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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Raisa Aleynik The problem of tolerance in contemporary philosophy of human beings
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The essence and the validity of several philosophical positions in justifying the vital issue of tolerance will be investigated in this paper: above all, “tolerance” as claimed by J. Locke and P. Bayle in the XVII century; an embodiment of tolerance in the project of multiculturalism and its destiny; culture-centrist and naturalistic concepts. Postmodern deconstruction project as a critic of thinking patterns that leads to dogmatism and intolerance is analysed, and so is the interpretation of tolerance as equality of conceptual projects and value systems underlying different cultures. Different systems of beliefs cannot communicate because they are locked-in. According to E. Levinas, the roots of violence in the 20th century societies originated in philosophy – due to their failure to respect the ‘Other’, and in the domination of generalization over the individual or the personal. Tolerance is needed because it is a virtue against fanaticism, sectarianism and authoritarianism (A. Comte-Sponville). The naturalistic project (J. Schaeffer) proposes that we consider human only as a form of biological life, and that one should not oppose culture to biology and nature to wildness. When humans feel part of the living world, cease to be aggressive, and are more able to engage in dialogue and interaction.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Ondřej Beran Addiction from a Normativist’s Point of View
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The paper discusses alternatives of philosophical approach to addiction. While not denying the central position of problems of (weak) will or craving, it focuses on the broader anthropological context of addiction, using Heidegger’s existential analyses. It appears that addiction – in some cases, because an essentialist exposition is not viable here – is characterized by a defective pattern of the agent’s choice among possibilities and of temporality. The anecdotic observations can be synthesized into a treatise of addiction as a normative disorder: a systematic inability of the addict to function within usual normative practices of various social contexts. The relevance of this perspective is testified also by therapeutic practice: addicts are treated not exclusively with respect to problems concerning will, but as persons who have to be re-socialized, i.e. led to a responsible attitude both towards themselves and society.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Ella Buceniece Phenomenology of Human Life-stages: S. de Beauvoir on the Phenomenon of Old Age
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The paper deals with the theme of old age and aging as depicted chiefly in Simon de Beauvoir’ work “The Old Age” (1970) and her autobiographical works – “Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre”, “A Very Easy Death”, “All Said and Done”, “The Prime of Life” and in her literary works – “Les Belles Images”, “The Woman Destroyed”. The work “The Old Age” is structurally similar to “The Second Sex” and exposes the mythical character of aging and the social status of old age, bearing upon an aging human being in the form of otherness, of a non-subject. Beauvoir shows that old age which is objectively a common destiny for all people, is actually subjectively different for each individual, this being determined by their own subjectivity, their own bodily experience, their own sexuality. There is a difference in the subjective perception of old age by men and women. Beauvoir’s main conclusion is that the truth about old age is complex – it bears relation to the body, identity, femininity, sexuality, beauty, activity, youth; it involves also the attitude of society towards old age and the manner in which each individual internalizes (includes in her/his subjectivity) these social attitudes.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Karol Chrobak The Anthropological Significance of Distance: Helmuth Plessner’s and Arnold Gehlen’s Conception of Man
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The technological enhancement of communication between scientists and the people of the Earth, as well as the more frequent meetings of experts and philosophers at Conferences, have lately motivated the IAGP to give priority to the broadening of themes that concern the general state of our world seen from the perspective of globalization. This perspective is most indicative of the investigation and dealing with the environmental (ecological) problem, on account of the combination and mutual influence of the systems that act on our planet and which create environmental problems. That is why the slogan “think globally act locally” is extremely appropriate for a right treatment of the ecological problem. Thus, we can say that there are issues and problems that are directly or indirectly related to certain places and countries (for example, nuclear power plants and their waste, the military industries and the chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction, the pollution of seas and generally the change of climate through the destabilization of ecological balance due to pollution and the rise of the temperature, the depletion of natural resources, extinction of species, etc.) but have global significance. There might still be some who have an anthropocentric approach to things and do not accept that nature as such has an independent intrinsic value. In spite of that, or exactly because of that, and because humanity at large is in danger, they are obliged as political beings/bodies to take interest in environmental issues.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Mamuka Dolidze Theatrical Transformation, Human Condition and Phenomenology of Life
