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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Irina A. Gerasimova Ирина Алексеевна Герасимова
Engineering knowledge in the technogenic civilization
Инженерное знание в техногенной цивилизации

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The author argues that the radical technological transformations contribute to the raise of new epistemological questions. The XXI century technologies could be described as a large-scale socio-technical system. The author claims that the engineering knowledge in the technogenic civilization combines science and technology, technology and industry, techno-science and art, economics, society and culture. At the same time engineers and technologists while doing their experimental research face with risks and uncertainty. The author argues that the rise of new global risks as well as the changes in the societal system make especially relevant the problems of resource saving, efficiency, ecological and technological safety. The author insists that the humanities could contribute to the settlement of these problems. She explains why the transdisciplinary approaches which aim at the cooperation of scientists and philosophers should be considered as the most prospective form of scientific research. This mode of research make it possible to combine fundamental issues with practical actions.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Raisa E. Barash, Alexander Yu. Antonovski Раиса Эдуардовна Бараш
Radical Science: Are the scientists capable of social protest?
Радикальная наука

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The authors identify several types of the new forms of protestmovement that are discusses within the problems of autonomy ofscientific system and the protection of the interests of scientists. They argue that the this type of communication shows how it is possible to combine both cognitive and normative attitude of science. The authors show the mechanisms of the reproduction of this communication and argue that it gradually turns into communicative macro system. The authors conclude that the protest movement in science could be considered as a practical resolution of the Merton – Popper paradox, which presumes the incompatibility of both cognitive attitude (impartial observation) and normative dimension (value production) of science.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alexandra A. Argamakova Александра Александровна Аргамакова
Paradoxes of scientific ethos
Парадоксы научного этоса

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R.K. Merton’s idea of scientific ethos describes the norms and values, which regulate the cognitive practices of scientists. According to it, science has the special status and plays the role of referee in society and culture. Nevertheless, such view of science provokes the paradoxes and contradictions, connected with the basic principles of the conception and the application of science to practice. In the article, this theme will be analyzed at some extent, and the possible decisions of paradoxes around the scientific ethos will be outlined briefly.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alina O. Kostina Алина Олеговна Костина
Civil activism, mediation and expertise in scientific environment
Гражданский активизм, институт посредничества и экспертизы в научной среде

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Civil activism in the field of science is one of the most crucial issues and the key factor of autonomy of science. Herewith, the position of universities and other scientific institutions is vulnerable and hinges upon state and private financing. Science finds itself between two unattractive and doubtful prospects of developing in either bureaucratic or corporate (in the business sense) way, which leads to the abridgement of basic academic freedoms. Setting the problem of professional expertise and mediation is highly important for the definition of borders and consolidation of the position of science.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Olga E. Stoliarova Ольга Евгеньевна Столярова
Scientific activism and the idea of performativity
Научный активизм и идея перформативности

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The author analyzes the paradoxes of scientific activism from the standpoint of the concept of performativity. The author shows that the contradiction between the disinterested knowledge of the world and the interested action in society is generated by the traditional understanding of knowledge as a justified belief. The author discusses the so called performative conception of science, which gains many adherents in STS and replaces the standard concept of science. It is shown that when studying science as practice, the paradoxes of scientific activism are revised, because the rigid boundary between knowledge and action, science and values is removed.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Liana A. Tukhvatulina Лиана Анваровна Тухватулина
Merton-Popper’s paradox and the substantive rationality of science
Парадокс Мертона-Поппера в свете «материализации» рациональности в науке

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The author discusses the meaning of the paradox, which rises as a result of the controversy between the principles of scientific ethos (R. Merton) and fallibilism (K. Popper). She argues that the justification of the moral authority of science should not depend on this paradox. The author uses Max Weber’s concept of substantive rationality to consider the idea of social legitimation of science. She argues for understanding expertise as a special mode of scientific knowledge which aims at justifying the authority of science in the society.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alexander Yu. Antonovski Александр Юрьевич Антоновский
On the Critique of Protest. Reply to critics
О критике протеста. Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Steve Fuller Стив Фуллер
The dialectic of politics and science from a post-truth standpoint
Диалектика политики и науки с точки зрения пост-правды

