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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Silvana Ballnat Hermeneutical Amendment to the Contemporary Philosophy of Language: Gadamer’s, Taylor’s and McDowell’s Contributions to the World Disclosure as Dimension of Language
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This paper argues that philosophical hermeneutics provides an indispensible contribution to the understanding of language particularly with its idea of world disclosing dimension of language. This tradition entails the heritage of Hamann-Herder-Humboldt theories of language, while also reaching out to Dilthey’s hermeneutical and Heidegger’s existential phenomenological philosophy. It became most recognizable profile in Gadamer’s work, which was prominently continued in the works of Taylor and McDowell. The notion of world disclosure can be regarded as a complement to the firmly established designative and communicative dimensions of language. It is this notion that marked the philosophical hermeneutics as ‘unattractive’, since this assertion was seen as idealistic and relativistic. In this paper, I challenge this prevailing view and explain that precisely this notion supports a correct and non-instrumental view of language. I insist that language should not be considered as a tool, which can be put aside, but becomes constitutive of all human cognitive capacities allowing for human being to be able to have a world. To have a world means to have a language and living as human being means living in a world.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Maria Dimitrova The Language of Dialectics
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The purpose of this paper is to challenge dialectics. The dialectical language, where the word is reduced to an expression of thoughts, is in the focus of consideration. The dialectical method transforms the conversation among collocutors into teleology and determinism. Dialectics entitles somebody to speak on behalf of the universal reason. It is the logic “of power for the sake of the power itself”. But in fact, the word originates as an appeal to the Other and only then Logos appears.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Vassilis Ganiatsas On the Hermeneutics of the Not-yet-in-the-creation of Artworks
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This paper intents to explore a seemingly paradoxical issue pertaining to artistic creation, i.e., the phenomenon of artists engaging with their intended to be an artwork, while in the process of its making as if it already existed in place. Although this situation resembles a hermeneutic experience, as described by Hans-Georg Gadamer, it nevertheless lacks the main premises of philosophical hermeneutics, which is the very existence of the authentic object of interpretation in full presence. So, is it still possible to discuss the creation process of artworks in hermeneutical terms, without betraying the foundations of this philosophical standpoint? When Gadamer speaks of dialogue in interpretation, can such a dialogue be established with an artwork to be, an artwork that has not yet been finalized? It will be argued that the ontological status of an artwork, while in its creation process, is actually shifted from an object to a subject from a passive recipient of the artist’s intentions and decisions to a co-constituting agent towards its actual fulfillment as an autonomous entity. Husserl’s constitution theory of intentional objects and Gilbert Simondon’s individuation theory of ontogenesis are revisited and their possible integration with hermeneutics reconsidered towards extending the hermeneutics of the artworks back to their creation process.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Choong-Su Han The Relation between Philosophizing and Living in Aristotle and Heidegger
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The present paper undertakes a comparison between Heidegger’s and Aristotle’s understandings in view of the relation between philosophizing and living. First, a relevance of the contemplative life for philosophy in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is considered. After such a consideration Heidegger’s understanding of the relation between philosophizing and living is illustrated, which substantially differs from Aristotle’s. This illustration is based on Heidegger’s lecture ‘The fundamental concepts of metaphysics’ (‘Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik’). The present paper concludes with a reflection on the importance of reintegrating philosophizing into living for the modern society.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Māris Kūlis Community, Conversation and Search for Truth
