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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ilya T. Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
Norms in cognition and cognition of norms
Нормы в познании и познание норм

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The question about epistemic nature of norms is a special case of discussing the non-standard definition of knowledge. Is it possible to expand the understanding of knowledge beyond the proposi­tions expressed by narrative sentence and describing what takes place? Might a moral norm, an aesthetic ideal, a religious symbol be taken as specific types of knowledge? Thesis on the special epistemological status of science, its empirical basis and methods lies in the basis of naturalistic revision of epistemology by Quine. White, on the contrary, considers scientific observations and moral experiences equal means to justify objective and normative content in science as well as in morality and art. With regard to the contemporary expansion of the subject matter of epistemology White is more advantageous, although both sides ultimately do not extend beyond reduction of all cultural phenomena to the facts of individual consciousness. The resolution of the dispute under consideration can be provided by the turn of epistemological reflection to the study of the cognitive content of cultural objectivizations of human activity and communication, to the analysis of specific forms of representation and functions of whatever cognitive phenomena in the social artifacts. On the one hand, this extends the subject-matter of traditional epistemology by involving all the diversity of consciousness and on the other hand, this prepares methodological insights for cultural and reli­gious studies, ethics, aesthetics, and political science.
panel discussion i
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander M. Dorozhkin А.М. Дорожкин
Design – and typology problems of trading zones
Проблемы построения и типологии зон обмена

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This article is aimed to encourage discussions on the problem of scientific and extra-scientific knowledge exchange. The author describes this problem within the framework of the trading zone, a concept introduced by P. Galison. We suggest a typology of trading zones in terms of “Galisonian,” “Humboldtian,” and “non-Humboldtian” zones. To reveal specific characteristics of different situations in an exchange of knowledge, the allegory of the tunnel is given. The peculiarities of the exchange between scientific and extra-scientific environments are expressed through the notion of a partial alienation.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Igor I. Sulima И.И. Сулима
Social philosophy of science in search of tools
Социальная философия науки в поисках инструментария

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Ensuing discussion on the process of understanding in the areas of exchange and eventually to the status of social philosophy science can not reach the problem of the possibility or the impossibility of understanding. The recognition of the possibilities of understanding does not eliminate the problem of social value searching mechanisms of the organization of zones of awareness in society about processes in science. The recognition of possibilities of understanding, the Convention in science does not eliminate the problem of searching mechanisms of the organization of areas of understanding between scientists and between scientists and society.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Georgi P. Kornev Г.П. Корнев
Trading zones: the understanding and construction in science and philosophy
Зона обмена

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The author considers the specifics of “trading zones” as a cognitive model for the study of interdisciplinary interaction which is aimed to compensate lack of understanding between different scientific and non-scientific practices. It is argued that “trading zones” represents the unity of its intellectual, material and social components that creates the «communications area» for joint activities to produce new creative products. It is emphasized that the understanding of the mechanism of formation and functioning of the “trading zone” is a matter of epistemology. It is also claimed that “trading zones” provide the mediation in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary researches.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Natalia G. Baranets, Natalia N. Voronina Н.Г. Баранец
The problem of trading zones’ mediators
Проблема медиаторов «зон обмена»

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The authors aim to consider the problem of motivation of “trading zones’” actors. They pay special attention to understanding the way in which the interactions of different approaches and cultures take place. It’s claimed that “trading zones” relationships overcome the boundaries of habitual relationships. The authors analyze the emerging interest to transdisciplinary research In Russian philosophy. They discuss worldview dynamics within “trading zones” which is aimed to make the multidirectional interactions possible. It is noted that this sort of interactions requires both the acceptance of existing views and the need to go beyond them. It is argued that a combination of cultural and transcultural worldview elements is needed for a successful “trading zones” mediation. The authors point out to the problem of modernization of philosophical education that’s required to provide future specialists with universal ways of knowledge, communication and comprehension.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Yuri K. Volkov Ю.К. Волков
The conception of “trading zones” as a new kind of soft externalism
Концепция зон обмена как новая разновидность умеренного экстернализма

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The author discusses A. M. Dorozhkin’s ideas about constructing and typology of “trading zones”. He considers the influence of the substantive economics’ on science and education. The author argues that the universality of the institutions of reciprocity, redistribution and trade makes possible their stability in the process of institutionalization of scientific and educational activities.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander M. Dorozhkin А.М. Дорожкин
Reply to critics
Ответ оппонентам

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panel discussion ii
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Linguistic universals in the structure of understanding
Языковые универсалии в структуре понимания

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The author considers a problem of understanding. He claims that we understand texts, cultural objects rather than a man. He considers understanding as a process of interpretation of linguistic expressions and cultural objects. The author observes two sides of the meaning of linguistic expressions: a general (or social) one, which is common in a certain language community, and a personal one, which defines personal understanding. It is argued that mutual understanding is possible only on the stage of general meaning. However, the exchange of personal meanings is a very sophisticated process.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ilya T. Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
The splendor and misery of linguistic universals
Блеск и нищета языковых универсалий

