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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Romana Bassi Orpheus and “Second Nature” in Francis Bacon
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While Francis Bacon’s interpretations of mythological figures, such as those of Prometheus, Proteus and Vulcan, have received quite a bit of attention by scholars, the myth of Orpheus shows a wealth of meanings, almost entirely still to be explored. In particular, we argue that Aristotle’s eth-ical notion of “second nature” plays a role in how Bacon frames this myth. By parallel reading De Augmentis scientiarum (I, 41) and De Sapientia Veterum (11), it becomes evident that Bacon: 1) extends to animals the notion of “altera natura”, by 2) showing the civilizing effects of order and harmony, and 3) assigns to moral and civil philosophy the political function of letting men’s second nature emerge as an attitude to be pacific and social. In doing so, he 4) subscribes to a cyclical view of the motion of history menaced by the recur-ring falls in barbarian times. Harmony set by philosophy seems, therefore, to possess a binding power (vinculum) that is fragile, compelling and liberating: the underlying concept of “nature bound” helps explaining why in Orpheus’ principle of harmony Bacon could trace the activity of both natural and moral philosophy.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Pavel E. Boyko Hegel’s Science of Philosophy and Spiritual Integration of the Christian World
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1. The necessary content of the process of history of philosophy is historically completed in Hegel’s system. 2. Religiously interpreted, Hegel’s philosophy is the first theophany of truth which was not actually understood by European science, and was doomed to the betrayal and painful death “on the cross”. 3. However, the very fact of not having assimilated the necessary contents of Hegel’s philosophy does not deny Hegel’s influence on the Chris-tian culture. 4. Thanks to Hegel’s comprehension of religious consciousness, the theological stage of the evolution of Christian culture is pushed to the sidelines giving way to philosophical cognition. 5. The elevation of Christian culture up to the level of the philosophy of absolute idealism will be accompanied by sublation of all finite forms of spirit. The phase of finite thinking with its abstract differentiation of all spheres of man’s spiritual life, so immensely extended in history, is being brought to its end. 6. The genuine actuality of Hegel’s philosophy is determined by its capability of the universal content of the Christian idea of freedom as a principle of the new integration of the Christian world.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Andrzej Bronk ‘What then is it to be not just a theistic, but a Catholic philosopher?’: Alasdair MacIntyre’s Conception of Philosophy
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After the introductory remarks on the contemporary situation of religion and the position of Alasdair MacIntyre in philosophy, I am discussing his main thesis about the situation of contemporary universities, and line of argumentation of how to do philosophy at a Catholic university. His recent book God, philosophy, universities: a selective history of the Catholic philosophical tradition (Lanham, 2009) conveys arguments for the necessity of a Christian philosophy of religion. “God created human beings as rational, that is, as questioning, animals”, so it remains the duty of a Christian philosopher to pursue an enquiry into the nature of things, and the truth concerning God’s existence and nature. But, here, a Christian philosopher meets a dilemma, as theism is more than “just a set of doctrines about God”. It requires those who acknowledge the God of theism an “unqualified trust and allegiance”. Christian philosophers “are bound, at some stages of their enquiry at least, to treat God’s existence and nature as problematic”. This way philosophy acquires its own distinctive problems: “to understand what truth, rational justification, and meaning are”. I am going to check the consistency of McIntyre’s argumentation and how helpful his conception of philosophy can be for an (analytic) philosopher of religion.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Elisa Cuttini The Aristotelian Concept of Disposition in Jacopo Zabarella’s Theory of Ethical and Theoretical Virtues
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Tracing the concept of hexis contained in the Nicomachean Ethics, Jacopo Zabarella assumes that no disposition is a natural faculty originally present in man, and considers habitus as an acquired attitude that can be applied to ethical and theoretical virtues. With regard to the different mode of acquisition, Zabarella distinguishes theoretical habits, which are related to demonstrative procedures concerning necessary objects and transmitted through teaching, from ethical habits dealing with the contingent sphere of praxis, and consolidated through the reiteration of good actions. As far as habits are forged by individual behaviour, leading to the consolidation of permanent dispositions, a problematic issue emerges, concerning repeated actions that can be virtuous or vicious as the result of personal moral choices. Through his re-reading of Aristotle, Zabarella underlines the role of personal responsibility in action. Although not new to the philosophical tradition, this approach is particularly significant, if considered as a philosophical answer to the issues on free will and self-determination raised by the theological approach of Reformation. The presence in the 16th century of the concept of habitus, which is characteristic of the Nicomachean Ethics, also testifies the persistence of Aristotelian practical philosophy.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Kerem Eksen From Ascesis to Evidence: Foucault and Hadot on Descartes