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The question about truth, experience and sharing of truth can be addressed from the viewpoint of a shared sense of community. The search for truth is related to the sensus communis and the conscience – con scientia – that is formed in the community. The sensus communis is not only a general faculty in all men, but also the sense that founds community. Thereby the knowledge is true only in front of the other. Truth reveals itself in conversation. By conversation it means that there are both someone who asks questions and someone who answers them, and that they change their roles. In order to understand each other, they have to share a common field of experience. The approach to the concept of truth as a representation of things loses its place and gives way to the understanding of truth as something where meaning as sense and truth as open and exposed concept appears in the foreground. Phenomenology reveals that community correlates and imposes a set of senses to the consciousness and conscience of the individual. This lets phenomenologists focus on life, culture and language. The truth transforms from meaning into sense. It becomes a dynamic determination of a human being.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Jing-Jong Luh The New Way of Inquiry and Way of Life: Polegomena of Systemic Hermeneutics
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A program of systemic hermeneutics shall investigate the universal ground-presuppositions, the basic elements, activities and structure, the systematical models and paradigms of hermeneutics, and then its applications in the intercultural philosophy for contemporary world. We shall start from the etymology of hermeneuein to explore the original relation between thinking and language, which can reach the test-understanding as the primary hermeneutic experience. This can be described in late Heidegger’s idea of truth as “Geschehen”, which could be represented in the “crossing”-dialectic of Hegel’s speculative logic. This ground-presupposition is able to disclose further, such as “person in context” and “text as medium or synthesis of spiritual and material dimensions. These avail to inquire the hermeneutic basic elements, like author-text-reader, the basic activities as understanding, interpretation, application, and the context of all these could be also performed with Hegel’s “relation”- dialectic. The understanding of classical text is especially the paradigm-model, because of its intellectual character of spiritual dialog. This event can also be signified through the Hegel’s “idea”-dialectic. Finally the practical methodic application-model for the intercultural philosophy would construe from this systemic hermeneutics as meta-theory.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Despina Neztekidou H.-G. Gadamer’s Hermeneutics: Between Truth and Method
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Hans Georg Gadamer in his influential work Truth and Method attempts to represent hermeneutics as the dialogue between discourse on the truth and discourse on the method by which we grasp the truth, in order to indicate that intersubjective communication is the only true reality of human experience. Although Gadamer notices that the method has been already torn apart from the truth, since it has followed the path of instrumental knowledge, he still tries to bring them in discussion so as to consecrate what he declares as “the dialogue that we are”. This paper focuses on the third part of Truth and Method specifically emphasizing the two basic elements of Gadamer’s universal hermeneutics: (a) the linguistically of the hermeneutical phenomenon and (b) the impact of the historically effected consciousness on hermeneutical experience. In the first part I discuss about the three situations of a hermeneutical experience, that is conversation, translation and text interpretation. In the second part I point to the argument that hermeneutical consciousness is indissolubly linked with historical consciousness to conclude that “fusion of horizons” leads us to a common world of understanding.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Yury Shaev Perceptive and Symbolic Components of Sense
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Nowadays many types of ontology are losing their meaningfulness. On the one hand, this can be connected with the increasing keenness on various methodological syntheses with primary reference to transdisciplinarity. On the other hand, dissemination of hermeneutical and semiotic researches, their various modifications and alteration of many segments of humanitarian knowledge create conditions for constructing of new types of ontology, which will take into account all complication, meaningfulness and polymodal character of sign existence. An example can serve as a collision of methodological and ontological positions between ‘hermeneutics of sense’ (different versions and modifications of philosophical hermeneutics) and ‘aesthetics of presence’ (W. Welsh, М. Seel, H.U. Gumbrecht representatives of the so-called “newest aesthetics”).
