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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Jubilee of L.A. Mikeshina
К юбилею Л.А. Микешиной

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2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Irina A. Gerasimova Ирина Алексеевна Герасимова
From Modernization to Greening: Geoecology and Geosociality
От модернизации к экологизации

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The article discusses the problem of complex relationships between the two leading areas of scientific, technical and socio-cultural development – modernization and greening. The emergence of new general scientific methodologies and interdisciplinary types of knowledge is largely due to the release of human demiurgic activity to the planetary level. A new interdisciplinary area of research is gaining momentum – geoecology. Natural and socio-humanitarian sciences are involved in the study of geoecological problems. In social epistemology, the problem of interaction between science, technology and society goes to the global level. Philosophical concepts of nature constitute the prerequisites for scientific paradigms, which in the era of global crisis and transformations of public consciousness are multiple and compete with each other. The ideas of scientific vitalism find expression in the life sciences and environmental sciences. Scientific and public discussions on the problems of the new climate regime, pandemic and other global challenges actively influence the formation of new modes of “collective thinking”, involving science, engineering, geopolitics, business, society and culture. Author makes a conclusion about the formation of the methodologies of the ecogeosystem approach, in which living beings, humans, natural environments, the planet as a whole and the surrounding space are considered as open, interacting systems. The common interests of the people of the Earth form a new type of community – geosociality. Humanity is facing a radical value choice – unlimited modernization or reasonable greening? Ideal of a common world or egoism of elites? A turn to an effective ecological worldview is possible only in the context of transformations of public consciousness, restoration of the rights of humanitarian culture and the advanced development o fenvironmentally friendly design.
panel discussion
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Alexander L. Nikiforov Александр Леонидович Никифоров
Ludwig Wittgenstein and Logical Positivism
Людвиг Витгенштейн и логический позитивизм

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The article examines the question of whether L. Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus had any influence on the formation and development of logical positivism. It is shown that the members of the Vienna Circle were familiar with the Tractatus, but practically did not accept anything from its content. Wittgenstein's reasoning about the world, about facts, about the structure of fact were rejected by them as a bad metaphysics, with which they fought. The denial of causality and the deprivation of the meaning of scientific laws could not be accepted by representatives of logical positivism, whose main task was the logical analysis of the language of science in order to cleanse it of metaphysical concepts and build a unified science on a solid empirical foundation. If the members of the Vienna Circle were even familiar with Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, then representatives of the Berlin Group, the Lvov-Warsaw School, the Uppsala School and supporters of logical positivism in other countries hardly heard of it. This leads to the conclusion that Wittgenstein's Tractatus did not have any impact on the logical positivism.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Kirill A. Rodin Кирилл Александрович Родин
Ethical Reading of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Этическое прочтение «Логико-философского трактата» Л. Витгенштейна

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The hundred-year history of interpretations of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus we examine in the article through a gradual approach (through the refusal of researchers from obviously erroneous interpretations) to an ethical (or metaphilosophical) reading of the work. The latter explains Wittgenstein’s unambiguous indication of ethical meaning as the main meaning of the Tractatus and consistently reconciles various parts of the work (ontology, figurative theory of meaning, rejection of the theory of types and logical constants, etc.) with the latest so-called ethical and mystical statements of the Tractatus and with demanding silence. An ethical (metaphilosophical) reading explains the continuing influence and relevance of the Tractatus and is presented in the article as a necessary condition for understanding the continuity between the works of early and late Wittgenstein.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Vadim V. Vasilyev Вадим Валерьевич Васильев
On Wittgenstein’s Influence on the Logical Positivists
О влиянии Витгенштейна на логических позитивистов