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In various occasions Michel Foucault argues that Descartes’ philosophy represents a crucial turning-point in the history of the relationship between the self and the truth in Western thought. Before Descartes, argues Foucault, the self’s search for truth takes an “ascetic” form and aims at a profound transformation that is expected to affect the general mode of existence of the subject. However, says Foucault, no such profound change is required in Descartes’ project, since the acquirement of reliable evidence is considered to be sufficient for the attainment of truth. Pierre Hadot on the other hand criticizes this argument by reminding that Descartes’ Meditations is full of the echoes of the ancient tradition of “spiritual exercises” and, for this reason it may be conceived as an ascetic project. In this paper, we will make a close study of this disagreement, especially by situating Foucault’s argument into the broader context of one of his central problematics: the rise in Western culture of the notion of “evidence” as the dominant criterion of truth. To this end, we will read Foucault’s argument under the light shed by his analysis of two different regimes of truth, one - related to asceticism - based on the “effective power” of utterances and practices and the other - centered on the notion of evidence - based on the epistemic content of statements.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Raúl de Pablos Escalante The Flourishing of an Affective Reason: A Perspectivistic Approach to the Understanding of the Affects through Spinoza, Nietzsche and Kuno Fischer
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This paper emphasizes on the importance of the philosophy of Spinoza through the mediation of K. Fischer’s History of Modern Philosophy had in Nietzsche. This forgotten classic in the history of philosophy could shed new light in the relationship between Spinoza’s thought and Nietzsche. Hence, demonstrating that there is a philosophical path leading towards an affective reason in serious need of pondering. Two significant texts are studied, one manifests Nietzsche’s defense of a reason meshed with the affects, and the other text from Fischer describes the “potency of the representations” in respect to knowledge. I highlight the sample of Spinoza’s writings which Fischer commented due to their affinity to Nietzsche’s perspectivistic doctrine of the affects, and also to better appreciate the importance of corporeal images or representations in Spinoza’s theory.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Tatiana Gurevich Thomas de Quincey as the Disseminator of Kantian Traditions
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Great Britain of the first half of the XIXth century was experiencing strong influence of German philosophy and historiography - the ideas and traditions of F. Schelling, the Schlegel brothers and I. Herder. The most significant figure, who promoted the formation of the main English Romanticism concepts (in particular, the concept of “literary genius”) and determined the directions in the study approaches of science, was Immanuel Kant. Kantian traditions were being spread primarily due to English writers and translators, actively printed in the periodicals of that time - T. De Quincey, S. T. Coleridge, J. G. Lockhart, T. Carlyle and John A. Heraud. One of the main disseminators of Kantian traditions was a writer-essayist, the author of the famous “Confessions of an English Opium-Eater”, Thomas De Quincey (1785 - 1854). The dissemination of Kantian ideas and traditions by Thomas de Quincey was expressed in four main directions: the translation of Kantian works into English, the expression and dissemination of Kantian ideas and traditions (mainly from translated works) in his creative works - essays and memoirs, the disclosure and analysis of the Kantian philosophy ideas in his own philosophical and theological essays, the creation of fiction, resuscitating the key moments of Kant’s philosophy and life.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Vitaliy Lyakh Philosophy as Wisdom or as “Art of Life”
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Philosophy has been oriented at achieving wisdom as some particular way of behaviour and world perception, some special “art of life”. A wise person is one of those few who has responded at the inquire of the state of being, and goes on living in accordance with the state. The definition of philosophy as wisdom is one of the actual problems nowadays. It is connected with two maxims, known since Socrates, which have been directions for those seeking wisdom – “know thyself” and “take care of thyself”. Nietzsche, Bergson, Foucault, and existentialists revealed the problematic of human Impulse towards uplifting, suggesting interpretations of ‘real’ human existence as opposed to ‘fake’ existence, a sort of self-deceiving, causing unceasing lack of self-appreciation. Intensive search for identity is actualized nowadays, and the possibility of self-identification in terms of antique notion of autarkeia becomes actual. So, through the practice of “taking care of thyself”, there is a chance of self-identification that presupposes not various compensations for absence of wholeness, but lies in correlating social-cultural “me” and primary “I”, which makes it possible to act in an indefinite situation, thus, expressing the grounds of antique “art of life” idea.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Alexei Procyshyn Givenness and Conceptual Content: Walter Benjamin’s alternative (eidos and concept in Walter Benjamin)