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Rui Silva Hermeneutics and Epistemological Contextualism
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The paper analyzes the hermeneutic reflection of Heidegger and Gadamer in the light of contemporary versions of epistemological contextualism, and the departing from a distinction between attributor contextualism and inferential or issue contextualism. According to attributor contextualism, the truth-conditions of knowledge-ascriptions depend on the attributor’s context and its epistemic standards, which can be more or less demanding. In contrast to this position, inferential or issue contextualism claims that epistemic standards depend on the inferential structure of the subject’s context, and there is not a linear hierarchy of contexts ranging from low to high-standards contexts. This latter form of contextualism is congenial to hermeneutics and is discussed on the basis of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy and the work of Michael Williams. In order to illustrate the contextualist implications of hermeneutics, the paper focuses on the following points: the hermeneutic circle; Heidegger’s phenomenology of everydayness; the Gadamerian analysis of the epistemological role of prejudice and tradition; and the account of understanding as a fusion of horizons.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Maja Soboleva “Hermeneutical Logics” and “Analytical Hermeneutics” as a New Turn in Philosophical Hermeneutics
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The question standing in the backgrounds of this paper is what kind of hermeneutics can emerge on basis of philosophy of life. To answer it, the theories of German philosophers Georg Misch (1878-1965) and Josef Koenig (1893-1994) have been analyzed. The first developed hermeneutical logics, which is based on identification the notions ‘life’ and ‘articulation’ (Ausdruck)). Three aspects –life as logical category, life as hermeneutical category, and the discoursive forms of self-representation of life- extracted from Misch’s theory seem to be relevant for further development of hermeneutics. Koenig carries forward this research program, but focuses on the linguistic structures of human perception experience and drafts a kind of analytical hermeneutics. The remarkable part of both conceptions is that they pose it logical heterogenity of theoretical and practical discourses. These differences are relevant for rethinking of such epistemological phenomenon, such as ‘meaning’, ‘concept’, ‘truth’ and ‘knowledge’. According to these positions, hermeneutics can be a homogenous theory of interpretation or understanding, but on the contrary the different logical areas of hermeneutics must be constituted. Thus, hermeneutics can be interpreted as an alternative to the traditional, i.e., epistemological approach, to the theory of knowledge, on the one hand, and to analytical philosophy of language on the other.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Søren Tinning The Aporia of Limitation: A Question of Being in Heidegger
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Following Aristotle’s statement, introducing the Book Z of his Metaphysics, that is “Being has many senses”, which is also so important to Heidegger, this paper will develop the hypothesis that Being, as we find it addressed in Heidegger, can be considered as a radical re-articulation of the question of limitation in its most general sense. This re-statement is to be conceived: A) as radical in the sense of bringing the question of limitation into the center of philosophical inquiry or rather to consider it the center of inquiry; B) as radical in the sense of a return to what we will consider the fundamental question of limitation - the question of the aporia of limitation; and C) as radical in the sense of a re-articulating the metaphysical interpretation of limitation.
articles in german
