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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Ilya T. Kasavin Илья Теодорович Касавин
Virtue Epistemology: on the 40th Anniversary of the Turn in Analytical Philosophy
Эпистемология Добродетелей

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The article summarizes the main developments in virtue epistemology and reacts to the challenges faced by the discipline. This new trend in analytic epistemology emerges as a synthesis of a number of directions (metaethics, social epistemology, metaphilosophy and experimental philosophy). On the one hand, it attempts to overcome some weaknesses of classical epistemology and, on the other hand, it performs this on the same basis, retaining the classical understanding of knowledge as justified true belief. It was dubbed “virtue epistemology” since it focuses on restoration of the normative approach and on the opposition to Quine’s naturalism. It explores intellectual virtues like epistemology explores knowledge claims though emphasizing their subject-dependent nature. It is the cognitive agent who provides a foundation for intellectual virtues no matter whether they are understood as cognitive ability or mental traits. However, the most researchers take epistemic virtues as individual mental states available through introspection, and the entire analysis in fact boils down to the articulation of virtue intuitions in the cognitive process. For those intuitions, thought experiments serve as a test simulating everyday cognitive situations. Still, in the context of virtue epistemology some alternative approaches arise, contributing significant revisions to the subject matter and the methods of analytical epistemology. A collective agent replaces an individual one, and knowledge engages in an integral subject-object and subject-subject context. Normativism mitigates its opposition to naturalism, enabling the utilization of the empirical data from the social sciences and humanities. As a result, a dialogue of virtue epistemology with the philosophy and ethics of science gets the chance.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Alexander L. Nikiforov Александр Леонидович Никифоров
The Transformation of Science in the XX Century: from the Search of Truth to the Enhancement of Technology
Трансформация науки в ХХ в.

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The first part of the article examines the views on the nature of science and the activities of the scientists, on a role of science in the life of society, expressed in the works of the greatest scientists of the late-early 20th centuries – E. Mach, A. Poincare and M. Weber. It is shown that certain differences in the understanding of science and its development between these thinkers were due to their professional orientation. While Mach and Poincare, speaking of science, had in mind, above all, a mathematized natural science, Weber focused on the social sciences, which were only at the beginning of their development. The second part of the article shows that during the twentieth century science experienced a significant transformation, which was due to three interrelated factors. First, research has become widely funded by business and government. Secondly, large scientific teams come to take the place of single scientists, whose members perform only narrow-specific functions in solving a scientific task. Finally, business and the state orient science toward solving applied problems, i.e. to develop new technical devices. As a result, the main goal of scientific activity is not the search for truth, but the improvement of technology, new knowledge is only a by-product of technical progress.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Alexander Yu. Antonovski Александр Юрьевич Антоновский
On Misinterpretation of Mach, Poincare and Weber by A.L. Nikiforov
Мах, Пуанкаре и Вебер

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The article disproves the panel thesis of A.L. Nikiforov. The fallacy of his assertion that the ideas of Max Weber represent a marginal direction of the development of science, connected with the purely social interest of this thinker, is revealed. In turn, it is proved that the attribution of the idea of realism and the correspondent theory of truth to E. Mach and H. Poincare is incorrect or restrictedly possible.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Nadezhda A. Kasavina Надежда Александровна Касавина
On the Burden of Technology and the Mission of Scientist
О бремени техники и миссии ученого

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The whole problem under our collective investigation, as I view it, is about understanding the human situation in terms of the impact of technology. The union of science and technology still resides within the limits of a “practical anthropocentrism” (Marsel G.), that is increasing satisfaction of human needs. An advancement in science and technology is accompanied by the desacralization of culture and the crisis of humanism. An awareness of the growing environmental, cultural, existential problems leads to the necessity to shift the vectors of scientific inquiry and technological development. In this process, the role and mission of the humanities is an articulation and promotion of human perspectives of science and technological progress. The humanities’ mission consists in attracting attention of scientists and society to humanizing technology and its aiming not only towards the growth of power over nature, but also to the making of a new relationship to the humans, to solving global problems.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Evgeny V. Maslanov, Anton V. Dolmatov Евгений Валерьевич Масланов
Citizen Science – Science as a Vocation
Гражданская наука – наука как призвание

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The author analyzes contemporary technoscience. He claims that for the functioning of technoscience it is necessary to train a large number of specialists with higher education. Not all of them are employed in scientific and research organizations. Some of the people who have a higher education but are not professionally engaged in science, participate in the implementation of various citizen science projects. As a result, two groups of scientists can be distinguished: professional scientists and amateur scientists. For the former, scientific activity is a profession, whereas for the citizen scientists it can rather be described in terms of satisfying their curiosity.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Olga E. Stoliarova Ольга Евгеньевна Столярова
Can We Talk about the Fall of Science?
Можно ли говорить о грехопадении науки?

