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i. contemporary civilization—dilemmas
1. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Andrew Targowski, Vladimír Modrák Automation with Human Face
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This paper views the impact of automation and new globalization phenomenon, outsourcing on sustainable economic growth. Its main scope is to analyze the impacts of advanced automation and offshore outsourcing in manufacturing on a human capital and an acceleration of structural unemployment. Simultaneously, in the paper are compared two concepts by which a company can tend to attain a position of manufacturing excellence. Further is given a special emphasis to the automation driven shrinking of the middle class in countries that are passing to the phase of deindustrialization. Finally some laws of automation in manufacturing are formulated and few ideas and recommendations for the future are outlined.
2. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Andrew Targowski The Myths and Realities of the Clash of Western and Chinese Civilizations in the 21st Century. The Globalization and Comparative Approach
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The purpose of this investigation is to define the central issues of the current and future relations between the Western and Chinese civilizations through the evaluation of the myths and realities of these relations. The methodology is based on an interdisciplinary big-picture view of the world scene, driven by the global economy and civilization with an attempt to compare both civilizations according to key criteria. Among the findings are: Today China has become a “robot” of the West. Due to its old culture and ability to invent important civilizational tools, China is becoming an independent developer of its own economic power, and it is very probable that it will surpass its master sooner or later. Due to its transformation to a global civilization, Western civilization has lost its Christian values and adopted new ones based on business. It is probable that the economic success of China will lead to a clash between civilizations, both grasping for access to the strategic resources. Practical implication: Society should elaborate the path to the development of wise civilization driven by a new political system, ecoism.Social implication: It is probable that if the “1%” won’t self-correct its misbehavior, a social revolution by the “99%” cannot be excluded from the current calendar ofWestern civilization. Originality: This investigation, by providing the interdisciplinary and civilizational approach, expands the scope of the traditional relevant approach.
ii. how cultures influence religion
3. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Ryszard Paradowski Biblical Definitions of God and Man in Light of Dialectical Metaphysics of Choice
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The paper presents, according to the dialectical metaphysics of choice, arguments in favor of the proposition that the biblical story of creation is a philosophical construct, within which the religious message (obedience, disobedience, sin) is abrogated in the philosophical perspective of the Absolute (equality of the subjects in the definition of good and evil); it has been stated that the story of creation contains an antinomian perception of God as a symbol of man (both a hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationship between the parties, the latter being preferred and ascribed the status of a “divine image”); the paper proposes that the Old Testament is a literary work, rather than religious scripture, and contains a broad range of cultural experience, including elements of a philosophical outlook, which religion and theology subject to a simplified and biased interpretation, groundlessly universalizing a traditional culture based on domination andobedience.
4. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Marian Hillar Philo’s Logos Doctrine: Bridging Two Cultures and Creating Philosophical Foundations of Christianity
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Judaism was a mythical, strongly tribal religion with anthropomorphic God in which the leading element was the concept of a covenant between God and the exceptional “chosen people.” Such views produced a strong emphasis on tribal unity and attitude of election and moral superiority vis-à-vis the rest of humanity. Philo must have felt inadequacy of the ancient Judaism and its limitations to compete for the minds of Hellenes with their universalistic philosophical thought. Philo represented a trend in Jewish ideology which attempted, in confrontation with the Greek culture, to assert itself as a valid cosmic view to support the existence of a community. He attempted to reevaluate Hebrew ideology found in the scriptures adopting Greek metaphysical, ethical, and religious doctrines to Judaism.The focus of this article is on Philo’s introduction of the Greek concept of Logos, in the modified version of Xenocrates into Judaism. Philo developed this concept further and transformed from a metaphysical entity into an extension of a divine and transcendental anthropomorphic being and mediator between God and men. Thus Philo produced a synthesis of both Hebrew and Greek traditions developing concepts that were used for future Hellenistic interpretation of messianic Hebrew thought by providing foundations for Christianity.
iii. polish history—case studies for political and social philosophy
5. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Andrzej Walicki The Troubling Legacy of Roman Dmowski
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The paper presents political views of Roman Dmowski, an leader of integral nationalism in Poland. The author of the paper analyzes also contemporary interpretations of Dmowski’s ideas and their influence on nowadays held political ideas in Poland. Antiliberal, anti-democratic, one-sided trends in the current receptions of Dmowski’s ideas are stressed.
6. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Marian Marek Drozdowski Józef Piłsudski’s Presidency Model 1918–1922
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The years in which Piłsudski headed the Polish state marked his “golden age” in Polish history, a period considered as the least controversial in his career despite the failure of his federation concept and troubles with Polish national leaders in the west, especially Upper Silesia. Piłsudski’s achievements in those years are numerous and important, they include among others: the definition of Poland’s borders after military victories over the Ukrainian, Bolshevik and Lithuanian armies and in result of insurgencies in Wielkopolska and Silesia, the securement of international recognition for Poland, the construction of parliamentary democracy and local government, the promotion of a national service ethos through schools, the church, the armed forces and the media.
7. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Bohdan Urbankowski Towards Organizing the Element—on Józef Piłsudski’s Societal Creativity
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A comparison of the maps of Europe from 1935 (Piłsudski’s death) and 1867 (his birth year) is the best testimony to the importance of his life’s societal creations: Piłsudski and the political side he had formed established a state that was missing on the maps of the 19th century. And yet, when describing Piłsudski’s activities, is it right to apply the category of creating, understood so broadly as to encompass military concepts alongside the economic reconstruction of the country? This question must be answered with another question: whatever other category is adequate? Piłsudski himself said: Human soul is meant to create: conceptions is sudden creativity, a kind of inspiration. Allow us to inquire about Poland, an organized creative effort that would eventually result in notonly a state but also an organized nation. What we are dealing with here, then, is a creator and his associates. Any creation is self-creation.
iv. dialogue and universalism reports
8. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
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9. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 4
Rundown of Monothematic Issues of Dialogue and Universalism and Continuations in Other Issues
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10. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Editorial: Romantic Universalism or Messianic Resentment?
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poland faces partitioning: two strategies
11. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Andrzej Walicki, Emma Harris The Legacy of the Enlightenment and Some News Dilemmas in the Political Thought of Tadeusz Kościuszko
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12. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Józef Hen, Lesław Kawalec Towards Enlightening Future Citizens
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Faced with the loss of a part of the Polish state’s territory, that is, after the first partitioning of Poland by the neighboring countries—Russia, Austria and Prussia—and fearing even worse possible scenario of the loss of independence, the last king of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski made a far-sighted decision, which he implemented on 14 October, 1773, by a motion, passed by the Partition Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, establishing the Commission for National Education, prefiguring the Ministry for National Education. The source of funding was the post-Jesuit property obtained by the suppression of the Jesuit Order by Pope Clement XIV; the order was abolished in Poland, as well.Cracow and Vilna universities were modernized, and these were also entrusted with the direct supervision of secondary schools, created anew as secular ones. Instruction in parochial elementary schools was carried out in Polish only; few of those were set up in the countryside, though. Entries were invited for course books in natural sciences and the history of Poland. Women were included in the state’s educational effort, too.
13. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Jerzy J. Kolarzowski, Lesław Kawalec Russian Military Occupation and Polish Historical Myths
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The early 18th century saw the beginnings of Russian military occupation of Poland, followed by a secret agreement by the neighboring countries, meant to maintain a political status quo in the internal affairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Then, the dynamics of the economic transformations of the European continent led to a permanent economic deadlock, particularly in the regions with large agricultural areas, such as Poland. Five years from the turn of the 18th century the Polish polity disappeared from the map of Europe for 123 years. Analyzing the relationships and causes of a number of phenomena related to Old Poland is made all the more difficult by some historical processes which blow some ritual events of limited importance out of proportion, such as theadoption of the Constitution of 3 May (1791; particularly due to its content being rather reactionary); these also glorify the past of the society and the state as a “golden myth” of social harmony in relationships obtaining within the classes and between them.
russia as seen from a literary perspective
14. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Victor Alexandrovich Khoryev Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz’s St. Petersburg Text
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Khoryev regards Petersburg, a collection of essays by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, published in 1976, as a windup of the writer’s complex ties with Russian culture and literature, which he was widely known to have loved and known in depth. It is a book where, through the legendary city on the river Neva, Iwaszkiewicz takes a look at a number of essential issues of Russian history and its ties with the history of Poland and the Polish people. Iwaszkiewicz avoids unequivocal judgments, noticing the antinomian nature of St. Petersburg, seen as a being full of contrast but at the same time the center of revolutions and despotism, a manifestation of imperial power and the highest achievements of sophisticated art. These contrasts reveal, in Khoryev’s opinion, the multi-faceted and fullest picture of St. Petersburg and its individuality: so mysterious, overpowering and unique.
15. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Jerzy Niesiobędzki, Lesław Kawalec Russian Classics: Russia on Its Way to Europe
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The editorial note recommending the book by Vladimir Kantor Russkaya Klasika Ili Bytiye Rassiyi communicates that the author (philosopher, novelist and historian) believes that only this culture is fully valuable whose most representative artists’ work turns into classics, thus gaining the status of high culture. It indicates the extent to which the great names of Russian literature write with an awareness that in order to make it into the classics canon of European literature, too, one needs to reckon with the previous work of Dante, Goethe, Schiller, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Hegel, Marx, Feuerbach, Nietzsche, and a number of other prominent representatives of the culture of the West. This is not to say that Pushkin, Goncharov, Tolstoy, Gogol or Dostoyevsky were imitators. By reproducing patterns or themes developed by the literature of the West, they set those in realities fundamentally different from the social realities of the West, often in a polemic vein. Kantor stresses that the great artistic ambitions or the Russian classics are accompanied by great social duties because they lived and created their artin a country that had been lagging behind for centuries. It did catch up at times, but it was successful only as of Czar Peter I, not without periodic regressive collapses, though. The sense of social obligations, characteristic of Russian writers, intellectuals, or intelligentsia, and to be more precise, the implementation of these obligations, enabled Kantor to prove that the progress of literature—the great classics in particular—was linked in Russia with civilizational progress, and that in terms of the weight of these links, Russia was very different in civilizational progress from Europe, which lay ahead civilization-wise.
16. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Bożena Żejmo, Beata Przeździecka Nation and Mission. Russian Literature and National Identity
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According to the Russian tradition literature is something more than only literature. In the special situation, the writers take over functions of scientific disciplines such as philosophy, ethics, the press or the political parties. These trends intensify during critical periods when Russia has to solve a problem of its national identity. The aim of the present text is an attempt to present how contemporary Russian “patriotical” literature is insistently fighting to keep monopoly on spiritual leadership in democratizing Russia. Petrifying specific tradition, the writers are diagnosing all signs of evil, tracing either actual or potential wrongdoers. Their wish is to realize the vision of an autarchic Russia as a special being. Literature not only supports ideology—especially conservative, right—wing ideology, but also becomes the ideology itself.
in the sphere of the russian-soviet empire—on martyrdom
17. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Wiesław Jan Wysocki, Lesław Kawalec Golgotha of the East. Polish Polity in Imperial Russia
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18. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Witold Wasilewski Deceit around the U.S. House of Representatives’ Katyn Committee
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In 1951–1952 a selected committee appointed by the US Congress investigated the circumstances of the so-called Katyn Crime. The reasons why the highest US legislative body undertook the issue hale to be sought in the international situation of the day, which was determined by the Korean War.The “Katyn Committee” was called up on September 18, 1951 by the House of Representatives of the 82nd Congress on the strength of Resolution 390. Sitting on it were Daniel L. Flood, Thaddeus M. Machrowicz, George A. Dondero, Foster Furcolo, Alvin K. O’Konski, Timothy P. Sheenan and Ray J. Madden, who was also appointed its chairman. The committee began interrogating witnesses on October 11, 1951 and closed the interrogations on November 14, 1952. Simultaneously, the committee inspected 183 material exhibits pertaining to the Katyn event. In all the committee took down the testimonies of 81 main and about 200 secondary witnesses as well as about a hundred written testimonies and accounts.The committee’s final report to the House of Representatives clearly stated the responsibility of the Soviet NKVD for the 1940 massacre of around 15,000 Polish officers from POW camps in Kozielsk, Starobielsk and Ostaszków.In response to the committee’s proceedings the east bloc staged a propaganda campaign aimed at discrediting its work and upholding the so-called Katyn Lie—a 1943—originated false version of the events whereby the executions of the Polish officers had been carried out by the Germans in the latter half of 1941.The Soviet government took an official stand on the committee on February 29, 1952. It rejected all possibility of cooperation and underscored the Germans’ responsibility for the massacre. On March 1, 1952 the Polish government issued a statement condemning the committee and reiterating the false version of the Katyn incident. This statement appeared in the March 1 edition of the national daily Trybuna Ludu under the heading, The Polish nation indignantly condemns the cynical provocations of American imperialists, who are feeding on the tragic deaths of thousands of Polish citizens in Katyn.The main wave of attacks on the Madden Committee (as it was called) rolled through the Eastern European press in March, 1952. It was most intense in the Soviet Union and Poland, but also penetrated to other countries like Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. In the USSR most of the related coverage was published in the communist party daily Pravda. In Poland articles attacking the Madden Committee and propagating the false version of the Katyn events appeared in all dailies and periodicals, including the party, military, youth, branch and satirical press. Especially avid in this respect were papers brought out by the Czytelnik publishers, notably Życie Warszawy. Also published was a deceitful book The Truth About Katyn by Boleslaw Wójcicki.Simultaneously to the press campaign against the Madden Committee the eastern countries launched broad scale repressions involving the prosecution, courts and intelligence services.
19. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Stanisław Dronicz, Lesław Kawalec Dictatorship of the “Proletariat”
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review of the book
20. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 21 > Issue: 3
Czesław Głogowski From Logos to Trinity. Marian Hillar’s Attempt to Describe the Evolution of Religious Beliefs from Pythagoras to Tertullian
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