reciprocation between the student and teacher; the exemplary integrity of the teacher; his concern for the personal well-being of the student and his confirmation of the student’s potentiality for self-fulfillment and personhood. Teaching as a dialogue, provides an opportunity for continual learning and growth.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
N. G. Bagdasaryan New Technological Wave and Appropriate Educational Model
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The paper proves the necessity for matching the system of education to the needs of the new technological cycle. We have attempted to outline the specific requirements of the 6th technological wave for the professional and personal traits of human capital; building an educational system able to fulfill the needs of the modern society is crucial, as these traits can be shaped in no other conditions. Finally, we analyze the reforms the Russian education is going through.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marina Camejo Manrique For an Aesthetics of Existence: Socratic-Platonic epimeleia heautou
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The primary aim of this paper is to show the relationship from Foucault’s perspective between epimeleia heautou (care of the self) and the aesthetics of existence. We believe it is extremely important to show the connection between these concepts as both refer to how the subject is constituted as such. Foucault returns to and resumes the study of the Greco-Roman culture to illustrate how the notion of aesthetics of the existence implies modes of subjection, in other words, it implies ways in which the individual is related to a set of rules and values (ethics).For this purpose, we will refer to the Laches dialogue, where Socrates, through his parrhesiastic attitude, best exemplifies the harmony between one’s own life and truth-telling. We will see that it is not only a matter of speaking frankly if this frank speech does not have an impact on your way of life. Therefore, truth-telling as a way of taking care of oneself leads to an aesthetics of existence, as men, by assuming the care of themselves, start shaping and modeling their life as a work of aesthetic contemplation.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
John Clark Can Neuroscience and Education Bridge the ‘Is-Ought’ Gap?
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Neuroscience and education is a developing area which has come in for some serious philosophical scrutiny. One of the biggest and most intractable problems concerns the bridging of the ‘is-ought’ gap between the descriptive claims of neuroscience and the prescriptive aims of education. A distinction needs to be drawn between learning and education. Advances in neuroscience might tell us more about learning as a neural process such as where in the brain particular learnings might take place and how such learnings take place. But from this nothing follows about what we ought to do to improve learning until such time as judgements are made about what is to be learned. Education, as a normative activity about what is worthwhile and what it is to be an educated person, cannot be reduced to learning even though learning is required in order to become educated. Neuroscience has a very limited role in education which amounts to no more than providing some empirical evidence which can be drawn upon to inform normative decisions about the educational worth of learning.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Magda Maria Colao, Siqueira Janes Teresinha Fraga Professors Who Study and Work: Challenges to an Emancipatory Consideration
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This text aims at being a theoretical reflection upon working and studying conditions of undergraduate students of pedagogy, in two Brazilian community colleges. The contradiction is manifested between the work and training of teachers-students and influences their social practices in colleges. They express these working and studying conditions when they talk about the available time for studies, and show us there is a diaeresis of social practice. We established the “cultural common” offered by universities or colleges is absorbed in a fragmented and alienated way due to material and academic challenges they face to keep on studying. Teachers-students live an obscure political-social reality, which influences their practices, turning them into naïve professionals, whose approaches are based on short-term objectives. This reality does not help them fight for essential transformations in society and education. We ask: What is the purpose of their work and study? The development of a human consciousness in all dimensions work and study should provide or merely a pursuit of a diploma so they can start working?
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Curbelo Pedrousa, Núñez de los Santos, Bianchi Quintana The Construction of a Truthful Individual: Looking at the Cynics, We Think Over Our Education
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Taking time to observe the subject, his construction and his relation with the truth in this sense, is the object of our study. The question about man is that which attempts to bring him closer to critical reflection, appealing for the pursuit and discovery of a true life and happiness, as the answer to the care of the self (Epimeleia Heautou). Our analysis will be focused on the relationship between philosophy and education. With respect to this, we are enriched by tradition, which enables us to broaden our minds by transgressing the current educational conceptions which question our historicity.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Celia Regina de Moura Alves Deus Descartes’ ‘Methodic Doubt’ and Marxism
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Marxism is a field involving passionate debates, sometimes even dogmatic positions. So, the ‘Methodic Doubt’ as established by René Descartes could be a way to quietly start to understand this theory and its implications and get to know other Marxist thinkers who could complete and advance Marx’ work from a rational point of view, for those less passionately involved.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Nina Dmitrenko Needs and Abilities in a Modern System of Education: A Problem Statement
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The paper deals with the interrelation of needs and abilities. The main regularities of their interdependence are presented. There exist three modes: accurate correspondence of needs and abilities; needs are formed prior to abilities; abilities are formed prior to needs. Modern educational technologies and techniques of teaching should balance material and spiritual components in the creative activity of a professional. The ability development of modern professionals takes place in accordance with society’s needs, with society simultaneously reorganizing it and forming a feed-back mechanism thus stimulating their further evolution.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Nick Eaves The Emergence of Life Story in Adolescence
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The life story as identity is an important concept in the formation of self. Identity, dependent on interaction with others is constantly evolving. Individuals living in modern societies begin to organize their lives in terms of self-stories in late adolescence (McAdams, 2004). Meanings and values attributed to self-stories are interpretative and are therefore highly subjective. Problems arise in clarifying defining moments, due to their subjective, interpretive nature. It could be argued the maturing self can only construe in a limited number of ways, as is dictated by limited life experiences. The evolving story of the self can, paradoxically, be negatively affected by the self-narratives which create the life story. Any event has a number of potential explanations or interpretations. The internalized narrative is not necessarily an accurate reflection of the event, thus the individual. Is moderating of internalized narrative a missing element in the development of the self? As educators could we by moderating internalizations through dialogue, lead to greater clarity in the development of life story?