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In the present paper we try to enlarge the phenomenon of theatrical transformation and spread it beyond art. From the viewpoint of phenomenological philosophy, we connect this artistic event with the process of individualization of being, which permeates all layers and dimensions of the world. It is shown, that artistic transformation has a global character and reflects the essential state of being – the state of coexistence of individual uniqueness and regularity of natural events, to furnish the general order in inimitable diversity of the world. Theatrical spectacle is not only an entertainment. The artistic reality on the stage presents the process of transformation, which is an issue of fundamental necessity of being – to keep the balance between individual and general, between unique and regular.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Özlem Duva Kaya Kant’s Philosophical Anthropology and the Possibility of Living Together with Differences
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This paper will examine the place and importance of Kant’s philosophical anthropology and its connection with his cosmopolitan idea. Kant sets his philosophical anthropology as a reaction to a Cartesian conception of “I”. As a work published later, Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View can be seen as the core of his critical philosophy and cosmopolitan idea.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Rosa Maria Filippozzi Martini The Work of Ricoeur: Philosophy as a Form of Life
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This paper develops some issues of the philosophy of Ricoeur. This French philosopher (1913–2005) when interviewed about his philosophical work, stated that Philosophy is a form of life. This assertion justified the varieties of themes in his philosophical inquiry. From this global horizon, it was chosen to discuss some issues, such as phenomenology, hermeneutics and anthropology reflections. Ricoeur stated that phenomenology and hermeneutics could be two branches of the same tree. He criticized the phenomenology of Husserl as transcendental and idealistic and proposed a comprehensive hermeneutics trend to settle this excess of idealistic vision. Thus, it is necessary to introduce hermeneutics in phenomenology to attain a better comprehension of the human historical narratives and texts. We could highlight two anthropological conceptions in his great work. First, Ricoeur used phenomenology to describe the human being as fallible and finite. Moreover, he observed that the human being is also capable of exercising narratives about himself and about the other. This comprehension makes human a powerful being. Ricoeur criticized the metaphysical approach as a circular thought and asked for new motives to make philosophers, mainly after Heidegger and Gadamer, ever looking for new motives to do philosophy.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Stelios Gadris Kant, Wittgenstein and the problem of egoism
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In the paper that follows I examine the concept of logical egoism as presented in Kant’s Anthropology, from a pragmatic point of view. In the light of Kant’s understanding of what it means to be a logical egoist, I will compare Kant’s egoist with Wittgenstein, the Wittgenstein of the Tractatus Logico–Philosophicus. I will claim that early Wittgenstein was a logical egoist. My purpose, however, is not to re-write Wittgenstein’s biography taking into account that egoism is an anthropological category, but rather to compare the shift from egoism to pluralism as analogous to the shift from dogmatism to criticism. As a result of the above shift, and in the light of Kant’s Anthropology, I propose reading Wittgenstein’s later thought from a practical standpoint that, I believe, is consistent with Kant’s concept of being a citizen of the world. I conclude that both thinkers contribute to an understanding of critical philosophy as a way of living.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Nadezhda Gonotskaya Drama of Self-Identification
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Extraverted Self, Self’s inevitable manipulation of object images, elements of the world existing in time, contrast with experiencing an immutable timeless self. The image of immutable Self is considerably unconditioned and is not a result of temporal experience; it is the result of the subject’s choice. Along with it, experience is the only universal material that an individuum uses to build the personal image of self. That’s why experience changes its quantity in individual self-consciousness: experience, as an object of research, becomes an object of appropriation or alienation that is denominated. The image of self is not the result of self-actualization, but only one or another form of marking the elements of object world.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
George N. Gorbachuk The Conception of Personal Religious Identity
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This research study for the first time ever defines the concept of “personal religious identity”, which differs from the concept of “religious identity” as the self-identification against a certain social faith considered standard. The personal religious identity can be understood as the fruitful life of an individual spirit, which comprehends the foundations of authentic existence correlating them against consecrated (sacred) principality and giving birth to new images of normativity. The phenomenon of personal religious identity is being manifested as the act of self-determination oriented towards transformation of the existing social norms at the expense of sacrificial performance, if required. Each human being has such a process as unique and inimitable. This is the region of search, guesswork, assumptions, personal hypothetical constructions, mystic revelations. The so-called theological opinions are rooted in it. This gives birth to new religious trends and whole religious systems. This is the sphere for personal religious creativeness. In this context, personal religious identity may be treated individually -each on his own. This is an underexplored and most troubled, particularly when it comes to its accommodation with collective or confessional identity.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Nataliia Grygorieva The Role of Social and Humanitarian Education in Shaping Views about the Value of the Person and His/Her Freedom