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In this article, I consider the influence of the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and above all the ideas of his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus on the philosophy of logical positivism. Agreeing that the question of such an influence is not a self-evident one, I clarify at first the concept of logical positivism and then turn to the evidence of the leading logical positivists about the influence of Wittgenstein upon them. An analysis of recollections of Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, Friedrich Waismann, and Alfred Ayer suggests that at least these thinkers themselves considered such an influence as very significant.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Vitaly V. Ogleznev Виталий Васильевич Оглезнев
Logical Positivism, Values, and Norms: Is It Possible to Read Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in Terms of Legal Philosophy?
Логический позитивизм, ценности и нормы

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During its hundred-year history, Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus has undergone a variety of interpretations and explanations. But the significance of this work cannot be limited to an assessment of whether it had an impact on the development of logical positivism or not. Similarly, the reading of Tractatus cannot be reduced to just an ethical or some other readings. This article proposes to study a possible reading of “Tractatus” in terms of legal philosophy, which is based on the relation between facts, values and norms, as well as on how interesting it could be (or would be) for legal philosophy.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Valeriy A. Surovtsev Валерий Александрович Суровцев
Logical Positivism, Wittgenstein and Ethical Value of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
Логический позитивизм, Л. Витгенштейн и этическое содержание «Логико-философского трактата»

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The problem of interconnection of L. Wittgenstein and logical positivism is considered. It is proved that mutual influence did not exist and could not exist due to dissimilarities between the tasks proposed in the “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” and the goals that are basic for the representatives of the Vienna Circle. But the difference between the tasks and the goals does not diminish the value of the philosophy of early Wittgenstein, if even his philosophy cannot be interpreted from the point of view of the Unified Science. But the ethical value of the “Tractatus” is problematic too. It does not contain any positive decisions for the humanities.
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Vitaly V. Tselishchev Виталий Валентинович Целищев
Russell and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus: The Forgotten Debt
Рассел и «Трактат» Витгенштейна

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The author argues that Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus owes much to Russell’s early philosophy. This point of view is demonstrated in the article by referring to G. Landini’s recent research on Russell’s Substitution Theory, as well as by the evaluations of the Tractatus of the prominent researchers: L. Goldstein, J. Hintikka, and J. Hacking. A skeptical view on the influence of the Tractatus and Wittgenstein personally on the doctrines of the Vienna Circle is presented by A. Koffa. The author proposes to reject extreme judgments about the Tractatus outside the context of Principia Mathematica.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Alexander L. Nikiforov Александр Леонидович Никифоров
So, What Is Tractatus? Reply to Critics
Так что же такое «Трактат»? Ответ оппонентам

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10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Kirill A. Rodin Кирилл Александрович Родин
Wittgenstein in the Camp of Logical Positivists. Reply to Critics
Витгенштейн в лагере логических позитивистов. Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology & cognition
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Domingos Faria Домингос Фариа
Group Belief: Defending a Minimal Version of Summativism
Групповые верования

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Beliefs are commonly attributed to groups or collective entities. But what is the nature of group belief? Summativism and nonsummativism are two main rival views regarding the nature of group belief. On the one hand, summativism holds that, necessarily, a group g has a belief B only if at least one individual i is both a member of g and has B. On the other hand, non-summativism holds that it is possible for a group g to have a belief B even if no member of g has B. My aim in this paper is to consider whether divergence arguments for non-summativism and against summativism about group belief are sound. Such divergence arguments aim to show that there can be a divergence between belief at the group level and the corresponding belief at the individual level. I will argue that these divergence arguments do not decisively defeat a minimal version of summativism. In order to accomplish this goal, I have the following plan: In section 2, I will analyze the structure of two important counterexamples against the summativist view, which are based on divergence arguments. Such counterexamples are based on the idea that a group decides to adopt a particular group belief, even if none of its members holds the belief in question. However, in section 3, I will show that these counterexamples fail, because they can be explained without the need to posit group beliefs. More specifically, I argue that in these apparent counterexamples, we have only a ‘group acceptance’ phenomenon and not a ‘group belief’ phenomenon. For this conclusion, I advance two arguments: in subsection 3.1, I formulate an argument from doxastic involuntarism, and in subsection 3.2, I develop an argument from truth connection. Thus, summativism is not defeated by divergence arguments. Lastly, in section 4, I will conclude with some advantages of summativism.
language & mind
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Dmitry V. Zaitsev Дмитрий Владимирович Зайцев
Towards Protolanguage: Bodily Reactions Represent Emotional Type
К протоязыку