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Although he is usually understood to be an immanent critic who belongs (albeit perhaps only tangentially) to the first generation of the Frankfurt School, Walter Benjamin’s thought is much more heterodox than typically acknowledged. In this paper, I draw attention to one of Benjamin’s most heterodox tendencies. I show that Benjamin problematizes on the animating idea of immanent critique, i.e., that one can move from an object given in experience to the implicit concept of that object in order to assess the fit between concept and object. Benjamin develops his objection to this idea in his 1916 response paper “Eidos und Begriff.” In it he criticizes P. F. Linke’s account of givenness by showing that what is given in experience and what is essential to it are not identical. What is essential to first order experience, moreover, is quite distinct to what is essential for discursively structured reflection. And hence one cannot unproblematically move from what is given in experience to the concepts underwriting it. This leads Benjamin to develop a pragmatic and expressive alternative to semantic ascent, and hence to immanent critique.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Boris Pruzhinin Russian Philosophical Tradition as a European One: Epistemological Style of Intellectual Culture
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This paper focuses on the specifics of epistemological style of Russian philosophers and scholars in the humanities of 19-20th centuries. The appeal to individual methodological “handwriting” in the context of contemporary philosophical problems can retrace the historical traditions of Russian intellectual culture as an integral phenomenon. Referring in due time to the problems of “integral knowledge”, Russian philosophers formulated a number of ideas that enriched European traditions of social-humane research and influenced the development of semiotics and structuralism, both in Europe and in Russia. The ideas of Russian philosophers, in our opinion, are still the productive context, but now for the development of the modern humane methodology in general. The investigation of methodological issues in Russian philosophy makes possible, on the one hand, the understanding of its substantial specifics and on the other – the observation of modern epistemology of the humanities in the viewpoint, opening up new perspectives, unexplored in the philosophical-methodological literature.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Tatiana Shchedrina Philosophical Congress as a Phenomenon of Cultural-historical Communication: A Study of the Cultural-historical Epistemology
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Modern communications have intensified the ties between philosophical and scientific communities so much that today we can really talk about creating a “global” philosophical community, having its specific ways of functioning.The First World Congress of Philosophy (August 1900, Paris) in due time played a special role in the formation of global philosophical community. In contrast to other forms of communication “congress” was based on the direct communication of representatives of different philosophical and scientific disciplines and schools, as well as national traditions, and that is why the study of this phenomenon today allows us to comprehend existential and cultural-historical foundation of philosophical themes integrity.In the scope of cultural-historical epistemology, understood as semiotic analysis of knowledge in the context of existential-related communication links and relationships, existing in the philosophical community, existential meaning of philosophical congress can be reconstructed, in particular, through the dynamics of its terminology preparation. This approach allows us to analyze the personal context of the formation of the congress as a phenomenon of informal communication (within a given period) and to demonstrate the existential premise of interdisciplinary philosophy as humane form of knowledge.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Richard Witt The Symphony in Music as a European Philosophical Construct
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Within the vaguely defined human activity of music, symphony (Classical, Romantic, Modern) is a major and well-documented phenomenon characteristic of a specific historical period (approx. 1750-1900) and of a specific region of the world (Europe and those countries to which European civilization was subsequently transferred). The symphony’s form has been subjected to detailed and often exhaustive analysis by musicologists. Far less attention has however been given to the symphony as an abstract entity: its composers’ mode of thinking, the nature of the questions, which they have set out to explore, and possible affinities between their strategies in music and the strategies used by philosophers contemporary with them. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the features which make the European symphony what it is, to consider their relationship with the practice of European philosophy (from the Enlightenment to the turn of the 19th century and after), and to account for the development of the European symphony in an epistemological frame. The tools used in this examination include such concepts as duration, meaning, dialectic, synthesis, purpose.
articles in french
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Gang Deng Le tournant cosmologique dans la philosophie de Bergson
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Nous allons essayer de montrer, dans notre article, qu’il y a un tournant cosmologique dans la philosophie de Bergson. Ce tournant commence par Matière et mémoire, et s’achève dans l’Evolution créatrice. Il s’agit de trois étapes: premièrement, la découverte de la durée en moi; deuxièmement, l’élargissement de la durée à l’univers; troisièrement, la genèse de l’intelligence et de la matière dans le mouvement de l’univers. Grâce à ce tournant, Bergson a réussi à résoudre des difficultés métaphysiques insolubles.