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The author singles out the functions of understanding and interpretation in terms of their object – nature, culture or the life world of man. The critical arguments are proposed against the strict separation of understanding and interpreting by A. L. Nikiforov. The author provides examples of paradoxes and other difficulties arising from their juxtaposition. He also formulates objections against the limited interpretation of linguistic universals as conceptual constructs. He proposes a hypothesis on the genesis of some empirical universals in science (chemical element by R. Boyle). Finally, he suggests the idea of a complex structure of language universals to be discovered by philosophical analysis.
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ekaterina V. Vostrikova, Petr S. Kusliy Е.В. Вострикова
Understanding in philosophy of language
Понимание в философии языка

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This paper addresses the question of understanding of language expressions. We argue that understanding of language expressions can be successfully studied within a general approach of formal semantics and pragmatics. We show how three types of meanings of expressions (truth conditional meaning, presuppositional component and implicatures) contribute to our general understanding of what was said and how those meanings can be studied within the formal approach.
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Ivan S. Kurilovich И.С. Курилович
Understanding as recognition
Понимание как признание

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The author demonstrates the dialogic and historicity of the process of understanding, on the basis of which he comes to three conclusions that radically differ from the main points of the article under discussion: 1. the understanding is not a problem of personal and social meanings; 2. the understanding is structured like the recognition; 3. as well as recognition, the understanding is defined by positions, and therefore it is conflictual, it destroys subject-object relations. The consequence of it is the mutual transformation of the subject and the object of understanding, leaving no place for unimpaired subjectivity.
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Andrei A. Veretennikov А.А. Веретенников
On understanding: Reply to Alexander Nikiforov
О понимании – А.Л. Никифорову

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The aim of this paper is to discuss one distinct feature of linguistic communication, namely, misunderstanding. Along the general lines of the work of J. L. Austin misunderstanding treated as mistakes in communication or infelicities. The classification offered in the paper is based on the teaching practice and deals with two cases of infelicities – “total misunderstanding” and “overinterpretation”.
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
On “personal” meaning of linguistic expressions: Reply to critics
О «личностном» смысле языковых выражений

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epistemology and cognition
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Robert E. Sears Р. Сирс
The Naturalness of Religious Ideas: Soundings from the Cognitive Science of Religion
Естественность религиозных идей

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This paper offers a brief introduction, summary, and commentary on the cognitive science of religion (CSR), a burgeoning, interdisciplinary field of study that examines the way mental resources and predispositions facilitate religious beliefs and behavior. This presentation of CSR devotes special attention to research on teleological bias, agency detection, and counterintuitive concepts; moreover, critical discussions of mystical experience and god concepts ensue from treatments of the latter two topics. Research on teleological bias, agency detection, and counterintuitiveness supports the basic position that religious cognition is natural, although distinctive rationales are associated with each topic of investigation. While the major focus of this article is epistemological – how religious thought develops and is sustained – the conclusion briefly addresses the ontological significance of basic CSR findings.
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Elena O. Trufanova Е.О. Труфанова
“Situated knowledge” and the ideal of objectivity in science
«Ситуационное знание» и идеал объективности в науке

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The article dwells upon social constructionist critique of the ideal of scientific objectivity. It is shown that a number of researchers tend to replace the universal principle of objectivity that is used in science with the concept of “situated knowledge”. This concept argues that each knowledge belongs to a certain local social group and can be considered only in a narrow sociocultural context. The supporters of the “situated knowledge” concept assume that this approach should be considered as “strong objectivity” that consists in the acknowledgment of the impossibility of the existence of neutral unbiased researcher in the scientific cognition and, consequently, the impossibility of acquiring true knowledge or even building a scientific theory. Instead they suggest to give a “vote” for each of these social groups to voice their own scientific statements that will be considered as equivalent, thus realizing the democratic principle. The article demonstrates the complications of this position and shows that it does not only lead to the loss of possibility to speak of science as universal cultural institute but also to the loss of mutual understanding and the possibility of dialogue between different social groups: each group instead of using the objectivity principle and striving to seek common knowledge, will insist on the paramount value of its own local “situated” knowledge.
language and mind
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Miguel López-Astorga М. Лопез-Асторга
Some deontic logical formulae that can be used in a natural way in human reasoning
Некоторые деонтические логические формулы и их непосредственное использование в человеческом мышлении

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The mental models theory proposes that reasoning is not logical. From its point of view, people only regard possibilities that represent reality in an iconic way, and they draw conclusions by reviewing such possibilities. Obviously, a framework of this kind seems incompatible with the idea that the human mind thinks by means of logical forms. However, in this paper, the author tries to show that, if we accept the basic theses of the mental models theory, we must also assume that certain formal logical structures are equally part of the human intellectual machinery, even though its proponents explicitly reject any link between logic and thought. In particular, the author argues here that it is not possible to adopt the mental models theory without accepting, at the same time, some deontic propositions that are usually admitted in standard deontic logic.
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Maria A. Sekatskaya М.А. Секацкая
Phenomenal unity of consciousness in synchronic and diachronic aspects
Феноменальное единство сознания в синхроническом и диахроническом аспектах