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In this paper, I attempt to offer a general outline of my views on the origin and evolution of language. I do not pretend in any way to a completely new conception of language evolution. It seems to me that all the most important and productive hypotheses about the origin of language have already been made before, and it is only a matter of putting the pieces of the puzzle together correctly. As far as I can see it, the evolution of language is directly related to the embedded and embodied emotional types, which served as the basis for the subsequent categorization of perceived objects, and thus laid the ground for the formation of first an internal language (of thought), and then an external verbal language. Consistent with this, the paper is organized as follows. In the Introduction I briefly describe the problem I am facing in this article and outline a plan for solving it. Next section comprises a survey of relevant empirical findings related primarily to the processing and understanding of abstract terms and concepts. In my view, it supports the idea of the close connection of abstract terms proceeding, and thus language comprehension, with emotional states. The third section provides relevant theoretical considerations of the relationship between emotions, cognition, and language. Consistently considering various theories of emotions and concepts of language formation, I pay attention to the connection between affective states and language as a sign system. In the fourth section, my views are presented directly. In so doing, I illustrate my approach with a telling example that shows how, in the course of evolution, embedded and embodied emotional responses and reactions could become the building blocks first for the internal language of thought, and then for the external natural language.
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Danil N. Razeev Данил Николаевич Разеев
Generative and Perceptive Models of Volition
Генеративная и перцептивная модели волевых актов

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In recent decades, scientists and philosophers have developed several naturalistic theories of consciousness, in which they try to work out some theoretical foundations for a satisfactory solution to the problem of voluntary acts, in particular the genesis of voluntary bodily movements. From the author’s point of view, depending on which concept of consciousness scientists rely on in their empirical studies of voluntary movements, volition can be understood either as a generative act or as a perceptual act. The first part of the article shows that nowadays there are two competing philosophical and scientific models of volition: the generative model (dualistic and casualistic types) and the perceptual model (strong and weak types). The second part of the article deals with some experimental data from cognitive psychology and neuroscience related to the study of voluntary movements and concludes that they are in favor of the perceptive model of volition.
vista
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Olga V. Popova Ольга Владимировна Попова
Body As an Object of Experimentation and the Emergence of Biomedicine Ethos: The Nuremberg Lessons
Тело как объект экспериментирования и становление этоса биомедицины

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The purpose of the article is to study the influence of Nazi experiments on the formation of ideas about the ethos of science in the field of biomedicine. It is shown that the idea of discrediting a value-neutral science was often confronted with the resistance of the scientists themselves, who, in different contexts of condemning Nazi crimes, appealed to the fact that they acted for the good of science, and even of all mankind. The article discusses the strategy of American lawyers adopted at the Nuremberg Trials aimed at demonstrating the perversity of Nazi crimes in the field of biomedicine both ethically and scientifically. In addition, an analysis of individual materials of the Nuremberg process was carried out, which made it possible to give an idea of the scientific and linguistic design of the human body (name correction strategy) as a “correct” scientific object with desired properties. The article considers the influence of the data obtained on Nazi crimes on the formation of the content of the Nuremberg Code and the design of the principle of informed consent in biomedicine. Ethical aspects related to the further use of Nazi scientific data are also considered. In conclusion, the problem of the formation of scientific knowledge in non-violence mode is articulated.
case-studies – science studies
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Lev D. Lamberov Лев Дмитриевич Ламберов
Benacerraf and Set-Theoretic Reductionist Realism
Бенацерраф и теоретико-множественный редукционистский реализм