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Olav Eikeland Anamnesis - Dialogical Recollection Work as an Empirical Research Method
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The original article, which first appeared in Norwegian (1998), is a detailed study of anamnesis or recollection in Plato and Aristotle. It discusses, first, how recollection is relevant for the understanding of central aspects of the philosophy of Aristotle, and then discusses how the “regained” Platonic-Aristotelian concept of anamnesis can be related to current methodological challenges in modern social research. After having received feedback on the original article from David Bloch, who has recently (2007) translated and commented the Aristotelian text “On memory and recollection”, I have decided to rewrite it in English and publish it here.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Tony M. W. A. Fahey Giambattista Vico on Education
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According to Vico, the minds of the young should not be exposed to philosophical criticism until their “natural inclination to the arts in which imagination and memory (or a combination of both)” had been developed. To educate adolescents in philosophy before they had been grounded in the common sense faculties of imagination and memory is to engender in them a sense of oddity and arrogance that manifests itself in adulthood and leaves them unfit for the practice of eloquence. For Vico, while imagination and memory are not exactly the same they are effectively the two sides of the same “common sense” coin. Because the ancients understood that certain concepts could not be “grasped without a vivid capacity to form images” these concepts should be introduced “gradually and gently and in step with the mental capacities of their age”. Elio Gianturco draws our attention to the fact that Vico’s “psychogenetic” approach to education: the view that the individual develops through a sequential order that is immutably fixed in nature, sets him out as a forerunner of educational, particularly child-educational, psychology. At a time when children were looked on more as adults in infantile form rather than human beings with their “own sensations, perceptions and feelings”, Vico pioneered an approach to education and children that would later taken up by people such as Rousseau, Dewey and Piaget, to name but a few.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Aristides Galatis Philosophy, Critical Thinking and the Cross-discipline Embedded Approach
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In recent years, unprecedented global development on the economic, communication and technological fronts has meant that the honing of student critical thinking skills, once considered the sole domain of philosophy, has been embraced as fundamental to the formation of effective learning and inherent to good educational practice. Curricular developers across the educational spectrum, and on an international scale, have begun to respond accordingly by designing exciting new learning frameworks that are rapidly moving from the implicit to the explicit identification and development of critical thinking. However, overwhelmingly viewed as a broad generic skill, rather than a discipline-specific (philosophical or technical) skill, they have tended to opt for a ‘cross-discipline embedded’ approach. This means that teachers from across an unprecedented diverse range of learning areas are, in addition to those areas, now responsible for the development, assessment and reporting of critical thinking skills. Focusing on the Australian Curriculum model (Foundation to Year 10), this article details the underlying assumptions and impending challenges that accompany this new learning framework. It envisions and argues for a more prominent role for philosophy in education; if critical thinking as a key capability is to attract the sort of attention that has been hoped for it.
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Sílvio Gallo Case and Practice of Thought in Philosophy of Education
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The concept of case, although it is getting an increasing importance in the field of humanities, is unusual in the domains of Philosophy. This work seeks to recover some uses of the case in the history of philosophy, as the ancient cynics Greeks, the essays of Montaigne and Nietzsche’s approach to the “Case of Wagner,” to explore elements of an immanent philosophical production that is non-fundamentalist and non-universalist. Finally, we address the importance of the case for the construction of a philosophy of education in an immanent perspective. In this context, the educational field is taken as a problematic field that enables the immanence of a philosophical thought focused on creating concepts from the problems experienced in this field. In this way, Philosophy of Education is seen as a philosophical production of concepts, starting from the casuistry of educational field and not as an “applied philosophy”.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marta Gluchmanova The Role of Professional Ethics of Education in Slovakia
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The author deals with the role of the teachers in the process of education at present. The principles of humanity and human dignity are emphasized there. She stresses the importance of the ethical and moral aspects in the teacher’s profession and well-functioning human relationships.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Vadim Grekhnev “Calls” and “Answers” in the Development of Modern Education
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The development of education is defined by calls (requirements) and answers, corresponding to them. Now days when society’s progress depends on knowledge, which is a major factor contributing to public wealth and wellbeing, it is necessary to answer these calls. Calls in education are the internal or external problems that create contradictions in the development of the world community, concrete society and their institutes of education. These problems are urgent and oblige people to give answers, and come to effective actions for the resolution of conflicts in the development of education and societies. If effective actions are late or absent, education enters a crisis, an unstable condition, and development fails. Presently all countries of the world (every one of them in its own way) face the general call for the cardinal solution of the problems of education. Modern education, its processes of “production” and socialization of people respond to internal impulses. It means that education starts to act as a brake in society’s development. Education lags behind and does not join in the solution of the problems of social development. Research leads to possible answers to this call and to the choice that borders universalism’s denial of the general and vocational training of youth. It is considered that utilitarian training is a priority because it gives an advantage when a certain type of knowledge is necessary. But in giving such an answer to the call, education of the personality is impoverished, and becomes primitive. It means that «the educated person» is limited to a pragmatically optimum minimum of knowledge, skills, and ways of communication that help him/her only to become stronger in this optimum minimum in the narrow social and professional niche.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Michael Heyns The Economistic University: A Brave New Paradigm?