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The article analyzes the pessimistic scenario in relation to science, which characterizes contemporary science as regressing. It is shown that pessimism in relation to contemporary science is largely based on the formal-logical positivist image of science, which does not correspond to real scientific practice. It is shown, that postpositivist studies of science testifies in favor of the fact that science has never been “pure”. This approach allows us to rehabilitate technoscience and revise the pessimistic scenario.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Liana A. Tukhvatulina Лиана Анваровна Тухватулина
On the Alleged Contradiction in Scientific Rationality
О мнимом противоречии в научной рациональности

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The paper discusses value dimension of scientific research. The author claims that the most promising way here is to analyze scientific rationality as a set of interrelated attitudes within the institutional framework of the big science. She shows that there is no contradiction between the search for truth and the technological enhancement in science.
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Alexander L. Nikiforov Александр Леонидович Никифоров
Let’s think together!
Будем думать вместе!

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The article provides answers to the critical remarks of my colleagues expressed about the ideas I presented in the first article. In general, it seems to me, we all agree that the image of science, created in the philosophy of science of the twentieth century, needs substantial change due to the rapid convergence of science and technology during the twentieth century.
epistemology and cognition
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Timofey S. Demin Тимофей Сергеевич Демин
Gettier Problem: What Should We Do with the Puzzle of Analytical Epistemology?
Проблема Геттиера

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Theories, that answering the question “What is knowledge?” in analytic epistemology appears under the influence of Gettier cases – a way of refutation such theories of knowledge, that have truth and belief as constituent elements. In the paper were analyzed basic strategies of solving the Gettier problem. One way is to save the analysis of knowledge by changing the elements in order to avoid the Gettier problem. There are three possible ways of doing so: adding new elements to the justification, changing the justification on the other criteria or strengthen the justification in such a way, that it would resolve any possible Gettier cases. For each strategy analysis of the theories of knowledge is given. In the paper idea of the inescapability of Gettier cases for analysis of knowledge was supported by the argumentation of Linda Zagzebski. In that ground, the analysis of knowledge was refuted. From that perspective, two of the most influenced ways of answering the question “what is knowledge” was proposed. First, the irreducible theory of knowledge, where knowledge is a mere state of the mind. Second, rejection existence of the universal invariant of the knowledge in every case. There are multiple senses of what the knowledge is and none of them is prior to other. The author lives as the open question the right way to think about the knowledge. In the closing part of the paper, the author presents a perspective critique of the knowledge problem as the project of overrated significance, and argues for a need to create new arguments that supporting that problem.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 3
Roman A. Yuriev Роман Александрович Юрьев
A.J. Ayer and J.L. Austin: from “Ethical Judgements” to “Performative”
А. Айер и Дж. Остин: от «этических суждений» к «перформативу»

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The article considers the thesis about A. Ayer’s radical empiricism as one of the possible conceptual sources for the development of the theory of J. Austin’s speech acts. In contemporary research literature more attention is devoted to the inquiry of the discussion between A. Ayer and J. Austin on the matter of “sense-data”. At the same time it can be stated that few attention is devoted to the historical and philosophical reconstruction of their mutual influence. The importance of this kind of reconstruction is caused by the fact that contention between A. Ayer and J. Austin in Oxford during 1930s and 1940s can be viewed as preliminary work of reception of the idea of L. Wittgenstein’s “language-games”. By comparing A. Ayer’s “empirical / ethical” and J. Austin’s “conservative / performative” oppositions one could show that A. Ayer’s earlier views on ethics expressed in his work “Language, Truth and Logic “cannot be unconditionally attributed to the logical positivism. Ayer’s following statements were considered: 1) ethical judgements state as judgments of arousal of feelings and stimulation to action; 2) ethical judgements state as expression of ethical feelings; 3) ethical judgements add nothing in terms of factual meaning; 4) feelings are not a necessary condition for their expression. In conclusion one can say that in a certain sense Ayer’s approach to the ethical judgment is open to understanding that the meaning of a word is its use in the language. The results of its ethical analysis can be viewed as an important impulse to the development of ordinary language philosophy. Therefore, it is possible to consider logical positivism as including the inevitable premises for creation the ordinary language philosophy.