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The paper is devoted to analysis of P. Benacerraf’s argument against set-theoretic reductionist realism which is a fragment of a broader argument, know as the “identification problem”. The analyzed fragment of P. Benacerraf’s argument concerns the possibility of reducing of mathematical notions to set-theoretic notions. The paper presents a reconstruction of P. Benacerraf’s original argumentation, its analysis and also several possible objections proposed by P. Benacerraf himself about 30 years later after the original publication. Namely, he claimed (1) that a set-theoretic definition of natural numbers in G. Frege’s fashion can serve as a proper and unique set-theoretic definition, (2) that his argument doesn’t undermine eliminative reductionsts’ position, (3) that even if there are no argument possible in favor of some particular set-theoretic definition of natural numbers one may take set-theoretic realism for granted. An analysis of the mentioned possible objections shows their dependence on a number of additional premises. The paper demonstrates that P. Benacerraf’s objections on his own argument against set-theoretic realism either have a pragmatic character themselves or essentially rely on additional arguments that are justified pragmatically or require additional argumentation. For example, his possible objections require that set theory is considered as the only true foundational theory in mathematics, and that it has several important pragmatic virtues, like convenience of use to formalize other mathematical theories. In some cases, P. Benacerraf’s objections on their own, or the indicated additional principles may well be called into question, which demonstrates the insufficiency of P. Benacerraf’s objections against his original argument. Without the mentioned pragmatic arguments P. Benacerraf’s objections become a kind of belief in mysticism. Accordingly, his doubts about his own argument against set-theoretical realism seem insufficient to reject the problem of identification and save the position of set-theoretical realism from collapse.
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Sergei Yu. Shevchenko Сергей Юрьевич Шевченко
Ethics of Uncertainty As an Extension of Virtue Epistemology: The ·ase of Genetic Risks
Этика неопределенности как продолжение эпистемологии добродетелей

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Uncertainty can’t be understood without taking into account both properties of the problem situation and agent’s knowledge about it. The correspondence of knowledge and situation of decision-making is crucial for understanding the onto-epistemological nature of uncertainty. At the same time, this correspondence is the key topic in virtue epistemology, especially in its ‘non-classical’, regulatory, branch, related to works of R. Roberts and W.J. Wood. In this article, genetic consultation is chosen as an example of such a problematic situation since a doctor and a patient explicitly deal with the uncertainty of genetic risks. The problems of communication and joint decision-making in the context of medical-genetic consultation are comprehensively described in bioethics. At the same time, its social dimension is limited to the direct interaction of two individual agents, that allows us to use it as a model for constructing the ethics of uncertainty. In this article, four forms of uncertainty are identified: descriptive, normative and radical uncertainties, and translation uncertainty. Referring to the approaches of virtue epistemology, the author brings each of these forms into conformity with the proposed regulatory principle. The regulations assume that generating or disseminating knowledge under conditions of uncertainty require taking into account the incompleteness of the presented model of reality in its four aspects. A modelled fragment of reality could change in a predictable (descriptive uncertainty) or unexpected (radical uncertainty) way. The goals and values of a model’s user can not be hierarchically ordered, and may also change in the future (normative uncertainty). User’s interpretations of the model may be diverse, and can never be strictly defined by the intentions of the model’s author (indeterminancy of translation, or uncertainty whether success of co-reference is achieved).
interdisciplinary studies
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Olga A. Lavrenova Ольга Александровна Лавренова
Games With Space
Игры с пространством

