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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Hasan Jahangir Alam Imam Gazzali’s Refutation of the Philosophers Belief in the Impossibility of a Departure from the Natural Course of Events
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The philosophers claim that everything in the world is maintained in a disciplined way. They claimed that there is cause-effect relation behind every event. But it is the view of Imam Gazzali that the connection between what is believed to be the cause and the effect is not necessary. For example, This is not That; nor That can be This. Or: the affirmation of one does not imply the affirmation of the other, nor the negation of one implies the negation of the other. The existence of one is not necessitated by the existence of the other, nor its non-existence by the non-existence of the other. There are other examples, as well, such as the quenching of thirst and drinking, satisfaction of hunger and eating, burning and contact with fire, light and the rise of the Sun, death and the severance of the head, healing and the use of medicine, the loosening of bowels and the use of a purgative, or any other set of events observed to be connected together in Medicine, or Astronomy, or Arts, or Crafts. They are connected because of the Decree of God, the Lord of the Universe, which preceded the existence. If one follows the other, it is because God has created them in that fashion, not because the connection in itself is necessary and indissoluble. He has the power to create the satisfaction of hunger without eating, or death without the severance of the head, or even the survival when the head has been cut off, or any other thing for that matter.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Mahdi Bahrami Art and Islamic Themes and Content
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What has been noticed during the history of human thought and human life is that forms, figure, feelings of pleasure and aesthetic perception, are not the only subjects that belong to the sphere of art. In fact, art includes other aspects, such as themes and content. As a matter of fact, each art work could be considered as outstanding, not only because of its form, but because of its theme and content, as well. However, art works in the western classical art, were inspired by mythology and religion and their form has been a reflection of that content. In this paper art is going to be discussed through its religious themes and contents. Therefore, first, I will analyze some approaches to religious themes and content in art works through discussion of religion as its background. And, second, I will try to establish a method which will distinguish between religious and non-religious themes and contents in the works of art.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Murat Erten Some Razi’s Philosophical Concepts
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One of the most important and most original Islamic philosophers, Razi, has a radical view of philosophy. His approach to philosophy is radically rational or Aristotelian, and it seems that he does not give any place to godly or divine concepts in his cosmological design. Against some concepts that have been suggested in the basic sources of Islam, like Quran and hadits, Razi offers some different concepts which he uses in a slightly different manner. So, in this paper I will try to compare and explain those concepts within the borders of Islamic and Aristotelian understanding of philosophy.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Elias Giannakis A Summary of Proclus’ Lost First Argument On the Eternity of the World in al-Shahrastānī’s works
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This paper aims at presenting a comparative study of a summary of Proclus’ first argument on the eternity of the world in two of al-Shahrastānī’s works. Proclus’ first argument does not survive in Greek, but we have two surviving Arabic versions, one in the translation of Isḥāq b. Hunayn (d. AD 910) and an earlier one by an anonymous translator. In this paper, I shall comment on some philological and philosophical points of al-Shahrastānī’s summary of Proclus’ first argument on the eternity of the world. Also, I shall briefly look into al-Shahrastānī’s sources and his argumentation against Proclus in the context of Muslim dialectical (kalām) discussions for the doctrine of the creation of the world.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Mohd Radhi Ibrahim Cosmological Arguments on the Existence of God According to Al-Qadi ‘Abd Al-Jabbar
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After the publication of William Lane Craig, ‘The Kalam Cosmological Argument’ in 2000, the discussion of classical Muslims scholars’ arguments on the existence of God has attracted many contemporary students. In his book Craig discusses Al-Kindi’s cosmological argument on the existence of God. He suggests that Kalam cosmological argument also survives the objections of Hume and Kant. In this paper, however, I would like to introduce another type of cosmological argument based on the concept of analogy (qiyas) by another Muslim rationalist scholar, Al-Qadi ‘Abd Al-Jabbar. In his arguments ‘Abd Al-Jabbar rejects the philosophers’ view that God is the cause of the universe, since that will imply the eternity of the world, one of the justifications used by al-Ghazali to discredit Muslim philosophers in his Tahafut Al-Falasifah (‘The Incoherence of Philosophers’). Hence, ‘Abd Al-Jabbar in his arguments mainly depends on the concept of action.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Latīf Hussain Shah Kazmi Islamic Ethics of Global Peace
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Presently, we are living in international and inter-cultural society or what is called global society. The question of global peace and prosperity has emerged as the foremost challenge of our times. The need for global peace can be authenticated from various ideological, theological, religious and spiritual perspectives. A purely intellectual and subsequently scientific and technological approach to social, political and economic problems can again culminate into great wars across the globe. We, the philosophers, have to strive to make room for faith, love, tolerance and devotion in inter-personal as well as inter-national affairs, if we earnestly want global peace and progress. In this paper, I shall try to shed some light on the abovementioned issue with reference to the basic sources of Islamic cultural and spiritual tradition. The entire focus of the Islamic teachings, including the Prophetic behavior and the practices of his faithful companions, Imams, Sufi-poets and philosophers, powerfully oriented Muslims to adopt Islamic ethical teachings for peace, universal goodwill and service to mankind with love and care. They transcended all kinds of prejudices or even considerations of caste, color, gender, race, culture and geographical divisions. They fostered horizontal and liberal values of love and tolerance. Their universal and perennial spiritual vision was anchored on One Supreme God —the Creator and Sustainer of them all; the Supreme personification of Truth, Beauty and Goodness. Unfortunately, however, the modern puritans are displaying great misunderstanding of the spirit of the Qur’an and are shutting off the doors for a universal, tolerant and judicious interpretation of the Islamic Weltanschauung. Therefore, during current tumultuous and terror-shaken scenario, there is a great need to initiate, appropriate and appreciate the real Islamic spirit, its ethnico-cultural legacy and value-system on positive lines along with other great religions of the world. A truly global dialogue from Islamic perspective can help bringing about peace and prosperity for the entire human race. No doubt, Islam has such great ideals and moral standards to offer with a view to solving of the moral crises of the global human society.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Sanaullah Mir Value-Implications of Suf Hermeneutics
