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Dialogue and Universalism

Volume 27, Issue 2, 2017
Values and Ideals. Theory and Practice: Part III

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in memoriam janusz kuczyński
1. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Charles Brown, Jean Campbell In Memoriam: Janusz Kuczyński
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2. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Rev. Mother Marie Pauline Eboh The Exit of a Philosophical Icon: Janusz Kuczyński
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3. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Józef Leszek Krakowiak Janusz Kuczyński, A Man of Dialogue
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4. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Michael Mitias, John Rensenbrink, Andrew Targowski Janusz Kuczyński: The Philosopher I Knew
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editorial
5. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Małgorzata Czarnocka Editorial: Values and Ideals. Theory and Practice, Part III
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philosophical ideals for a more decent world
6. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Juichiro Tanabe Buddhist Philosophy of the Global Mind for Sustainable Peace
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While violence and conflict are the main problems that must be tackled for a peaceful world, they are caused and sustained through our own thoughts. Though external causes must not be ignored, the most fundamental problem is an epistemological one—our way of knowing and understanding the world. Since its beginning, Buddhism has deepened its analysis of the dynamics of the human mind, both as a root cause of suffering and as a source of harmony. This paper explores how Buddhism's analysis of the human mind can be applied to conflict dynamics, conflict resolution, and building a sustainable peace.
7. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Hisaki Hashi The Values of “Contradiction” in Theory and Practice in Cultural Philosophy
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This article examines contradictions between the theory and practice of comparative philosophy in a global world. Aristotle and Plato had different approaches to these “contradictions” that show a “discrepancy” between these two classical thinkers. The topic unaddressed by Plato is taken up in the topos of Nāgārjuna, the great ancient logician of ontology in Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy (the 3rd century AD). The “contradiction” is a principle that have/had profound influence on creative thought in East Asia. Nishida, the founder of the Kyoto School (20th century), established his philosophy through the principle of “Absolute Contradictory Self-Identity.” This principle may stimulate reflection upon our digitally connected contemporary global world, and the chaos it has to face.
8. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Yuliya Shcherbina Participative Reason as a Basis of a Decent Human World
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Mikhail Bakhtin’s term “participative reason” (uchastnoe myshlenie) means “reason that acts”—a way of thinking in which a person participates because it is not indifferent to the fate of the Other. The article considers two main trends in the understanding of participative reason. The first is connected with the co-being of I and the Other, the second develops the idea of obligation and non-alibi in being. The article aims to show that the unity of these two interpretations could make “participative reason” a basis for a more decent human world.
cultures — their ideals and values
9. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Evgeniy Bubnov Methodological Ludism as a Cognition-Denying Paradigm
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The article attempts to analyze methodological ludism—an approach developed by André Droogers, a Dutch scholar studying religion. Droogers relies on Johan Huizinga’s conception claiming that culture (and, consequently, science) is of game-like nature. Game as a methodological principle has two levels: noumenal and phenomenal. The supposition is stated that at the noumenal level (the designatum level) ludism coincides with pantheism. At the phenomenal level (the signifier level) methodological ludism may be compared with its parts: methodological atheism, methodological agnosticism, and methodological theism; also, these components may be compared with one another.
10. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Olatunji Alabi Oyeshile Democratic Elements in Traditional Yoruba Society as a Basis for the Culture of Democracy in Africa and the Global Social Order
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The paper examines democratic concepts or elements in traditional Yoruba society and their implications for the culture of democracy in Africa and the social order at the global level. One of the major problems confronting African states is the problem of governance. Political crises have metamorphosed into problems of ethnic conflict, war, corruption, economic stagnation, social disorder and paucity of sustainable development in Africa and these crises have also resulted in global disequilibrium. This paper revisits traditional Yoruba society, with a special emphasis on the democratic elements. It adopts as its theoretical framework some aspects of the traditional Yoruba socio-ethical values to underscore the importance of democratic elements based on communal values. Such concepts as ifowosowopo (cooperation), agbajo owo (solidarity), amumora (tolerance), and ilosiwaju (progress) are examined to point up their roles in addressing the crisis of (democratic) governance. The paper establishes that the inbuilt democratic elements, based on social ethical values, helped to sustain governance in traditional Yoruba society. It is concluded that democratic elements are much more important than democracy itself.
11. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Lyudmyla Gorbunova Cosmopolitan Cultural Citizenship as an Educational Strategy
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The recent civilization transition generates socio-cultural challenges for humanitarian policy. How to learn to live in a multicultural world in the face of increasing globalization, integration and the information revolution which multiply differences? What cultural concept can be the basis for the transformation of education and humanitarian policy? The article deals with the dynamics of the comprehension of cultural strategies by applying the concepts of interculturality, multiculturality and transculturality. It is concluded that the concepts of transculturality and transversality are descriptively and normatively suitable to form a new educational policy and, in result, a global cultural citizenship.
12. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Elizabeth Chinwe Okeke Education: A Mechanism for the Sustainable Cultural Integration of Personal and Societal Values and Ideals in the Era of Globalization
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As individuals/groups strive to achieve successful integration in the globalizing world, personal/societal values and ideals seem to be seriously destabilized, resulting in different magnitudes of conflict, the lack of cooperation, insecurity, etc. Reactions and observations uphold that successful integration, particularly in a multicultural environment, includes the identification and development of personal/societal values, ideals, and interests. Consequently, relying mainly on Emile Durkheim’s perspective on education and social integration as well as Lev Vygotsky’s social development theory, the author upholds that education is capable of identifying, selecting and developing synergy between personal and societal values and ideals for successful integration.
13. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Chioma Opara Women’s Perennial Quest in African Writing: Idealistic, Realistic or Chimerical?
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When African female writing commenced in 1966, it proffered a vista of female protestation of the individuality of woman. The clarion call for a revision and deconstruction of patriarchal values became sonorous and distinct in the politics of gender. Various tools have been employed in this radical political act. Iconoclasm in the bid to destroy the emblems of patriarchy has served as a rude awakening to the dire need for a drastic change of cultural values. In the same vein, utopian devices have opened up a gateway to possibilities of a better world of the evaluation of integrity, probity and development hinged on creativity. There is also a reversal of the hegemonic mode of power where the power process is revaluated and deconstructed. This paper examines the varied thoughts of African female writers and theorists who seem to be entangled in a cultural bind immanent in a measure of ambivalence. It concludes that the female perennial quest for freedom may in point of fact be only chimerical.
ideals and values in social and political life — from theories to praxis
14. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Tadeusz Buksiński Metagoods, Metavalues and Metanorms in Politics
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The paper proposes a metaaxiological political framework, which is the ground for the thesis that the central idea that underlies politics is well-being and its improvement. Every political activity relies on certain goods, values and standards forming its operational framework. The aim and essence of politics is to ensure the realization of constitutive values. These values include the normative concept of the human being and constitutive values underpinning the functioning of the state and political community (i.e. good life, justice, freedom, security, peace, identity, unity, rule of law, representation, sovereignty, legitimacy). On the one hand, the normative values represent preconditions that have to be present in every political sphere. On the other, they serve as ideals pursued by states and political systems. They are investigated by means of normative typological categories.
15. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Vihren Bouzov Security as a Political and Social Value
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Security can be defined as the process of support of a satisfactory control by the subject over harmful effects of the environment. In this aspect it is a political and social value of the same type as justice, democracy and freedom. Following the analysis of the existing conflicts in the world today, we conclude that the notion of security in its neoliberal interpretation has collapsed and it could be rejected and defended successfully only as a communitarian value.
16. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Jean-François Gava Philosophy of History and Heterodox Marxism
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We would like here to contribute to lower the fracture between orthodox Marxism and heterodox Marxism, which means grosso modo: between historical materialism and the critique of value. There, of course, would be for the former a high price to pay, that of an important redefinition of the philosophy of history. But the latter also should recognize that a philosophy of history is an inseparable presupposition of Wertkritik, that one has long, among heterodox Marxists, thought capable of prancing autonomously from the former.
17. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Tetiana Matusevych Transitional Society: (Re)Evolution of Values
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This article examines the attributes of the existence and the transformation of values in transitional society (eclecticism). Also the possibilities and limits of the relativistic application of the concepts of revolution and evolution in defining the processes of transformation of values in a transitional society are discussed.
18. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Liu Jingzhao The Theoretical and Practical Logics of Social Advancement Promoted by Ideological Innovation
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This paper claims that behind each social advancement in the history of human civilization, there has always been an ideological innovation, an “invisible hand.” If social advancement is promoted by the joint force of politics, economics, culture, life as well as the spiritual, ideological innovation will be the engine of the joint force. In the process where social advancement is promoted by ideological innovation, theoretical and practical logics come into being. These two logics have four implications: First, theoretical logic is a theoretical exploration which is based on rational thinking and aims at establishing a thinking paradigm. Practical logic is a series of trial-and-error experimental process which is based on practical rationality. Secondly, theoretical logic is oriented to human’s cognitive framework of the world, whereas practical logic to their social practices and their ways of life. Thirdly, theoretical logic is meant to explain the world, whereas practical logic to solve problems. Fourthly, theoretical logic starts from “what it ought to be …,” pointing out with the inherent logical strength of a theory the path that social advancement should follow and the result that will inevitably come about. Practical logic starts from “what the fact is …,” always relying on facts and oriented to existing problems.
19. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Temisanren Ebijuwa Culture, Identity and Human Values in Africa
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Without glorifying any cultural standpoint I argue that the best model that accounts for the interests and aspirations of Africa cannot be that which promotes and emphasizes traditional ideas since such a model would be unnecessarily insular and prevent us from engaging the aspects of our cultures which are needed in coping with Africa’s challenges. I contend that this does not amount to an imposition of any form of metanarrative but rather to critically engage those forces that are detrimental to survival and social stability.
20. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Pepa Petkova How to Build a Just Society: In the Defence of Communitarianism
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This paper analyses and critically compares three approaches to social and political values: utilitarianism, liberalism and communitarianism, which postulate different views on justice and on ways to make society better. We can establish a justified approach to the promotion of justice as a principal value of the collective life on the basis of public debates and democratic civic pressure: we can build a just society based on communitarian values such as solidarity, mutual aid and respect for the values and ideals of each community.