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Displaying: 1-20 of 25 documents

1. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Binoy Kampmark Australian Legal Exceptionalism and the Bill of Rights
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This paper provides a systematic legal and cultural overview of the reasons behind the opposition to an entrenched Bill or Charter of Rights within a special liberal democratic setting. Specific reference is made to Australia given that the country remains the last liberal democracy to resist adopting such a measure of protection for human rights. The paper further argues that Australian opposition to such a bill has assumed the category of exceptionalist rhetoric couched in a very specific socio-legal argot. A bill of rights is not needed, goes this assumption, because institutions are either reasonably functioning or self-correcting of any defects. Any legal changes made, goes such line of reasoning, should be reflected in the supreme will of Parliament, a body both sovereign and sagacious. This paper challenges such readings, suggesting that the argument against any bill of rights in the Australian context involves a core misunderstanding about what such an instrument actually does. It also identifies a fundamental parochialism, notably against the US legal tradition and instances when grave human rights abuses have been sanctioned by Parliament.
2. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Thomas M. Kelly Ignatius, Poverty and a Commitment to the Poor: The Society of Jesus Through its History
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The vow of poverty is essential to many religious orders—as is their relationship to the actual people who are marginalized and poor in their context. This article traces the origin of Ignatius of Loyola’s embrace of poverty and its transferal to the Society of Jesus he founded. It follows the challenge of maintaining that commitment considering the principle ministry of the Society in education. Finally, it notes developments in the past 60 years for how “faith and justice” are framed and understood. Ignatius’ preference for Jesuits to live in proximity to the poor is certainly challenged in the U.S. context of higher education.
3. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Leo Lushombo Rape—Weapon of War: A Crime of War and a Crime Against Humanity Contemporary Challenges to Peace and Justice in Rwanda and the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
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4. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Patrick Ahern Empowered Peace: Spinoza’s Defense of Dynamic and Inclusive Democracy
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Spinoza’s defense of a dynamic democracy arises from his account of finite beings, and shifts from finite beings to ever more complex bodies, such as the human individual and the artificial individual of the state. In this account, he challenges political authority to be responsive to the insight that our power arises out of rather than in spite of our multiplicity. Spinoza’s conception of social power provides a critical understanding of democratic organization that requires the incorporation of marginalized voices. In this essay, I argue that Spinoza’s defense of democracy sets the framework for political theorizing that rejects hierarchical structures of domination and demands substantial inclusivity in the service of empowered and peaceful social relations. In conceiving autonomy relationally and individual power collectively, Spinoza poses a critical challenge to the contemporary models of democracy and social orders that resist rather than harness the strength of social multiplicity in the preservation of empowered peace.
5. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Roger Bergman Teaching to Prevent Unjust War
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This essay describes an undergraduate course, “Christian Ethics of War and Peace,” taught for more than two decades at a Catholic university. I first situate the course within the debate between just war philosophers Michael Walzer and Jeff McMahan on the moral equivalency of soldiers and the right of conscientious objection to unjust war. The development of SCO (selective conscientious objection) in the Catholic tradition is traced from Augustine to John Paul II. The Sic et Non of Abelard is invoked as a precedent for the course pedagogy, in which students are asked to develop and articulate their own personal conscience in light of the long-standing tension between arguments for pacifism and for just war. Borrowing from contemporary cognitive psychology, this task is described as one of “reflective judgment” regarding an “ill-structured problem.” The major writing assignment is described and one student’s testimony on its challenge is offered.
6. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Ane Cristina Figueiredo, Calum Dean, Sean Byrne Peacebuilding Interventions: Local People’s Perceptions of Social Justice and Community Building in Northern Ireland
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This article examines the perceptions and experiences of 120 participants interviewed in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties in 2010 regarding community peacebuilding, and the future of community-based projects. The respondents shared their thoughts on the projects and program initiatives funded by the European Union Peace and Reconciliation or Peace III Fund and the International Fund for Ireland. They discussed the impacts of external aid on the community peacebuilding process as well as the long-term sustainability of projects. This study explores the narratives of community leaders and program development officers from Derry and the Border Counties. The findings emphasize that while the participants noted that the external aid contributed to promoting community peacebuilding, there is a lot more to be addressed in terms of cross-community interaction. Additionally, there is an uncertainty regarding the sustainability of many project initiatives once the funds end. As a result of such insecurity, there is a concern regarding the stability of peace in the region.
7. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Sehar Mushtaq Hybrid Peacebuilding: A Way Forward
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Liberal peacebuilding, a dominant form of peacebuilding since the post-Cold War era, has involved multifaceted approaches, countless resources, multiple actors and significant efforts and yet, because of its standardized model and exclusion of local culture, resources and actors it has failed to achieve sustainable peace and development. Local peacebuilding practices, on the other hand, are mostly inclusive and culturally relevant but are not immune to power abuse, exclusion and inhumane practices. This essay explores the possibility of utilizing hybrid peacebuilding—collaboration of local and international actors and resources—to attain sustainable peace in conflict-ridden countries. It commences with a critique of liberal peacebuilding. It then analyzes the notion of hybridity and hybrid peacebuilding, and seeks to answer why hybrid peacebuilding seems to be an emancipatory alternative to liberal peacebuilding.
8. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Saad A. Khan, Sean Byrne Cultural Politics Through the Eyes of Mohajir Women: The Dynamics of Mohajir Identity Conflict in Pakistan
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This article draws on qualitative research to examine Mohajir women’s construction of and understanding of their ethnopolitical Mohajir identity in the port city of Karachi, Pakistan, The Mohajir identity is constructed around a shared language amongst individuals with historically diverse backgrounds, and has proven to be a potent yet divisive ethnopolitical identity. The article argues that in order to assuage the grievances of the Mohajirs, sociopolitical steps such as elimination of the job quota system must be taken by the government in order for sustainable peace to be achieved.
book reviews
9. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Andrew Fitz-Gibbon Criminalized Power Structures: The Overlooked Enemies of Peace
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10. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Beth Hassel Revolutionary Saint: The Theological Legacy of Oscar Romero
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11. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Rand Herz Painting Peace
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12. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Ann Lesch Cracks in the Wall: Beyond Apartheid in Palestine/Israel
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13. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Brian Stiltner War against War: The American Fight for Peace, 1914–1918
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14. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 2
Notes on Contributors
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15. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Ane Cristina Figueiredo Pereira de Faria Understanding How Climate Change Impacts Food Security and Human Development in the Fragile States: A Comparative Study of Five of the Most Fragile States in Africa
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Human security is being threatened as a consequence of climate change. However, the human security paradigm still needs to be addressed as a cause and effect of environmental degradation. Therefore, this article aims to comprehend the impacts of climate change in fragile states regarding food security and human development. The article is a comparative case study of the five most vulnerable countries in Africa: Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Sudan, and Congo (Dem. Republic). This research contends that climate change is detrimental to the agricultural sector and effects economic growth and basic human needs. Moreover, it is threatening human development due to food and water shortages. This scenario also triggers conflicts among the vulnerable populations of fragile states, disrupting food availability and people’s access. This article suggests that international measures connecting environmental degradation and human security must be implemented in order to improve the quality of life in Africa. Also, long-term nation-building is required to address human security issues present in all five countries.
16. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Michele Lemonius, Leisha Strachan Critical reflection on the development of the GIFT Project and examination of Project SCORE partnership using RE-AIM
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This article examines the development of the GIFT project as a grassroots peacebuilding model that aims to create safe spaces in which girls can explore creative ways to recognize and build healthy relationships. In addition, GIFT provides a place to foster positive youth development through mentors who can influence the social and political landscape within their immediate communities in Jamaica. In exploring the planning and intervention process, this article critically reflects on the formation of the partnership between the GIFT Project and Project SCORE. Further, using the RE-AIM framework this article examines the reach and efficacy of the GIFT-Project SCORE initial training workshop. The Re-AIM framework seeks to ensure a holistic intervention process and is best reviewed throughout the planning and implementation of the project. Hence, this article hopes to impart the experiences of the first training workshop and next steps in the direction of the project.
17. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Raji Shittu, Anthony Obiora, Haliru Muhammed, Abubakar Dattijo Violent Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction of the Police in Rwanda
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Rwanda witnessed devastating conflicts leading to genocidal attacks in 1994 with active participation of the police in the pogrom. Various reports implicated the police in high-handedness, torture, extra judicial killings, intimidation, rape, and other heinous crimes during the conflicts. The police force was reformed for optimal performance. This paper examines the impact of the post-conflict reconstruction of the police on internal security management in Rwanda. Findings from the study, which relied on secondary data, are that reform impacted positively on the performance of the police, sharpening its skills in crime detection and prevention and leading to improved security for lives and property in Rwanda. Over-reliance on dwindling external sources and dysfunctional equipment still undermines maximum performance by the police. There should be adequate provision of advanced security devices and better funding of the police for the optimal discharge of their constitutional mandates of securing lives and property in Rwanda.
18. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Robert Perry Interventionist Research: The attitudes of politicians in Northern Ireland to ‘Commemoration, Remembrance and Reconciliation’
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The 1998 Good Friday Agreement (GFA) brought an end to conflict in Northern Ireland (NI). Nonetheless, the peace process has not brought the reconciliation for which many had hoped. This purpose of this article is to consider the relationship between Remembrance, Commemoration and Reconciliation. The particular focus is on how the Centenary of 1916 (The Easter Rising and the Battle of the Somme) should be commemorated. My research also contains the views of politicians in Northern Ireland, in general, to the issue of ‘Commemoration, Remembrance and Reconciliation’. The research is positioned in the tradition of previous research literature and contemporary concerns relating to Commemoration, Remembrance and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and internationally. It also engages with ‘Interventionist Research’. My research adds to the emerging knowledge in the area and offers insight and perspective on the attitudes of politicians in Northern Ireland to ‘Commemoration, Remembrance and Reconciliation’.
19. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Daniel R. Gilbert, Jr. On Absorbent Common Ground: An Achievement of Justice in Intercollegiate Athletics Competition
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This paper is about an achievement of justice in the routine conduct of intercollegiate athletics competition. This accomplishment was a voluntary binding arrangement, lasting thirty years, through which five intercollegiate men’s basketball competitors sustained bilateral playing relationships and ventured into bilateral playing relationships beyond their togetherness. This was a just arrangement because the participants knowingly practiced tolerance of one another’s pursuit of outside playing relationships while affirming their belonging to the company of one another. Absorbent common ground is the name of this centered accomplishment of tolerance among distinctive competitors. Evidence of absorbent common ground is located in intercollegiate basketball schedules, where the basic building block is a voluntary bilateral agreement to engage in a competition. The paper concludes with a commentary about the work that we do as college educators and the assumptions that we take for granted in that endeavor.
book reviews
20. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies: Volume > 28 > Issue: 1
Joseph Betz Einstein’s Pacifism and World War I
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