articles in russian
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Natalia Avtonomova «Жизнь в языке» Романа Якобсона и эпистемологический потенциал его идеи структуры
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This paper focuses on the concept of Roman Jakobson, which determined in many ways the formation of structural methods in linguistics and other humanities of the twentieth century. Experience of his various “life in language” is rich in epistemological meanings, some of which are not re-vealed yet. Thus, Jakobson’s understanding of the structure appears today as the resource for actual epistemological ideas of unreductionistic type. Histori-ans of science sometimes tend to see in the idea of the “whole”, often accompanying the idea of the structure in Jakobson’s theory (this applies especially to his early works, which are devoted to the ideas of “Russian science” or “Eurasian” linguistics), an ontological relic of the romantic ideology. But here there is some positive heuristic, its own approach to the conceptualization of intuitions that give meaning and direction to any research. Jacobson never imagined the structure as static and formal, but always took into account the history, meaning, that is, taking it as an “open structure”. In this it differs from the more analytic and more reductive interpretations of the structure in science and philosophy of the twentieth century. This peculiarity of Jakobson’s approach (“Russian” and “East-European”) is getting more and more evident and perceived as more productive in the modern cognitive interactions between national epistemological traditions.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Felix E. Azhimov Metaphysics as an Integral Part of European Philosophical Tradition: Jacques Derrida’s Deconstruction Example
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The paper is based on the statement that despite all the talks about the ‘end’ of philosophy and metaphysics it is the latter that truly forms the core of the philosophical consciousness of modern era. Even Jacques Derrida’s “anti-mataphysics” philosophizings contain a great number of “calls” for the return of metaphysical claims and bases into the modern philosophy. Among the various manifestations of historical reality metaphysics searches for something that could guide people and be an ideal to strive towards – something integral, eternal and perfect. Today we clearly realize that in the context of metaphysical searches we’re not so much interested in ready-made results (historically shaped regulations, rules and laws), but the path itself, the movement, the process of asking. Due to the fact that philosophia prima is aspired to utmost basis of human existence, in many respects the modern thinking acquires the historical-based independence, methodological tools and gets the strong impulse for its further development.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Andrey Kravchenko The Interpretations of Violence and Lie in the European Philosophical Tradition: Immanuel Kant
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In the modern ethical discourse there are multiple polemics on ethical absolutism, bringing to the forefront two commandments - “you shall not murder” (commonly expanded to non-committing of violence) and “you shall not lie”. To understand the meaning of this polemics it is very important to turn to the European philosophical-ethical tradition (to the ideas of Kant in this case). This paper highlights the thought that two principles, mentioned above, were not equal to Kant. If lie was impossible for him, then violence turned out to be permissible.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Sergey Lubimov The Concept of Idols in the European Philosophical Tradition
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Данная статья посвящена одной из наиболее интересных философских традиций в Европе: теме идолов. В ходе работы будет рассмотрен путь, который прошла эта традиция. Начиная с Фрэнсиса Бэкона и заканчивая Фридрихом Ницше, этот путь занимает около 4 – х веков. Путь этот был долог и витиеват. Если первоначально идолы были «призраками познания», то начиная с XIX в., идолы стали продуктами культуры. Философы в разное время предлагали бороться с идолами разными способами: Бэкон призывал руководствоваться правильным методом, а Ницше – философствовать молотом. Однако, какими бы средствами не пытались бороться с идолами, они всё равно выживали. До сих пор живы те предрассудки, на которые указывал Бэкон, жива и христианская религия, которую пытался сокрушить Ницше. Сейчас дело обстоит тоже не наилучшим образом. Идолы культуры, политики и экономики контролируют практически всю жизнь человека. На это факт в частности обратил внимание Герберт Маркузе, в своём произведении «Одномерный человек». В данном исследовании мы проанализируем два учения двух великих борцов с идолами: Фрэнсиса Бэкона и Фридриха Ницше. Мы также попытаемся ответить на вопрос, как можно бороться с идолами, и можно ли вообще с ними бороться?
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Vladimir Porus The Identity of Self” in the Philosophical-methodological and Psychological Dimensions
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“The identity of self” refers to the range of “multi-dimensional” objects of study. The most important “dimensions” are: philosophical-methodological and psychological. There may be other (socio-psychological, sociological, and linguistic-analytic). Models of “self” are built in the various “dimensions”, each of them, in fact, is a specific formulation and approach to the solution to the problem of “Self-identity”. These models can be viewed as the “projections” of the object (“self”), which is being analyzed, on the various conceptual “planes” (areas of knowledge, for which this object is significant).
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Rustam Sabancheev Annales School in the Context of European Philosophical-methodological Traditions
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This paper analyzes the methodological foundations of the An-nales School in the context of the European tradition of philosophizing. This school could appear only in the European philosophical tradition, that is, in such intellectual atmosphere, where the following topics were discussed: the autonomy of the cultural sciences (Rickert), the role of speech as a sign of the message (Dilthey, Heidegger, Shpet), the problem of meaning and the act of understanding and comprehension of the meaning (Brentano, Husserl), the problem of psychologism in human cognition (Bergson Husserl, etc.), etc. Although it is quite difficult to define the direct influence of philosophical tradition in the methodology of the Annales School, yet it is possible to reconstruct some certain intellectual consonance with the philosophical problems mentioned above.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
Irina Shchedrina The Problem of the “Self” in the European Tradition: Casus of Malebranche
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In modern philosophical and scientific-humanitarian research “self”-problem is becoming more and more actual and creates one of the key themes of contemporary philosophical reflection in Russia. In order to show the origins of the modern representations of “self”- problem it is necessary to focus our attention on the problematization of Cartesian thesis, realized by Malebranche. This paper discusses the following aspects of its conception: the distinction of substances, the ontological evidence of God’s existence and the ways of the cognition of the things.