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1. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Adenekan Dedeke Framework for Assessing the Integration of Ethics in the Design of Impact Investment Ventures
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Impact investment ventures are growing in the modern economy. However, the recent failures of some impact investment ventures are a cause for concern. Unfortunately, our concern about the ethicality of these kinds of social exchanges seem to emerge when it is too late. Namely, we become concerned about lack of ethics when a venture has failed or is collapsing. A better approach would be for us to have a means to proactively assess and improve the degree to which the arrangements and practices of a social exchange meet ethical standards. Whereas much work has been done to equip social ventures to evaluate their impacts, little work has been done to create frameworks that could be used to assess the degree to which social exchanges integrate ethical practices in their designs. This paper proposes such a framework. For illustration purposes, the proposed framework would also be used to evaluate the One Acre Farm, an impact investment venture in Africa.
2. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Thomas Köllen What Makes a Good Diversity Manager?: A Virtue-Based Perspective
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The prevalent rule-based perspective on diversity management renders most diversity initiatives more or less uniform, and it therefore also renders the individual(s) in charge of these initiatives replaceable. Against this background, this article argues that an ethical realignment towards a virtue-based perspective, focusing on the diversity manager him- or herself, could help rethink diversity management, and to refashion it into a more impactful shape. The virtue in question is the Aristotelian notion of the virtue of practical wisdom (phrónēsis). Making their practical wisdom a selection criterion for the recruitment process is a first step in the direction of upgrading the concept of diversity management. However, it is also important to adjust their working conditions, the design of their role, as well as their autonomy and performance evaluations in a way that allows them to develop, maintain, and practice this phrónēsis.
3. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Irina M. Kopaneva Benefit Corporations in the U.S.: An Alternative Frame of Profit
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The benefit corporation (BC) is a for-profit corporation required to create a positive impact on workers, communities, society, and environment. The purpose of this paper is to explore how BCs reconcile dominant and alternative frames of profit. This study presented here explores three BCs in the U.S. through a dual-method approach based on observations and interviews. The study reveals how BC members understand and express the idea of profit. Furthermore, it shows the formation of an alternative frame of profit and elucidates three processes whereby the dominant and alternative ideas are reconciled. It highlights both interpretive capabilities and limitations of social actors within the dominant discourse of the contemporary social-economic system.
4. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Sara Mandray Relational Economy: A Promised Land beyond the Wilderness of a “Faceless Economy”?
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Muhammad Yunus, Franck Riboud, Grameen Danone, those are some names and projects that may come to mind when thinking about social entrepreneurship. But what about Paul of Tarsus, John Chrysostom or Basil of Caesarea? In this theoretical article, we propose to revisit the ancient notion of oikonomia. Greek philosophers and after them the Church Fathers have drawn for more than twelve centuries the contours of this notion. In the light of their works, we consider the promise of an economy that can be intrinsically altruistic and generous. Building on the work of Paul Ricoeur, we study the ethical dimension of oikonomia as economy of the self, others and the city. The Christian oikonomia is then interpreted as practical wisdom. And at the top of it, social entrepreneurship appears as a sign of a new ethical form of economy that we call relational economy.
5. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Elme Vivier, Mollie Painter, Gideon Pogrund, Kerrin Myres What an Ethics Management Program Cannot Sufficiently Address in an African Context: An Ethics Survey’s Results Read through a Levinasian Lens
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Ethics management programs have become a popular first step for organizations to manage ethical risks and employee behaviors. However, such programs may fail to foster moral responsiveness or acknowledge broader societal issues. This article contributes to this discussion through an analysis of qualitative data from an ethics survey of fifteen South African companies. Results indicate employees experience persistent unethical behaviors in the form of the disrespect, bullying and discrimination. Reflecting on these results, the article explores the limits of ethical management programs, and whether a compliance approach undermines the transformative ethics that is most needed in organizations struggling with diversity and inclusion. Drawing on Levinas, the article shows that openness to the face of the Other does not lend itself to instrumental orientations, nor to formalized, standardized responses. Instead, moral responsiveness to particular Others is required, and it is this aspect that may be absent from South African ethics initiatives.
6. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 2
Notes on Contributors
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7. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
S. Douglas Beets An Ethical Revision of the Status Quo: The Modified Mondragon Corporation
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As currently designed, the business corporation is primarily designed for one simple purpose: the enrichment of stockholders. Considering the immense size and wealth of many modern corporations, however, this prioritized focus has deleterious ethical consequences, including a burgeoning wealth gap between those who own or manage the corporation and employees. Several individuals and organizations are calling for a redesign of the business corporation to benefit those affected by business organizations, such as employees and communities. One such design, developed in the village of Mondragon in the Basque region of Spain, is employee-owned with extensive profit sharing, employee training, limits on executive compensation, and financial support for the surrounding community. To examine the differences between the status quo corporation and a modified Mondragon model, an analysis was performed of the financial, employee compensation, and stock information of a sample of corporations of the Fortune 500 under both systems. While aggregate financial position and profitability did not differ significantly between the two models for the tested corporations and time period, the employee compensation, financial commitment to training and education, community financial support, and ethics of the two models have profound differences.
8. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Gerald F. Cavanagh, Oliver F. Williams Retrieving Aristotle’s Phronesis: A Focus on Character and Practical Wisdom in the Selection of Business Leaders
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Most executives recognize that the long-term financial health, prosperity and survival of their firm depend upon leaders who have good moral character. The article argues that a retrieval of Aristotle’s work on character and virtue can bring new clarity on how to identify and select leaders of our business institutions. The study presents a discussion of Aristotle’s phronesis or practical wisdom and how this focus might aid and abet the selection of appropriate leaders. The original contribution offered here centers on how virtue only makes sense for Aristotle in the context of a teleological worldview whereby human beings are seeking what is intrinsically worthwhile—purpose, meaning, health, and community life. For Aristotle, virtues are much more than what makes a person attractive to the job market. Catholic social teaching reflects this Aristotelian perspective on the role of business in society. The article concludes showing how Aristotle’s insight on phronesis offers a way to enhance standard processes employed in the selection of business leaders.
9. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Geert Demuijnck, Patrick Murphy Retail Practitioners’ Views vs. Ideal Theoretical Positions Concerning Ethical Business Practices with Garment Suppliers
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The paper analyzes managers’ stance toward the ethical responsibility of those who work for multinational garment retailers. Most are charged with the social compliance policies affecting relationships with subcontractors. This study is based on interviews conducted with major European and American retailers. Our research question is: what is the normative stance of our respondents? We find that they reject the ideological way in which the normative debate on sweatshops has been conducted by business ethicists during the last decades. These executives’ implicit conception and scope of their moral responsibility is much more in line with Iris Young’s (2006) conception of ‘political responsibility’. This managerial ethical position has not been adequately captured by earlier writings on this topic. In general, the managerial ethical framing of issues like child labor, minimally decent labor conditions, a living wage, etc. is at odds with how these issues are usually treated in the philosophical debates around sweatshops. Examining both visions allows us to better grasp the pragmatic normative stance of business practitioners as well as the dynamics of social compliance policies. In the conclusion, we draw both management lessons and research implications for more ethical interactions with suppliers.
10. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Dayoung Kim Promoting Professional Socialization: A Synthesis of Durkheim, Kohlberg, Hoffman, and Haidt for Professional Ethics Education
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During the professional socialization process, nascent professionals internalize the moral values of their profession. Since professional socialization begins in professional schools, this article provides a new conceptual framework for professional ethics education which highlights the affective aspects of moral formation. To create the conceptual framework, this article synthesizes the ideas of Durkheim, Kohlberg, Hoffman, and Haidt on moral formation, with Durkheim as a common thread. In this conceptual framework, the internalization process is influenced and promoted by social discipline, which includes both cognitive and affective aspects. Desirable social discipline can be achieved when cognition and affect are well-balanced, with respect for individual differences. To illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied to professional education, this article uses the specific example of engineering ethics education.
11. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Shireen Musa, Pradeep Gopalakrishna The Role of Compassion and Sustainability Awareness on Fair Trade Fashion Consumption with Internet Engagement as a Moderator
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This study focuses on the role that a) Compassion for Oneself, Others and the Environment (COOE) and b) Desire for Sustainability Awareness (DSA) have on Fair Trade Fashion Consumption (FTFC). The newly derived COOE and DSA constructs help us understand how emotions of compassion and the desire for sustainability awareness may influence consumer behavior. Online surveys were distributed consumers who shop at Fair Trade clothing companies and consumers shop at conventional clothing companies. The sample size for this study is one hundred and twenty-nine, N=129. Results were analyzed through correlation and multiple regression. It was found that COOE and DSA are positively related to FTFC. In addition, Internet Engagement (IE) functions as a moderator for the relationship between DSA and FTFC.
the ethics of leadership-as-practice
12. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Joseph A. Raelin Refining the Ethics of Leadership-as-Practice: A Counter-Case Analysis
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The field of leadership-as-practice (L-A-P) is beginning to mature as a theory of leadership in direct opposition to standard leadership, which views the individual as the mainstay of leadership experience. Nor does it focus on the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers, which historically has been the starting point for any discussion of leadership. Rather, it is concerned with how leadership emerges and unfolds through day-to-day experience. In this ongoing and evolving activity, questions of ethics arise which challenge what appears to be a flat ontology circumscribing its ethical applications. Using a case analysis, which according to the author takes significant liberties with some of the fundamental ethical principles and practices of L-A-P, this essay seeks to refine and delineate what constitutes business ethics from a leadership-as-practice perspective.
13. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Martyna Śliwa, Peter Case Response to Raelin
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14. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Peter Case, Joseph A. Raelin, Martyna Śliwa Concluding Remarks
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book review
15. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
John Hulpke Lorraine Eden, Kathy Lund Dean, and Paul M. Vaaler, The Ethical Professor: A Practical Guide to Research, Teaching and Professional Life
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16. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Notes on Contributors
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17. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
David Bevan A Polyphony of Pioneers: Introduction to the Business Ethics Pioneers Project and to Eight Interviews
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18. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
Norman Bowie Business Ethics Pioneers: Norman Bowie
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19. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
Joanne B. Ciulla Business Ethics Pioneers: Joanne B. Ciulla
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20. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 3
Richard T. De George Business Ethics Pioneers: Richard T. De George
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