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This chapter takes off from Max Weber’s famous lectures on poli­tics and science as ‘vocations’ to explore the concept of ‘modal power’, that is, the power to determine what is possible. Politics and science are complementarily concerned with modal power, in ways that go to the heart of Michael Dummett’s influential metaphysical characterisation of the antirealism/realism distinc­tion, which the chapter pursues across several philosophical fields, including logic, epistemology, jurisprudence and finally historiog­raphy. The chapter adopts a ‘post-truth’ perspective in the sense that modal power is treated from an ‘antirealist’ standpoint, in which ‘the name of the game’ is to expand one’s own sphere of possible action while constraining that of the opponent. That world of constrained possibilities is the ‘actual’ world, whose rela­tionship to other possible worlds fluctuates over time in ways that resemble quantum effects but are most clearly captured by ‘revi­sionist’ historiography. The chapter ends with a discussion of the contrasting attitudes to such historiography in politics and science.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Vladimir N. Porus Владимир Натанович Порус
Contextualism in philosophy of science
Контекстуализм в философии науки

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The author discusses the possibility of spreading of the contextualism principles into the field of philosophy of science. He argues that, while discovering science in all of its aspects (viz. cultural, institutional, economic, communicative, etc.), philosophy of science identifies the relevant contexts for justifying the genesis, development, and reproduction of knowledge. Meanwhile, there is a complex interaction between philosophical and scientific analysis of these contexts. The author claims this process gives raise for a conflict which comes from the contextualization of science and the philosophical analysis of these contexts. The author shows that the resolution of these conflict could open new prospects for the modern philosophy of science.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Elena V. Zolotukhina-Abolina Елена Всеволодовна Золотухина-Аболина
"The other side of language": the problem of the relationship between continuity and discreteness
«Изнанка языка»

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This paper deals with the problem of continuity and discreteness of human consciousness. The author starts with the analysis of the “linguistic turn” in the philosophy of the 20th century when language was for the first time regarded as an autonomous essence. While stressing the illegitimacy of overestimating of linguistic discreteness, the author identifies three types of concepts, which help to understand differently the connection between continuum and discreteness. These are “the level concepts”, where the semantic and sensitive dimensions of the language are highlighted; “the concepts of complementarity”, which show that the discreteness is always accompanied by continuum (“non-verbal moments of communication”, etc.), and “the concepts of reference”, where the nonverbal and hidden cultural codes of language are explicated (viz. theories of symbols, linguo pragmatics, etc.).
vista
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Vladimir V. Seliverstov Владимир Валерьевич Селивёрстов
Meinong, Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy
Майнонг, Витгенштейн и австрийская философия

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This article considers the problem of defining the concept of “Austrian philosophy” in the context of the possible influence of Austrian philosophy of the XIX century on the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. From Haller&Neurath’s point of view the Austrian philosophical tradition can be represented as a single chain of mutual influences. In particular, we can trace continuity, find common features in the philosophy of the Brentano school and philosophy of the Vienna Circle. But here is the question. Should Ludwig Wittgenstein also be included in this tradition? By responding to this question, we can better understand the boundaries of this tradition. But in case we include Wittgenstein in this tradition, then he will be in one tradition with Alexius Meinong, who is often called Wittgenstein’s opponent in logic, semantics and philosophical psychology. Therefore, our task is to find out whether these theories are really so different. May be we can find common features or signs of the influence of one theory on another. The main clue in this case is the concept of “Sachverhalt” or “state of affairs”, which Wittgenstein used in “Tractatus” and which is quite comparable in meaning with the Meinong’s concept of “objektiv”.
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Natalia V. Grishechkina, Sofia V. Tikhonova Наталья Васильевна Гришечкина
Civil expertise of scientific knowledge in the digital era
Гражданская экспертиза и научное знание в цифровую эпоху