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The assertion is made that we are experiencing a major paradigm shift in what a university should be towards the idea that universities should make a profit. It will be the argument of my paper that this is the introduction of a one-sided obsession and not the advent of a new paradigm. A first premise to substantiate this central statement: These new entrepreneurial practices are very difficult to be harmonized with the older established tasks of teaching and basic research. This makes the notion of a major paradigm shift disputable because the claim of a new paradigm is after all that it will be more comprehensive and still include teaching and basic research. Moreover, indications are that economism will make the current situation of universities worse and not better. A seriously damaging example is the impression that the scramble for profit despoils universities of the ability to ‘think’. This seems hardly the hallmark of a new and emancipative paradigm. The last premise of the paper will speculate that the advocacy of the economistic university is not only because of a will to survive financially. There is an enlisting of universities in the service of an almost religious belief in the necessity of unending economic growth, a belief that skews the typical nature and contribution that universities can make to civilization.
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Grigorios Karafyllis Learning, Education and Human Nature in Locke
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“Let us then suppose mind to be as we say white paper void of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? (…)”. To this he answers that knowledge is the combined result of external and internal experience and it is not subject to the exclusivity of the senses. According to Locke’s interpretation, this process means that external objects – which exist independently of man – act on the senses, causing the initial creation of ideas-as-impressions. This action appears as a response to the stimulus and is transmitted as a movement to the brain cells, thus producing individual ideas in the mind. The mind uses these simple ideas as the material of knowledge, to produce new, complex ideas. At the beginning man through a variety of processes of distinction and composition, forms complex ideas and construct its basic functions. In this configured mental environment, learning through education can be brought to bearing is more sensitive and suggestible to logic, while later this becomes difficult, even converse.
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Vasiliki Karavakou Ideals in Education and the Quest for Meaning
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The quest for meaning constitutes an important endeavour through which human beings strive to make sense of their lives, the operations of their minds, their history, development and goals. Philosophers of education have almost always vindicated the question of life’s having a meaning. For some human life is only meaningful to the extent that it is devoted to ultimate ends we care deeply about such as ideals. Ideals have been acclaimed to be existentially important for human beings and their education. This is a weak claim that has easily gained unanimous acceptance. What has been a rather debatable issue it is the strong claim that insists on their indispensability for education. In this paper we re-consider the strong claim and absolve it from an alleged irresolvable tension existing between its presuppositions. Philosophical discussions have been stigmatized by weariness and dissatisfaction due to the inconclusiveness of arguments. Raising the question has been regarded synonymous to the modern reflective stance that surpasses ancient eudemonism. Inventing meaning has replaced its discovery, as if the tension between “invention” and “discovery”, cognitivism and non-cognitivism, absolute and relative meaning constitutes a necessary map into which the question should be pursued. Theoretically and culturally dominant have been proved those who insist on the released epistemological and practical abilities of modern individuality to construct and relativize meaning in the interest of its own will and power. Our aim is to debunk the alleged inevitability of the dilemma: On the one hand, the idea of an absolute, pre-given meaning leads to absolutism and stifles individual expression and pluralism. On the other hand, no matter how much gratifying the sense of individual liberation has been, the idea of individual construction of meaning has occurred at the expense of modern education and culture, as it leads to subjectivism and relativism. Modern philosophy of education faces an unprecedented educational demand to the extent that the modern world-view is irreversibly different, fragmented and disorientated which renders it responsible for our modern stance towards the quest for meaning and the adoption of ideals in our educational theories and policies. In other words, modern philosophy of education should adjust its resources to the educational challenges of the modern world by relocating the centrality of the quest for meaning and the significance of ideals in order to restore education to its reflective and critical height.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Alexander Karpov Social Paradigms and Education
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The theory of social paradigms, developed by the author, proceeds from a specific paradigmatic situation of socio-cultural phenomenon (education, in particular), which differs in essence from a natural-science (natural) phenomenon that had been implicated by Kun’s conceptualization. “Paradigmatic” communities turn out to be a part of socio-cultural phenomenon. They both create and interpret the phenomenon, their theoretical examples being included into its functioning. The essential theory of the phenomenon’s being is expressed in an implicit (strong) paradigm, which is directly inbuilt into the reality rather than it is just being conceived. Doctrinal theories of local paradigms do not describe how reality is organized but rather indicate what it must look like through the spectacles of their ideas. In terms of the theory developed, the modern education motion towards paradigmatically differentiated system has been substantiated.