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Synchronic and diachronic unity of consciousness and their in­terrelation pose interdisciplinary problems that can only be addressed by the combined means of philosophical and scien­tific theories. In the first part of the article the author briefly reviews psychological and materialistic accounts of personal identity. Historically these accounts were introduced to solve the problem of diachronic identity of persons, i.e., the problem of their persistence through time. She argues that they don’t explain how synchronic unity of consciousness, subjectively experienced as the unity of the phenomenal field, correlates with diachronic identity of persons. In the second part of the article the author reviews Tim Bayne’s “virtual phenomenalism”. In the third part of the article she formulates two questions that virtual phenomenalism has to answer in order to solve the problems that face both the psychological and the materialistic accounts of personal identity. The first question concerns some cognitive and neurobiological characteristics of consciousness that Bayne invokes in order to propose an original solution of the problem of the synchronic unity of consciousness. It might be asked whether the same characteristics can undermine Bayne’s solution of the problem of the diachronic unity of consciousness. The second question is a development of Bernard Williams’ arguments against psychological accounts of personal identity. The author suggests that similar arguments can be used against virtual phenomenalism.
vista
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Marina R. Burgete Ayala М.Р. Бургете Аяла
Miguel Servet’s anthropological optimism
Антропологический оптимизм Мигеля Сервета

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The article is devoted to Miguel Servet (Michael Servetus, Spain – Miguel Serveto, also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve) – the XVI century Spanish thinker who was recognized as a heretic and burnt at the stake in Geneva in 1553.The author discusses the specifics of Servet’s philosophical system, the scientific background of his system, and his key ideas that have become a matter for auto-da-fė. The author argues that Servet’s concept was aimed to reconstruct the “pure” Christian dogma, although he was not a professional theologist. The author claims that Servet used the deep knowledge in geography, astronomy, medicine, linguistics to create his complex system which was aimed to rescue the mankind from total destruction (Apocalypse). The author claims that Servet’s system could be considered as an example of interdisciplinary approach in the pre-disciplinary epoch. Moreover, Servet’s approach to the problem of personal salvation and the transformation of the humane nature is based on empirical scientific data. Hence, it is appropriate to consider his philosophical system as a mixture of theology, natural science and humanities.
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexandra A. Argamakova А.А. Аргамакова
Between technological utopia and dystopia: games and social planning
Между технологической утопией и антиутопией

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The author argues that scientific and technological progress opens the new possibilities and creates the new threats for the humanity. In 21st century, the civilization will progress fantastically. As the result, the world around us and all spheres of society will be radically transformed. She discusses the following problem: what to expect from the future – whether our best utopian dreams come true or the worst dystopian scenarios become a reality? In accordance with the first position, science is a power, and the new technological solutions will be found for each emerging problem. According to the other one, technological progress without the development of humans is a source of danger for future. The author discusses an alternative view on the problem. She claims that it is necessary to develop social mechanisms and practices for making scientific progress and social changes manageable. The future depends on the current social practice. Every person today can participate in the planning of future. Technologies provide us with the effective means for dealing with social reality, including those means which are not quite expectable and taken seriously – such as games and gamification techniques. The author disputes with the ideas of Yuval Harari’s “Homo Deus: a Brief History of Tomorrow”. She considers some preconditions for realization of alternative scenarios of future. She concludes that in the future the more people could use better the opportunities and resources of super technological society.
case-studies – science studies
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Alexei Yu. Rakhmanin А.Ю. Рахманин
Methodological agnosticism of ninian smart and philosophy of ordinary language: preliminary considerations
Методологический агностицизм Н. Смарта и философия обыденного языка

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This article discusses the philosophical status of the methodological agnosticism principle established in religious studies. Elaborated by Ninian Smart in the early 70s, it is commonly interpreted as a convenient principle for research in comparative religion, since it doesn’t presuppose any strong ontological commitments concerning the truth or falsity of religious belief. Since religious studies in academia have everything to do with the situation of religious pluralism, it is rationally imprudent to take either atheism or theism as a sufficient requirement to religious research, so the agnostic attitude is the only viable position. The situation provokes the question: can, and should, methodological agnosticism be grounded and justified by philosophical means? The status and function of the philosophy of religion in Smart’s project of religious studies is emphasized, as well as rationality as its central element. Among the possible solutions to the problem of rationality and religion depicted by Smart, it is the linguistic philosophy approach, which he calls the Language Game Thesis, that is of special interest. Smart rejected its applicability in religious studies primarily because of the restrictions determined by its inevitable religious, i.e. Christian, spirit. This assumption rests on Smart’s conception of the language rule in religion as autonomous and independent, while this understanding of game and rules is, at the least, not common to all of linguistic philosophy. Yet, it is possible to interpret methodological agnosticism according to the Language Game Thesis while not losing the pluralistic principle. Certain elements in arguing for agnosticism, especially the elaboration of “parables”, show that rationality here corresponds to that of everyday language, as the only possible space for the combination of different rules. While arguments for atheism stress the incompatibility of religious and scientific rationalities, and theism stresses the independence of the former, agnosticism proclaims their mutual meaningfulness. The essential question here arises: is it at all possible to treat agnosticism in any other way than in ordinary language?