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Modern dialogue of society and science proceeds in the conditions of social media distribution and the convergence of scientific knowledge. This processes change system of mass information and communication channels between scientific actors, leaders of public opinion and organizers of public initiatives. The conflict between an elite normativity of a scientific discourse and an egalitarian normativity of a public discourse takes the new forms. Authors show how in large quantities extending practice of civil expertise, based on civil journalism (a blogosphere and social networks), interrupt into procedures of scientific examination. Active inclusion of civil experts became an attribute of transdisciplinary science. The main feature of this type of science is operational decision making in the conditions of uncertainty. However transition of transdisciplinary science to a phase of the technoscience defines convergence borders of the formal and informal knowledge. Technoscience takes root into the vital world as a magic “black box” for the inhabitant. Authors believe that the transdialogue formed by transdisciplinary scientific experts and deprofessionalized leaders of civil journalism is complicated by deficiency of epistemological competence of civil experts. One of the problem is inclusion the electronic media practices in production and the social circulation of scientific knowledge. Using rather known, but not yet entered in the field of philosophical scientific research examples of direct influence of civil experts on processes which in a former communication order were intra scientific, authors realised a research of the new aspects of modern science expanding a traditional subject of philosophy of science and technology.
case-studies – science studies
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Ivan A. Karpenko Иван Александрович Карпенко
Physical theories in the context of multiverse
Физические теории в контексте мультивселенной

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The article analyzes the problem of physical theory nature and its criteria in the context of several concepts of modern physics. Such physical concepts allow multiple possible universes (the last usually happens to be a random consequence of the theory). Since the study requires several universe models, which basic principles (physical laws) can vary, the two theories have become the objects of analysis: the first, which includes the concept of eternal inflation, the second – the string cosmology (the string landscape). Both theories allow for a large variation of physical laws (no matter, whether these are fundamentally different physical laws or different versions of the same basic principles). The amount of dark energy (cosmological constant) has been selected as a physical law parameter, changing its value in possible universes.The analysis of the physical theories, which allow a multiplicity of universes, has shown that the standard requirements for the theory, which connect its veracity with the criteria of observability and the need for validation of our universe basic principles, are not entirely consistent. Theoretical physics is moving towards the formulization of models that become a real (in some cases, apparently irresistible) challenge for experimental verification. The article proves that such verification probably can not be required in several physical theories, since, in particular, the postulation of this kind of connection between theory and reality is no more than a manifestation of anthropocentrism. However, the theory can trace more general grounds that lie beyond the scope of human observation.
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Sergei M. Levin Сергей Михайлович Левин
Free will, science and causes of behavior
Свобода воли, наука и причины поведения

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Some scientists and philosophers, based on scientific discoveries and empirical evidence, argue that free will does not exist. Some authors defend the opposite opinion. The universality of their reasoning unites opponents. They seek to correlate scientific knowledge with the entire sum of human actions and, consequently justify the existence of freedom of will or its absence. In the paper, I propose to narrow the focus of the issue to the study of the degree of freedom of individual actions or certain classes of actions. For this, I introduce the epistemic criterion, according to it, recognition of the action as not free requires knowledge of the causes of the action for which the agent is not responsible. I analyse two groups of cases: those where scientific knowledge reveals hidden causes of behavior and those where the causes remain unknown. Actions from the second group still constitute an essential part of our behavior. The amount of knowledge about the causes of actions will increase over time, but this knowledge will never be comprehensive.
interdisciplinary studies
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Natalia A. Osminskaya Наталия Александровна Осминская
Historical roots of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s universal science
Исторические корни проекта универсальной науки Г.В. Лейбница