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Ekaterini Kaleri Die Überwindung des Dualismus in Wilhelm Diltheys erkenntnistheoretischem und ontologischem Denken
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Der metaphysische Geist-Koerper Dualismus sowie, im Anschluss daran, die Subjekt-Objekt-Trennung in der Erkenntnithe-orie der Neuzeit, einschliesslich der transzendentalen Position I. Kants, sind, so die These des deutschen Philosophen Wilhlem Dilthey, auf eine ueberspitzt intellektualistische Ausdeutung des neuzeitlichen Prinzips der Phaenomena-litaet zurueckzufuehren. Auf der Basis dieses Intellektualismus wurde in der Philosophie eine unueberbrueckbare Kluft zwischen dem Bewusstsein und der aeusseren materialen Welt geschaffen, die am Ende die gegebene Reali-taetsgewissheit selbst nicht zu begruenden vermag. Im Gegensatz dazu prae-sentiert Dilthey ein monistisches Prinzip des „Lebens“, das aller logischen Bezugnahme auf eine objektive Welt vorausgehen soll. Auf dieser Ebene etab-lieren sich Selbstbewusstsein und Bewusstsein des „Andreren“ zeitgleich und in gegenseitiger Bedingtheit. Dilthey legt diese Korrelation mittels einer pha-enomenologischen Analyse der grundlegenden Erfahrung der willkuerlichen Bewegung dar. Anhand dieser Analyse laesst sich zeigen, dass die Erfahrung der willkuerlichen Bewegung, welche von der Vostellung eines zu erreichnden Ziels geleitet wird, notwendigerweise mit der Erfahrung eines opponierenden Widerstandes einhergeht. Die Signifikanz von Entitaeten, die aeusserlich ge-genueber dem Selbst sind, manifestiert sich somit primaer unter Kategorien wie die der Bedeutsamkeit und der Zweckmaessigkeit.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
János Loboczky Praktische Philosophie und Ethik in Gadamers Hermeneutik
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In diesem Beitrag untersuche ich kurz drei problematische Gebiete. Ich erörtere die in dem Titel angegebenen Aspekte der hermeneutischen Philosophie Gadamers: die Idee der praktischen Philosophie in einer aristotelischen Annäherung, die Analyse der Bedeutung der Praxis bei Gadamer und die Gadamer’sche Perspektive der Möglichkeit der philosophischen Ethik. In meiner Untersuchung betone ich, wie Gadamer sich mit bestimmten aristotelischen Begriffen (Phronesis, Sophia, Techne, Praxis) und mit ihren Auslegungen befasst. Nach Gadamer stellen diese den wesentlichen Zusammenhang zwischen der hermeneutischen Methode und dem sittlichen Wissen dar. Die Aufgabe des sittlichen Wissens ist, die Umrisse der Dinge sichtbar zu machen. So kann das sittliche Bewusstsein gestaltet werden. Schließlich hält Gadamer die aristotelische Sicht für offenbar, nach der es nicht um Werte, sondern um Tugenden geht, und das Wesen der philosophischen Ethik in der Vermittlung zwischen Logos und Ethos, bzw. der Subjektivität des Wissens und der Substanzialität des Seins, letzten Endes im Treffen des „Richtigen“ besteht.
articles in spanish
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Carlos Emilio Gende Enfoque hermenéutico del giro lingüístico: la noción de lector en Ricoeur
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Frente a versiones que han pretendido emplear el giro lingüístico como justificación para inhabilitar las pretensiones de los paradigmas ontológico y gnoseológico en filosofía, la obra de Ricoeur contribuye a elaborar un concepto de interpretación que, constituido lingüísticamente, recupera la experiencia de excedente de sentido. De ese modo, no sólo no disuelve el mundo en lenguaje sino que incluso logra ampliar las condiciones de accesibilidad a la dimensión extrasígnica. Para desarrollar esta afirmación, me centraré en su noción de lector, elaborada en sus discusiones con las teorías del texto absoluto y según la cual muestra la salida de sí del texto hacia un mundo que despliega; mundo que a su vez debe ser refigurado por el intérprete.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Zaida Olvera Granados Estatuto hermenéutico del presente filosófico: Hegel y la hermenéutica del testimonio