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This article is dedicated to the philosophical understanding of the role of social and humanities’ education in socialization. The author considers: the problems of forming an individual view about value, practice, will, freedom; displays the philosophical and pedagogical aspect of reflexive-activity, which comes from the humanities. The author’s recommendation is to proceed from the concept of human self-actualization, which includes philosophical attitude to life, the acceptance of the biological nature, social life and physical reality.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Manzura Kabulova The Essence and Role of Genetic Memory in Personality Development
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Genetic memory usually means the phenomenon being absent in the vital experience of a person. Scientists are not able to define exactly where it is. Some of them suppose that it is located somewhere in the backyard of the biologic memory. The others consider it to be somewhere in the remote sites of the subliminal consciousness. According to K. G. Jung, genetic memory is imbedded in the unconscious structures. The genetic memory is the most ancient in all living beings. It is the memory of the biologic species by which all structural and functional organizations of every individual are reproduced. The ancient genetic memory constitutes the most essential part of memory of every organism, including a human being. Déjà vu cases, when a person having found himself in an unfamiliar place recalls it though he has never been there before, confirm it. Or songs being sung in the unknown language might be perceived as a native one and consonant to his soul feelings. Or works of art may indicate the relation between quite different nations.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Galina Kirilenko Space of the ‘Life World’
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According to the author, the category of world outlook is the last bastion of classic rationality. In contrast to the reductionist outlook which considers the spiritual life of an individuum as a hierarchically built system of principles, norms and rules, the author regards the category of life world as the most adequate tool for the exploration of individual consciousness. The author argues against, the well established in phenomenological issues, identification of concepts of “everyday life” and “life word”. Life world is a contradictory formation which includes the dispositions of everyday life, the “instantaneous” myth as a specific life experience and the elements of “cultural cosmos”. Everyday life is intentional and intersubjective, while instantaneous mythology is usually authorized and non-intentional. The problems related to the introduction of the category of life world into philosophical use is due to the confusion of the exploration of “life from outside” as formulation of social and cultural approach and the exploration of “life from inside” as phenomenology of the individual consciousness conditions.
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Tadeusz Kobierzycki On the Philosophy of Human Silence: Thinking Within the Limits of Words and Things
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A man is born as a double entity – silent and speaking. We find the notion of silence in the ancient philosophy of Homer and Plato, in the religious thought (Hindu, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity) as well as in modern European philosophy (e.g. Bacon, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, Kotarbiński, Elzenberg etc.). Silence can be described as: 1) anthropological-theological function (helps identification or divine-human projection), 2) communicative-interpersonal function (preventive measures for speech in the community-loneliness relation) 3) ethical-aesthetic function (it supports or weakens the semantic functions of words) 4) economical-ontological function (deontologizes or ontologizes silence and thinking) 5) creative function – helps to communicate serious issues (limits or rejects the talk of unserious matters) It is the condition, the mask or the symbol of truth.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Maija Kule Towards the New Philosophical Anthropology: Facing Evil and Fitting Response
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Philosophical anthropology can be developed in close relationship with the teaching of life forms: upward, based on hierarchy of values, forward and on the surface. In the life form upward where ethics strictly distinguish good from evil, philosophical anthropology looks for the human being’s essence. In the life form forward the relationships between the good and evil become uncertain, the human being is explained as a complex of functions. In the life form on the surface casual events are in power and the human being is expressed as a multiplicity of events and narratives, evil in many cases becomes indefinable. How to struggle against evil? Evil is a loser only if it loses sense, if turning the other cheek makes the enemy suffer qualms of conscience, it might happen that the whole senselessness of the evil deed becomes clear. Thus, fighting evil is a struggle in an existential – meaningful – plane. To explain this, philosophical anthropology must be closely related to a new understanding of ethics. Concepts “life forms”, “event”, “fitting response” and making evil senseless come to the forefront at the new philosophical anthropology.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Li Zhi A Critical Understanding of the Conception of Man in Marx’s Theory of Estranged Labor
