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1. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
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2. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Jim Cheney, Anthony Weston Environmental Ethics as Environmental Etiquette: Toward an Ethics-Based Epistemology
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An ethics-based epistemology is necessary for environmental philosophy—a sharply different approach from the epistemology-based ethics that the field has inherited, mostly implicitly, from mainstream ethics. In this paper, we try to uncover this inherited epistemology and point toward an alternative. In section two, we outline a general contrast between an ethics-based epistemology and an epistemology-based ethics. In section three, we examine the relationship between ethics and epistemology in an ethics-based epistemology, drawing extensively on examples from indigenous cultures. We briefly explore several striking implications of an ethics-based epistemology in sections four and five.
3. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Wayne Ouderkirk Can Nature be Evil?: Rolston, Disvalue, and Theodicy
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Holmes Rolston, III’s analysis of disvalue in nature is the sole explicit and sustained discussion of the negative side of nature by an environmental philosopher. Given Rolston’s theological background, perhaps it is not surprising that his analysis has strong analogues with traditional theodicies, which attempt to account for evil in a world created by a good God. In this paper, I explore those analogues and use them to help evaluate Rolston’s account. Ultimately, I find it more satisfactory than traditional theodicy in its own context, but I also raise two problems: a weighting and a counseling problem. First, once Rolston acknowledges the reality and role of disvalue in nature, he discounts its significance too greatly. Second, his account is less useful in helping those who have been harmed by the destructive activity of nature. I claim that we can usefully regard Rolston’s analysis as a deconstruction of the anthropocentric, non-ecological view of nature. Finally, I argue that the two problems and a related issue, the objectivity/subjectivity of values, point in the direction of a pragmatist account of value in nature.
4. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Karen J. Warren Environmental Justice: Some Ecofeminist Worries about a Distributive Model
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I argue that the framing of environmental justice issues in terms of distribution is problematic. Using insights about the connections between institutions of human oppression and the domination of the natural environment, as well as insights into nondistributive justice, I argue for a nondistributive model to supplement, complement, and in some cases preempt the distributive model. I conclude with a discussion of eight features of such a nondistributive conception of justice.
discussion papers
5. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Martin Drenthen The Paradox of Environmental Ethics: Nietzsche’s View of Nature and the Wild
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In this paper, I offer a systematic inquiry into the significance of Nietzsche’s philosophy to environmental ethics. Nietzsche’s philosophy of nature is, I believe, relevant today because it makes explicit a fundamental ambiguity that is also characteristic of our current understanding of nature. I show how the current debate between traditional environmental ethics and postmodern environmental philosophycan be interpreted as a symptom of this ambiguity. I argue that, in light of Nietzsche’s critique of morality, environmental ethics is a highly paradoxical project. According to Nietzsche, each moral interpretation of nature implies a conceptual seizure of power over nature. On the other hand, Nietzsche argues, the concept of nature is indispensable in ethics because we have to interpret nature in order to have a meaningful relation with reality. I show that awareness of this paradox opens a way for a form of respect for nature as radical otherness.
6. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Anthony J. Stenson, Tim S. Gray An Autonomy-Based Justification for Intellectual Property Rights of Indigenous Communities
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The claim that indigenous communities are entitled to have intellectual property rights (IPRs) to both their plant varieties and their botanical knowledge has been put forward by writers who wish to protect the plant genetic resources of indigenous communities from uncompensated use by biotechnological transnational corporations. We argue that while it is necessary for indigenous communities to have suchrights, the entitlement argument is an unsatisfactory justification for them. A more convincing foundation for indigenous community IPRs is the autonomy theory developed by Will Kymlicka.
7. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Ben A. Minteer, Robert E. Manning Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics: Democracy, Pluralism, and the Management of Nature
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A growing number of contributors to environmental philosophy are beginning to rethink the field’s mission and practice. Noting that the emphasis of protracted conceptual battles over axiology may not get us very far in solving environmental problems, many environmental ethicists have begun to advocate a more pragmatic, pluralistic, and policy-based approach in philosophical discussions abouthuman-nature relationships. In this paper, we argue for the legitimacy of this approach, stressing that public deliberation and debate over alternative environmental ethics is necessary for a culture of democracy to be upheld in decision making and policy formulation. Then we argue for a democratically tempered environmental ethics that is grounded in a practical understanding of the character of moral claims regarding the natural world. We offer the results of an empirical study of environmental ethics held by the public to illustrate the diversity in their moral commitments to nature. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the implications of this ethical pluralism for policy discussions about the management of American public lands.
book reviews
8. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Catriona Sandilands Ecocritique: Contesting the Politics of Nature, Economy, and Culture
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9. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Steven J. Bissell The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society
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10. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Norbert Elliot Literature, Nature, and Other: Ecofeminist Critiques
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11. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
John H. Perkins Nature Wars: People vs. Pests
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12. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 21 > Issue: 2
Max Oelschlaeger On the Conflation of Humans and Nature
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