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The culture beeing in the geographical space is one of the important problem fields of ontology. The process of understanding the environment has many levels and characteristics. Culture is an universal object of semiotics, in this case it is considered as a subject of the semioticization of geographical space, the formation of the image of the world. Culture inherits and constantly renews the main discourses associated with this ongoing process, the origins of which lie in the deep archaic. As a result, stable representations of geographical objects and/or permanent culturally significant symbols with different degrees of spatial connotations are formed. Much more interesting than the already formed images and symbols is the process of their creation and the patterns and frames that can be traced in it. The meanings created by culture are involved in the process of secondary interpretation. The most common are several areas of interpretation that play an active role in structuring our ideas about the geocultural space. They can be conventionally referred to as “games with space”, because they have a certain amount of arbitrariness, but also have established rules. This article discusses a few of them – games of range, games of geographical modeling, games of structures, of time, of significations, of emotions and institutionalization.
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Nick Overduin Ник Овердуин
The Inherent Logic in the Idea of the Multiverse
Внутренняя логика в идее мультивселенной

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The idea of the multiverse, likely difficult to prove in traditional scientific ways, may be bolstered by two arguments from the field of logic. This article, contextualized by the metaphorical, non-logical approaches to the multiverse and situating itself within the history of astronomy, explicates these two arguments from logic. The first argument relates to the implicit illogical vanity in the assumption that our presently-known universe is special. In other words, it may be somewhat logical to embrace the history of deanthropomorphism more fully in the light of the Big Bang and the theory of cosmic inflation. The second argument suggests resolution to the long-standing philosophical and logical mysteries associated with the anthropic principle, as well as the attendant use of Ockham’s razor as a logical tool. The problem of evidence and falsifiability is briefly implicated, as well as some consequences for apologetics.
archive
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Vladimir V. Seliverstov Владимир Валерьевич Селивёрстов
Alexius Meinong's Extraontology: Beyond Being and Non-being
Сверхонтология Алексиуса Майнонга

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The notion of Ausersein/outbeing, proposed by Alexius Meinong, was for a long time in the shadow of the principle of the Ausersein of a pure object, which made it possible to make non-existent objects part of a judgment. This principle was adopted by many followers of Meinong within the framework of analytical philosophy, but the very concept of Ausersein was almost totally ignored. When it’s become an object of research, there appeared several interpretations of it. It was interpreted either as a way of describing the ontological status of non-existent objects, or as a basic property of all objects without exception. Dale Jacquette suggests interpreting Ausersein as extraontology, i.e. a metasemantic category that includes all items. In this article, we will analyse the arguments of modern interpreters of this notion and try to find out which interpretation is most correct.
new trends
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 58 > Issue: 1
Vitaly V. Dolgorukov, Vera A. Shumilina Виталий Владимирович Долгоруков
What Is Formal Philosophy?
Что такое формальная философия?

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The paper focuses on the review of current literature on formal philosophy. Special attention is paid to the review of the book «Introduction to Formal Philosophy» [Hansson, Hendricks, 2018]. The book is a consistent introduction to the problems of formal philosophy, a research tradition that relies on the precise mathematical tools in order to study traditional philosophical problems. The methods of formal philosophy are successfully applied not only to the problems of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of language but also relevant for the problems of ethics, axiology and social philosophy. The book demonstrates that it is not correct to identify formal philosophy with another area of study – philosophical logic, since formal philosophy uses not only logical methods of analysis, but also uses the tools of game theory, decision theory, probability theory, Bayesian statistics, and other theories. Although the book has a propaedeutic character, it also contains some open problems. These problems include the aggregation of the opinions of the group under the condition of a conflicting base of premises in the theory of public choice, there are still open problems in the interpretation of Arrow’s impossibility theorem and others. Certainly, formalization in itself is not a general solution to the particular philosophical problem, but only a tool that allows to formulate a problem in a more rigorous and precise way, which sometimes allows to reveal some unexpected consequences, some implicit contradictions and new solutions. Despite the importance of the concept of coherence in ethics, decision theory, philosophy of law, Bayesian epistemology, philosophy of science, the existing formalizations of the concept of coherence are highly specialized for epistemology, researchers recognize the lack of the relevant explanatory models. Overall, the book is an excellent introduction in to the field of formal philosophy, which provides a general overview of different aspects of formal philosophy and the opportunity to study particular research topics by means of an extensive bibliography accompanying each of the chapters.