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Sufis have advocated, as well as appropriated, the perennial hermeneutical breakthrough that while a set of exactly true statements referring to the Ultimately Real is impossible of formulation, the scriptural revelations of historical religions symbolize what is ultimately Real in their specific cultural contexts. Such a hermeneutical standpoint of Sufis has profound sociopolitical implications in view of the fact that theological politics of truth has hyperpolarized the entire humankind into perennial warring camps. Sufis, across differences of cultural conditioning, philosophical interpretation, theological exegesis and jurisprudential reconstructions, have been unanimously oriented to moral struggle as well as spiritual transformation owing to their irresistible love of God and their quest for God-realization. Their non-consequentialist commitment to fundamental values of Islam and their unconditional love of God germinated a universalist, perennialist and transcendentalist spiritual quest whose contemporary appropriation by Muslims and assimilation by non-Muslims can pave the way for peace, love, catholicity, pluralism, as well as justice and sustainable development. This pluralistic ethos of Sufis needs to be revisited and re-appropriated. Their emphasis on tolerance, pluralism, liberalism, love and peace needs to be underscored in our times. Their aversion to any kind of ideological dogmatism and theological fanaticism needs to be re-appropriated.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Chryssi Sidiropoulou Ibn Tufayl’s Hay Ibn Yaqzan: Language, Community and Identity
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The paper discusses Ibn Tufayl’s Hay ibn Yaqzan, a philosophical novel written in Andalusia in the 12th century. The novel’s eponymous character is a solitary individual growing up in a deserted island, who only meets another human being and gets initiated into language at an advanced age. As Ibn Tufayl presents it, in solitude Hay has developed elaborate ways of thinking, discovered God as the ultimate cause of the world and worships him in a direct, personal way. Given the context of Ibn Tufay’s story, the paper focuses on the relation between language and thinking. Drawing on Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations it criticizes the idea that language and community are inessential to human identity and ways of thinking. It argues that Ibn Tufayl should not be interpreted as putting forward a dualist picture of the self like Descartes’, but rather, as influenced by the Sufi ideals of genuine faith and personal experience of God.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Theodora Zampaki Debating Attributes: Ibn Rushd (Averroes) vs. al-Ghazālī
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The paper aims at analyzing the arguments put forward by al-Ghazālī and Ibn Rushd on the question of the divine attributes in the sixth chapter of their respective works, the Tahāfut al-Falāsifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) and the Tahāfut al-Tahāfut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence). By comparing these two works, it appears that Ibn Rushd’s intention is to defend philosophy against the assumed misunderstandings of al-Ghazālī. The Arabic philosophical texts of the sixth chapter constitute a debate over the proper understanding of the divine attributes, their origination and evolution from its roots in Greek thought to its development by the Mu‘tazilites, Ash‘arites and the Muslim philosophers. Distinct from the doxological “names” of God, the matter of the attributes was a subtle point of doctrine that belonged largely to the realm of intellectuals. For them, however, it carried a great deal of weight: having to do with the relation of God’s essence to such qualities ascribed to Him in the Qur’an as knowledge, power and will. In the final analysis, the attributes discussion was effectively over the nature of the God. It furthermore came to bear on other such significant points as the oneness of God and His relationship to creation. God’s knowledge is discussed by al-Ghazālī and Ibn Rushd respectively. Becoming familiar with the implications behind our authors’ references to various religious groups helps us appreciate their interactions and understand where within the disciplines of kalām and falsafa they themselves stand. It appears that Ibn Rushd’s concerns lie primarily with upholding the Greek tradition and showing its compatibility with Islamic doctrine, a task that sometimes prompts him to break with his own Muslim predecessors in falsafa.
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10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Anvar Niyazmetov Burkhanuddin al-Marginani: The Great Representative of the Sharia Science
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Ali ibn Abu Bakr ibn Abdulzhalil al-Ferghani ar-Rishtani al-Marginani (1123-1197) is one of scientists who made a huge contribution to the development of theology. He received the initial knowledge in Margelan, later he moved to Samarkand and remained there till the end of his life. He made pilgrimage to Mecca in 1444. In the book Kitab ul mashoyy (The book about Sheikhs) he provided names more than forty scientists from whom he got his education. The biggest, world renowned Burhanuddin al-Marginani’s work is the Al-Khidoya. Thanks to this work he became very known scientist in all Islamic world. In the previous works on a science about laws of Sharia, only insignificant questions in the jurisprudence sphere were considered, while there were the problems connected with national life of the population, and the society and state. From this point of view, detailed studying of unstable conditions, during his time, to distinguish priority questions from minor tasks, decision making process, and comprehensive study and deep supervision of these matters were demanded by the author. According to the scientists, the carrying-out research on Marginani’s work could help solving these problems.