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As to Karl Marx, theory of estranged labor emphasizes the realization of man’s species-nature through free labor, based on views of man’s species-nature. Marx makes it clear that labor is the most important form of externalization of man’s species-nature. And three qualities of labor, i.e., objectivity, subjectivity and sociality, all eventually prove that man is a species-being. Another point; Marx takes priority to species-nature, even considering individual feeling as the realization of man’s nature. In commodity production, however, what occurs is self-estrangement of labor, and man wouldn’t be able to realize species-being into his existence. Consequently, the being of species becomes a meaning of individual being, and man’s essence sharply opposes his existence. I don’t think the above argument is reasonable, since the opposite proof was given by later Marx in Historical Materialism, especially in Theses on Feuerbach and in The German Ideology.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Andrey Matsyna The Metaphysics of Overcoming as a Model of a Total Person’s Initiation to the World Whole
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A valid basis for theory formation for understanding ancient funerary ritual may be the idealistic and religious-esoteric directions of thanatology. These directions pose the question and solve the problem of death using the irrational approach. The Metaphysic of Overcoming was formed, based on these conceptions. It is a dynamic model of the archaic perception of death. This model can be used as the theoretical core of integrated understanding of ancient funerary and initiatic rituals. It allowes re-evaluating funerary-initiatic activity in ancient societies. Apparently, mental structures, which generate the Metaphysic of Overcoming, are deeply rooted in the minds. So this model is the basis for understanding many modern manifestations of individual and social consciousness. In a mythological form it is manifested in the tradition of «warriors». In the religious tradition of sacredness this pattern is most clearly represented in the spiritual asceticism phenomenons, and in martyrdom. In the atheistic worldview it is manifested in the existential act of spontaneous and deliberate civil heroic self-sacrifice.
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Mieczysław Paweł Migoń Freedom of the Personal Human Being and its “Proper” Ontic Infrastructures in a Horizon of the Intelligibility and the Moral Reflection
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The aim of my paper entitled “Freedom of the personal human being and its ‘proper’ ontic infrastructures in a horizon of the intelligibility and the moral reflection” is to show that freedom can be understood as “the inner determination” of the human person and of the “lower man” and of the “higher man” to become a genuine free human being in general. Therefore, here appears an act of “the inner determination” in concatenation with the act of “the will”. I assume the real existence of grades of human freedom and the phenomenal cultivation of it, in a horizon of the intelligibility. Then, a phenomenon of freedom may be grasped in the aspect of the essence. This phenomenon can be constituted within the field of consciousness, to point to the subject of the moral reflection within the personal human being. I would like to show that such freedom is strictly linked to acts of the “right” action or the “wrong” one. I believe that the human freedom can also be cultivated according to Òrthòs Lógos that is Divine Illumination.
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Silviya Mineva Prolegomena to any Philosophical Cyber Anthropology
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Contemporary electronic technologies and communications networks, especially Internet, led to the emergence of the new, virtual communities, and significant changes in lifestyle of people and their perceptions of nature, culture and themselves, their coexistence and cooperation. Their applications provoke different questions and hypotheses about the tension between humanistic values and cyber perspective that allows shifting and blurring the borders between man and machine, ‘socium’ and technology to the degree of merger due to penetration of cybernetics in social and humanistic fields. The study of these new phenomena and processes implies also special philosophical research and reflection: philosophical Cyber-anthropology. Like other terms, philosophical cyber-anthropology is a name inspired by technological progress embodied today by global communications and digital technology, its effects and influences on worldview, perceptions and relationship of modern humans. So, the central (crucial) question about its anthropology: What will happen to our human qualities and capabilities, if man lives most of his life in cyberspace? Alternative or regress is the collective-virtuality of modern publicity? How traditional categories such as friendship and love are transformed into “function”, instrumental means to connect people in a purely symbolic space of virtual systems?
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 28
Vera Nevelena Philosophic Anthropology Between Meta-narrative and Case Study
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Philosophic anthropology is one of the meta-narrative discourses about human being, providing generalizations of extremely general level in anthropological researches. Philosophical knowledge and epistemic information about the human being, contain also an axiological component, raising a question about the sense of this notion. Completeness and inclusiveness in anthropological research may be reached by means of the resources of the methods of “positive sciences”, as in a case-study. They include visual anthropology, biographical method, and methods of personology, making possible the reference to the individual, unique vivid experience of human existence. The biographical method, connected with individual case histories, is especially important in researching unique events of universal importance in the life of great philosophers, each of whom is an example of a man-principle. Visual anthropology records with documentary accuracy all the details of the lives of humans belonging to various cultures, religions and peoples, contributing to mutual understanding and dialogue. In personology the extremities of anthropocentrism are being overcome by accentuating personal consciousness and self-consciousness, personal and individual experience.