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La tradición hermenéutica ha abjurado de Hegel. Nunca se ha negado su influencia, pero se nos ha conminado a emprender el éxodo del pensamiento hegeliano, a seguir este evento del pensamiento al que según Ricoeur se ha asistido en el siglo veinte. Lo que yo pretendo hacer es cuestionar esta postura mediante una reflexión sobre la correlación entre el presente y la filosofía, en la filosofía hegeliana de la historia. Gracias a dicho cuestionamiento, cuyo desarrollo se basa en la lúcida lectura de Pierre Macherey sobre el tema del presente en Hegel, pretendo allanar el camino que permita pensar en la mediación absoluta en tanto que absoluto relativo, y con ello en la posibilidad de pensar histórica-hermenéuticamente con Hegel. Creo que ahí donde las relaciones entre Hegel y la hermenéutica son más claras es en el ámbito de la hermenéutica del testimonio que Ricoeur desarrolla.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Oscar Enrique Santilli Ontología, facticidad y comprensión
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La ontología heideggeriana se constituye como un camino renovado en el mapa del pensamiento contemporáneo. Su momento principal se funda en las lecciones que Heidegger impartió sobre el tema, dando pie a una revolución intelectual que permitió el surgimiento de variadas corrientes de pensamiento hoy vigentes. La ontología no presentará, a partir del filósofo de Friburgo, un cuerpo cerrado de conceptos sino solo la indicación de que en ella se hablará acerca del ‘ser’. Este ‘ser’ no quedará circunscripto a su definición y su caracterización adjetiva; su proyección hacia un horizonte de posibilidades será su verdadera realidad en tanto solo podrá referirse a sí mismo partiendo de su situación totalmente autoreferenciada y ocasional; es decir, a partir de su facticidad. Pero esa facticidad no puede desde sí misma volverse consciente por un ejercicio reflexivo y determinarse, por ello, como una entidad caracterizable o definible completamente aislada del plexo existencial en el que se da. La facticidad emerge para sí bajo el modo particular de la comprensión en la cual ese ser-existente se descubre como posibilidad de ser al mismo tiempo que se ‘proyecta’ en esa referida posibilidad.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Rosa Pacheco Soto The Steps of Hermes
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Ones upon a time Hermes received a great gift from Zeus, namely the roads. Since then, Hermes provides roads to men, so that they can choose their path. Taking the first step is significant, because, at that time, contemplation appears, almost as an intuition, or, at least, as an instant. After that, man belongs to Hermeneutic, or is Hermeneutic. Hermes had had many tasks. He maintains the roads, but, at the same time, he brings along the words. He is a conciliator too. Like the wind, Hermes goes above the sea and earth as a messenger. Similarly, like Hermes, text brings the message, but in turn, saves something. There is a hermeneutic turn between an author, a reader and a text. The text is analogous to Hermes. It goes around the reader. Text is conciliatory. Reader’s lines proportionally grow as a desire implicit in the author’s written lines. Hermes mission still continues today. Interpretations maintain trails. But, sometimes, on the road, appears a spontaneous eruption that produces the crossroads between two intentions. This is a mystery that keeps the myth of Hermes alive.
articles in russian
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Elena Menshikova The Problem of Interpretation of Neologisms in Thomas More’s Utopia
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The article reviews the traditional concept of ‘utopia’, and gives a new linguistic interpretation of this concept. I analyze the texts of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Julius Caesar. I try to reveal the stylistic similarities and semantic identity of Th. More’s Utopia in relation to Roman and Greek history. I, therefore, attempt to prove, contrary to prevailing opinion, that Th. More’s Utopia represents a detailed analysis of the past, and not of the future.
