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1. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
John Hooker Editor’s Foreword
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education research articles
2. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Duygu Gulseren, Nick Turner, Justin M. Weinhardt What Makes Ethics Education Effective?: An Umbrella Review and Evidence-Led Best Practices
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Ethics education remains in high demand in business schools. Meta-analyses published in the last two decades show that ethics instruction with certain characteristics produce more desirable moral outcomes than other characteristics do. Acknowledging the vast accumulated knowledge on this topic, we believe that the existing evidence base could be overwhelming for ethics educators designing and delivering their courses. Thus, we review the research evidence on the effectiveness of ethics instruction and translate the findings into evidence-led best practices. Adopting the meta-science approach and using a model of training evaluation, we synthesized 8 meta-analyses and 3 quantitative reviews that examine the extent to which ethics instruction types, course duration, instructional techniques and activities, and instructor and student characteristics affect the effectiveness of ethics education. We conclude by making specific recommendations to ethics educators who are interested in designing and delivering evidence-based ethics courses.
3. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Rob Hales, Giang Phi Curriculum Audits and Implications for Sustainable Development Goals Integration in Business Schools
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This paper investigates the alignment of business school curriculums with the Sustainable Development Goals, utilising a case study of Griffith Business School, Australia. The study utilises an audit of keywords to map content and concepts associated with the goals, targets and indicators of SDGs. The audit results revealed that although there was already considerable uptake of key SDGs concepts throughout the undergraduate programs, in particular Goal 16 (Peace, justice and strong institutions), there were some gaps. Feedback from teaching staff on the results was combined with existing literature and industry/government approaches to offer considerations for future curriculum development that seeks to better integrate SDGs and sustainability. This work contributes to ongoing discussions about sustainability curriculum development and links previous research with the emerging SDG agenda in business schools. The practical nature of this research lends to direct transfer of method to other business schools who are wishing to map and develop their curriculum in relation to the SDGs.
4. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Thando Loliwe Accounting Academics’ Views of Their Teaching of Ethics: Evidence from a South African University
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This study investigated accounting academics’ perceptions of teaching ethics to students. The evidence is grouped under six themes of teaching of ethics; environmental considerations; consequences for wrongdoing; impact of professional bodies in ethics curriculum; nature of students; and student learning. This study found that accounting academics’ teaching has a weak conceptualisation of the curriculum and that social learning is ignored. It is also unstructured and varies within the same subject, from subject to subject, and from institution to institution. Lastly, accounting academics’ teaching focuses on pass marks and awareness and understanding of ethics knowledge rather than improving students’ beliefs, values, and behaviour. This study suggests that positive changes to students’ beliefs, values, and behaviour can be realised by extending learning outcomes and teaching practices, evaluating student behaviour regularly, including real-life examples of consequences for wrongdoing, and adding environmental and social factors to academics’ teaching of ethics.
5. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Po May Daphne Wong, Kerry J. Kennedy, Zi Yan An Educational Intervention on Chinese Business Students’ Orientation Towards Corporate Social Responsibility
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A one-day educational intervention with multiple activities was developed and operationalized with a sample of Chinese business students in Hong Kong, China. Its effectiveness in influencing students’ corporate social responsibility orientation (CSRO) was measured with a Chinese version of a forced choice scale using Economic, Legal, Ethical, and Discretionary (Philanthropy) dimensions by Carroll (1979, 1991). A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed significant differences in the Legal and Discretionary dimensions between the post-test Experimental (X) group (N=82) and Control (C) group (N=83); in the Legal, Ethical, and Discretionary dimensions within the pre-post X group. Such significant differences may be explained by the content of the activities, especially the service learning component. Overall, the intervention appeared effective in influencing students’ CSRO within a Chinese context. Since it was designed upon Western CSR literature, its applicability goes beyond the Chinese community.
6. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Daniel C. Evans, Gerald E. Evans, Michael V. Harrington Using Stakeholder Empathy to Promote Corporate Social Responsibility
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The requirement of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business to include business ethics in the curriculum has prompted business programs to teach ethics either integrated across the curriculum or in standalone classes. The question addressed here is how to engage students in thinking deeply and empathetically about ethical issues impacting corporate social responsibility (CSR). This research focused on using a thought experiment developed by John Rawls in which students examined CSR issues from the perspective of six stakeholder groups. A pre-test/post-test design measured the effectiveness of an instruction module on CSR coupled with an active exercise using Rawls’ veil of ignorance and original position. Results indicate that students placed greater responsibility on the stockholders and board of directors after taking this module. The implication of the Rawlsian technique to use stakeholder empathy is discussed as a tool for engaging business ethics students.
7. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
James Weber, Leandra I. Díaz Assessing Gender-Influenced Group Decision-Making in a Course Simulation: Considering Possible Explanations and Pedagogical Implications
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The business ethics education literature provides many in-depth explorations looking at the impact of ethics education and occasionally the influence of gender. Yet, research exploring decision making is primarily focused at the individual level, often omitting important influences that might occur when decision making occurs within a group setting. This paper utilizes a classroom simulation, the Corporate Policy Simulation, in a Business, Government and Society course to assess student group decision-making. We rely on theoretical principles found in Social Role Theory and two philosophical ethics of moral reasoning to assess the impact of gender within a group decision-making environment. Specifically, we assess if males in our study are better able to process financial decisions more effectively than females in our study, and if females in our study tend to process socially responsible or ethical decisions more effectively than males in our study. Our results support the expectations that all-female groups generally are able to make better socially responsible or ethical decisions, whereas there is no significant gender difference among any of the groups when focusing on financially orientated decisions. Possible explanations and the implications of this research on workplace practice and business ethics education are discussed.
8. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Justin D. Shanks, Germán Scalzo, María Teresa Nicolás-Gavilán Applying the Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework: Insights for Teaching Ethics Using TV Series
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Digital media and technology are nearly ubiquitious in contemporary higher education, As such, researchers and educators are keen to identify best practices and understand impacts. Digital media and technology present opportunities to cultivate interactive, creative teaching-learning communities. However, inclusion of digital media and technology in a course does not necessarily cultivate creative engagement or deep reflection among students. This manuscript studies how a contemplative approach to teaching with digital media, specifically TV series, can lead to more effective and engaging in the process of teaching professional ethics. This research explores how the Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework can enrich the use of TV series for teaching professional ethics and positively influence the effective integration of ethical behavior into university students’ future professional lives.
teaching articles
9. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Dolors Setó-Pamies, Archie B. Carroll Exploring Twitter as a Pedagogical Tool in Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability Education
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In recent years, considerable discussion has taken place regarding how to ensure business students are acquiring effectively the appropriate competencies related to Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability (ECSRS). Instructors in business education are encouraged to explore new methods for teaching ECSRS to strengthen this vital part of the curriculum and technology could play an important role. In this paper, we discuss why Twitter could be an effective teaching method in ECSRS education. The study provides a conceptual framework for the use of Twitter taking into account its major characteristics, main benefits, drawbacks, and key factors designing strategies. Some practical activities are also provided to encourage instructors to take more initiatives using Twitter and contribute to improving ECSRS education.
10. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Larry A. Wood, Peggy L. Hedges Active Learning-Reflective Exercises for Face-to-Face and Remote Delivery of Governance and Business Ethics Classes
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Despite revisions to curriculum in ethics education in business schools, there continues to be high profile examples of unethical decision making regularly spotlighted in the media. Rather than simply teaching about behaviors and how they might impact decision makers and stakeholders, we describe a suite of activities used to highlight various behaviors and biases that impact the decisions individuals might make. These activities are intertwined with course materials regarding ethics and corporate governance to remind and help students better understand how decision making can be influenced and challenged by personal ethics. We provide lesson planning suggestions including adapting to remote delivery, and student handouts. This suite of activities can be incorporated into any undergraduate or graduate level course that has content dealing with ethical decision making.
11. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Linette Stratford, Homer Warren Producer Mindset First, Then Teach Business Ethics
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Developing best practices for the business ethics classroom is an ongoing endeavor. One area of interest is the influence of mindsets on teaching and learning business ethics. Various mindsets are proposed to increase student awareness of the body of business ethics knowledge and motivate them to incorporate ethical knowledge in the real world. This paper reviews the current dominant consumer mindset that is argued to have unproductive effects on pedagogical practices in business ethics. Because human beings are biological production systems and live in a world of dynamic natural and human-made production processes, this paper proposes replacing the consumer mindset with Producer Mindset, a world view that is a far more natural way for humans to think, talk, and make decisions. A Producer Mindset framework is constructed for the business ethics classroom and details are provided as to how it can grow the cognitive and emotional capacity of students to independently produce ethical decisions in business and in their personal lives.
12. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Jason Cavich, Ravi Chinta Synergistic Ignatian and Business Values for Efficacious Business Ethics
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Many organizations are struggling to be run in an ethical fashion that consider all stakeholders and contribute comprehensively to society. As is true in much cross-discipline research, concepts and values can inform and enhance one another to produce broader contributions to society. This paper suggests this is the case when cross-pollinating Ignatian and business values for teaching business ethics that results in more ethical organizations. However, teaching Ignatian values as an ethical view in business schools is fraught with several practical issues including its place within the broader ethics literature. Our paper addresses a way that Ignatian values can be taught within a discipline-specific framework – namely by cross sectioning the values with “innovation” and “efficiency”. The practical utility of this framework is illustrated through several real-life examples. This framework is pragmatic and useful in guiding the personal and professional lives of students and organizations who seek to acquire business knowledge and intertwines the fields of management, ethics, and spirituality in a practical manner. The framework proposed in this paper provides moral and spiritual guidance for teaching, living, and running ethical organizations.
case studies (with accompanying teaching notes)
13. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Richard H. G. Field, Carolina Villegas-Galaviz Business Ethics Mini-Case Analysis
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Using the analytic framework of normative logic presented in Fisher, Lovell, and Valero-Silva (2013: 140-141), provided here are five original business ethics mini-cases that may be used to teach and practice case analysis. We have taken the six questions that are used in the analytic framework of normative logic to solve ethical problems and have adapted them to seven steps that can be applied to conflict resolution of mini-cases in class. Then the adapted normative logic model has seven steps: Describe the “fundamental needs of humankind” as they relate to the case, e.g. caring, supporting, reciprocity, fairness, trust; Explain the established norms, values, and laws that can be seen to apply in this case; State in brief the facts of the situation; Examine the network of circumstances that preceded the situation (come to an understanding of how the actor came to this point); Generate at least three alternative positions and actions open to the actor in the case; Speculate on the hypothesized consequences of the different positions or actions the actor in the case may take; and Choose among the alternative positions the actor in the case might take and give your informed and judged reason for making that choice. A suggested answer is provided for one case, which could be reproduced as a class handout for students to examine after having done their own analysis and having discussed the case as a class.
14. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Shafik Bhalloo, Kathleen Burke Considering the Costs of Signing an NDA: A Case of Workplace Sexual Harassment and Assault
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With her heavy-equipment operator certification in hand, Fiona is a new hire on a construction crew; the only woman in a family-owned organization aside from the HR manager, the sister of the company president and vice-president. Soon after her hire, the president of the company began a pattern of sexually targeting Fiona. She went to great lengths to avoid her boss, but the harassment and assaults continued. After one incident, Fiona reported the abuse to the company VP who offered her a financial settlement in exchange for her silence. Fiona thought speaking out would put an end to the strain the abuse had caused, but other dilemmas had just begun. The case allows students to examine the competing interests Fiona faces in deciding whether to accept a financial settlement from her employer, that would greatly help her family, but at the cost of signing a non-disclosure agreement.
15. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Prescott C. Ensign Ethical Dilemmas in Hawaii’s First Public-Private Venture Capital Fund
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Are there any business decisions that do not have an ethical dimension? Who decides that a decision is unethical? What impact does ethics have in today’s business environment? The case focuses on the development of Hawaii’s first public-private venture capital fund by three very different entities: the State of Hawaii economic development corporation; a US mainland-based private equity investment firm; and a partnership of two serial entrepreneurs. The case uses a progressive disclosure format so students only read and analyze the actions and ethical issues that occur at a specific point in time: creation of the venture capital fund; selection of startups to be included in the fund’s investment portfolio; and public reaction to decisions and actions by the fund. The case frames the issues confronted at each point as ethical dilemmas. Analysis includes answering questions and formulating recommendations or solutions to each dilemma.
16. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 18
Laura Gordey, Sue Joiner, Joanna Shaw Blue Bell: The Deadly Scoop
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Texas’ beloved Blue Bell Creameries was one of the leading ice cream brands worldwide until contaminated products issues culminated in 2015. During the outbreak, three people died and Blue Bell was forced to issue a total product recall. Governmental investigations revealed the company knew its production facilities had contamination issues as early as 2009. In 2020, Blue Bell pled guilty to shipping contaminated ice cream and paid over $19 million in fines. Paul Kruse, Blue Bell’s long-standing president, was alleged to have ordered the cessation of a product contamination testing program and to have ordered the destruction of evidence that confirmed contamination. As a result of his alleged actions, Kruse was charged with seven criminal counts. Students must step into the role of Kruse, critically think through the consequences of action and inaction at the management level, and consider possible alternatives from various ethical perspectives.
17. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 17
John Hooker Editor’s Foreword
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education research articles
18. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 17
Matthew L. Stanley, Christopher P. Neck Students’ Reasoning about Dilemmas in Business Ethics
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Ethics education has become a priority at many business schools. A common pedagogical strategy in business ethics education has been to encourage students to deliberate and reason about cases and dilemmas. However, relatively little is known about how students actually reason, by default, about business ethics cases and dilemmas. In a large-scale study with undergraduate management students, we investigate how students reason about ethical dilemmas in business. Our results suggest that, after making an initial decision in a dilemma, students rarely changed their minds after deliberating over an extensive set of reasons for both sides of the dilemma. Students evaluated reasons in a way that preferentially supported their initial decisions. This post-hoc evaluation of reasons to preferentially support initial decisions also had implications for decision entrenchment: students actually tended to become more confident in the superiority of their initial decisions after deliberating over the reasons for both sides. We discuss the challenges that our findings pose for teaching business ethics.
19. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 17
Nhung T. Hendy Using Open Mind to Foster Intellectual Humility in Teaching Business Ethics
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In this study, Open Mind – an interactive learning platform – was introduced as a pedagogical tool in developing students’ intellectual humility using a sample of 35 upper level undergraduate business students enrolled in a business ethics course in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.. Students completed the 5-step Open Mind learning assignment as a measure of intellectual humility during the first four weeks of class. Class lectures were concurrently given while students completed the Open Mind exercise. Students were subsequently required to debate a controversial topic during the remaining 11 weeks of the class. Various grading rubrics as well as skill assessment matrix are provided to assist faculty in adopting this learning platform in their classrooms. Initial evidence showed that Open Mind was efficacious in fostering student intellectual humility. Implications for teaching business ethics using Open Mind to cultivate intellectual humility are discussed.
20. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 17
Abdalla Khidir Abdalla, Saud Ben Khudair, Abuzar El Jelly, Ilham Mansour Stakeholders Perception and Attitude Based Framework for Developing Responsible Management Education (RME) Programs: The Case of Master and Doctorate of Business Administration Students in Sudan
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Contributing to the efforts to foster business postgraduate students development toward becoming responsible business leaders is the goal of this study by examining the state of responsible management education in business postgraduate programs in Sudan. We examined perceptions and attitudes toward responsible management and its education among postgraduate-level students and constructed a comprehensive framework appropriate for developing responsible management education programs in under-developed countries. This study’s data were gathered via a structured questionnaire answered by 106 postgraduate business students from the largest four Sudanese business schools and facilities. The students were distributed among the management, finance, and marketing fields. The students exhibited affirmative corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions and attitudes with a heightened focus on acting ethically and a diminished focus on financial considerations. A key lesson learned from this study is the need for the continued development of CSR and general ethics across business school curriculums in Sudan.