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This paper analyses different retrospective links between the scientia generalis by Leibniz and the three key traditions of the Renaissance and Early Modern Europe – the philosophical, the rhetorical and the encyclopaedic one. The issue demonstrates the insufficient charachter of the two influential interpretations of the idea of scientia generalis by Leibniz – as a project of elaborating a a method of mathematical calculations for non-mathematical subjects (L. Couturat, J. Mittelstraß, V. Peckhaus etc.) and as a project of an encyclopaedic synthesis combining ideas of the Lull’s Ars magna and humanistic rhetoric by M. Nizolius with the philosophical-theological encyclopaedism of J. Alsted and B. Keckermann (P. Rossi, W. Schmidt-Biggemann, T. Leinkauf etc.). The author presents the thesis that the formation of Leibniz’s idea of scientia generalis as well as some other concepts of the universal science in 17th century philosophy are the result of rethinking and expanding of the concept of the “first philosophy” delivered by Aristotle in his “Metaphysics”.
archive
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Tatiana D. Sokolova Татьяна Дмитриевна Соколова
William Whewell’s philosophy of science and Immanuel Kant’s apriorism
Философия науки Уильяма Хьюэлла и априоризм Иммануила Канта

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The article is the introduction to the Russian translation of the preface and Book I of William Whewell’s classic work “Novum Organon Renovatum”. In his theory for the philosophy of science, Whewell of­fers a conception, which radically differs from a positivist or an inductivist models of science – the most influential doctrines of his time. Presupposing that the scientific activity is impossible without acceptance of a metaphysical doctrine, Whewell goes against the contemporary tendencies in phi­losophy. Nevertheless, eclecticism of his views on certain issues does not allow us to classify him as a representative of any particular philosophical “camp”. In the article, the author analyzes the “a priori” component in the system of the philosophy of science by William Whewell and the influence of Im­manuel Kant’s conception of a priori on it.
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
William Whewell Хьюэлл Уильям
Novum Organon Renovatum: Preface, Book I. Aphorisms concerning ideas
Novum Organon Renovatum

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The text is the Russian translation of W. Whewell’s work “Novum Organon Renovatum” (Preface and Book I Aphorisms concerning ideas), which is the third edition of the second volume of his major work “The philosophy of the Inductive Sciences founded upon their History”. In the text, W. Whewell proposes his theory of scientific method and classification of the necessary scientific ideas as a basis, from where every particular scientific discipline derives. By adopting the structure of the notorious Francis Bacon’s “Novum Organon”, Whewell reverses the order of scientific genesis, opposing himself to inductivism – the most influential philosophical theory of his time.
book reviews
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Igor G. Gasparov Игорь Гарибович Гаспаров
Panpsychism in the search of a self-definition
Панпсихизм в поисках самоопределения

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This is a review of the book by Brüntrup & Jaskolla (eds.) “Panpsychism: Contemporary Perspectives” (Oxford University Press, 2017). The author provides a detailed overview and critical analysis of a recent volume which is dedicated to different aspects of contemporary panpsychism. Among its authors are prominent experts in analytic philosophy of mind such as David Chalmers, Galen Strawson, Gregg Rosenberg. A distinguished feature of this volume is that it presents not only well-known positions in philosophy of mind such as physicalism or dualism, but also such exotic for the contemporary debate stances as idealism or cosmopsychism.
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Tatiana G. Leshkevich Татьяна Геннадьевна Лешкевич
"Consciousness creates reality": Is there a way out of the verbal labyrinth?
«Сознание, творящее реальность»

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The article provides an analysis of the book by E. V. Zolotukhina-Abolina, substantiating the dominance of the constitutive potential of consciousness. Firstly, it is the selectivity of attention involved in shaping reality. Secondly, the focus is shifted to human reality, conjugating authenticity and fiction found in self-descriptions, describing motivations of the other, “vision of the past”. Thirdly, difficulties of understanding the consciousness as subjective reality are discussed. Fourth, the problems of the philosophical language, the differences between academic and non-academic discourses come into view. The idea of “selectivity of attention” as the source of shaping reality is discussed with reference to works by D. Kaneman, U. Naisser, I. Hoffman, J. Kelly, V. Nalimov, S. Grof and also K. Uilber and H. Ferrer. While considering the nature of consciousness, the natural-scientific and humanitarian paradigms are complemented by esoteric.
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Памятка для авторов
Памятка для авторов

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