articles in greek
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Συμεών Δεγερμεντζίδης Μυθοπλασία και πολιτισμός: μια φιλοσοφική θεώρηση
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Οι συνθήκες μετάπλασης και προσαρμογής του μύθου στις εκάστοτε ιστορικο-κοινωνικές παραμέτρους μεταβάλλουν δραστικά τη λειτουργία και τη φιλοσοφία του. Δεν προσεγγίζω, όμως, το μύθο ως δημιούργημα αποκομμένο από το ευρύτερο πολιτισμικό του πλαίσιο και την κοινωνική δυναμική που αυτό ενσωματώνει. Η προτεινόμενη θεώρηση του μύθου αποδίδει στο υβριδικό του υπόβαθρο τη δυνατότητα της διαρκούς νοηματοδότησης εννοιολογικών συσχετισμών εντός ενός ανοιχτού και σύνθετου σημειωτικού συστήματος. Η μετάβαση από τη διαμόρφωση της συλλογικής ταυτότητας μέσω του προφορικού λόγου στη συγκρότηση της ατομικά διαμεσολαβημένης σφυρηλάτησης της εθνικής συνείδησης μέσω της γραφής, σηματοδοτεί μία ουσιώδη μετάλλαξη της ιδιοσυστασίας της μυθικής σκέψης και της λειτουργίας που αυτή επιτελεί: ο μύθος εξακολουθεί να συνιστά συμπυκνωμένη φιλοσοφία αλληγορικών νοηματοδοτήσεων, αλλά έχει δρομολογηθεί οριστικά πλέον ο κατευθυνόμενος χαρακτήρας της κοινωνικής του δυναμικής. Είτε πρόκειται για πολιτικό, ιστορικό, κοινωνικό, θρησκευτικό, πολιτισμικό ή προσωπικό μύθο, ο μετα-νεωτερικός ‘κατασκευαστής’ δομεί τη μυθική εκδοχή που θεωρεί ενδεδειγμένη για τη συγκεκριμένη συγκυρία και της οποίας η αντοχή δοκιμάζεται στο χρόνο, υφιστάμενη ποικίλες τροποποιήσεις. Ουσιαστικά, η δυνατότητα εγχρονισμού του μύθου και επανεγγραφής του στα δεδομένα κάθε εποχής ή εθνικής πολιτισμικής ταυτότητας συναρτάται άμεσα με την ελαστικότητα της αναπροσαρμογής του στα σημασιολογικά ‘αντανακλαστικά’ του δέκτη: η διαδικασία ανατροφοδότησης του μυθικού υλικού από τα προσωπικά και συλλογικά βιώματα κάθε υποκειμένου, εγγυάται στο μύθο την επιβίωσή του από την αχλή της προϊστορίας μέχρι τα τεχνολογικά επιτεύγματα που κατασκευάζουν το μύθο της παντοδυναμίας τους, δεδομένου ότι του επιτρέπει να διαμορφώνει στις μέρες μας πολυτροπικά μηνύματα με ανοιχτό ερμηνευτικό ορίζοντα. Επομένως, ο μύθος δεν έρχεται κατά βάση αντιμέτωπος με τη λογική, αλλά καθίσταται φορέας μίας ανοιχτής διαδικασίας εκλογίκευσης των πραγμάτων χάρη σε εναλλακτικές ερμηνευτικές κατασκευές, δρομολογώντας μία ανορθολογική διαδικασία δόμησης και αποδόμησης.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Δέσποινα Νεζτεκίδου Η όψη της ερμηνευτικής του Χανς Γκέοργκ Γκάνταμερ: μεταξύ αλήθειας και μεθόδου
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Το ογκώδες έργο του Γερμανού φιλοσόφου Χανς Γκέοργκ Γκάνταμερ (1900-2002) Αλήθεια και μέθοδος (Wahrheit und Methode, 1960) είναι ένα από τα πιο πολυσυζητημένα φιλοσοφικά έργα του 20ου αιώνα, καθώς θέτει σε νέα προοπτική το ρόλο που καλείται να επιτελέσει η ερμηνευτική στη σύγχρονη εποχή. Η καθολική ερμηνευτική που προτείνει, υπερβαίνει το ιδεώδες της αντικειμενικότητας, όπως αυτό διαμορφώθηκε κατά το Διαφωτισμό, και το αντίστοιχο μοντέλο του επιστημονισμού της μετανεωτερικής εποχής. Ωστόσο η κριτική που ασκεί στα παραπάνω μοντέλα δεν τον καθιστούν υπέρμαχο μίας ανορθολογικής και κατ’ επέκταση σχετικιστικής θεώρησης της ερμηνευτικής. Αυτό που ο Γκάνταμερ προτείνει είναι ένας τρίτος δρόμος, αυτός μεταξύ του προτάγματος για την αντικειμενικοποίηση της γνώσης και της ανάγκης για την κατάκτηση της αλήθειας. “Το πραγματικό μου ενδιαφέρον”, γράφει στον πρόλογο της δεύτερης έκδοσης του ΑΜ (Αλήθεια και μέθοδος), “ήταν και είναι φιλοσοφικό: όχι τί κάνουμε ή τι θα έπρεπε να κάνουμε, αλλά τί συμβαίνει σε εμάς πέρα και πάνω από τη βούλησή μας και τις πράξεις μας”. Ο Γκάνταμερ επιχειρεί να καθρεφτίσει το νόημα της ερμηνευτικής ως διάλογο μεταξύ του λόγου περί της αλήθειας και του λόγου περί της μεθόδου κατάκτησης της αλήθειας, καταδεικνύοντας πως το διαλέγεσθαι είναι η μόνη αληθής πραγματικότητα της ανθρώπινης εμπειρίας.