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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Sofia Pirozhkova С.В. Пирожкова
The faces of prevision: from universal knowledge to foresight forecasting
Многоликое предвидение

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Author aims to give an integral representation of different semantic fields, forming the polysemantic concept “prevision". It is proved that such representation would eliminate the ambiguity in understanding what we're dealing with in a particular instance of usage and related practices. Three semantic fields are identified through analyzing of the evolution of meaning of concept “prevision" in philosophical texts, modern prognostic practices and studies of mechanisms of cognition. The first is summing up in definition of prevision as a constructive activity with regard to the future, the second - in definition of prevision as passing experience (passing from actual experience to possible one), the third designated as formed by existential issues. It is shown that the conception of prevision as a passing experience, fixed the fundamental mechanisms of cognition and adaptation, is the foundation for other two semantic units. At the same time constructive and existential meanings of prevision couldn't be reduced to this foundation.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Stanislav Gavrilenko С.М. Гавриленко
Historical epistemology: zone of uncertainty and space for theoretical imagination
Историческая эпистемология

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This article attempts to define a historical epistemology not as separate place in disciplinary space, but as rather specific area, which unstable configuration and “stuff" are determined by quite different from philosophy ways of talking and investigation of knowledge, especially in social sciences. More significant than emergence of competitors of philosophy in production of knowledge about knowledge (sociology, history, anthropology) was that they introduce a new regime of this production. This regime became empirical. Within that regime knowledge is objectified not as homogeneous order of representation, but as fuzzy dynamic set of heterogeneous elements, relations between which are complex and historically variable. The claims of non-philosophical disciplines to investigate knowledge generate the field of uncertainties and problematisations. Just this field is referred to as “historical epistemology". But this field is also space of conceptual imagination, where the new ways to investigate knowledge are worked on, when refusing to ascribe to it any ultimate (transcendent or transcendental) specification.
3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Zinaida Sokuler З.А. Сокулер
Historical epistemology and the fate of theory of knowledge in philosophy
Историческая эпистемология и судьба философской теории познанияhy

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Historical epistemology is argued to be viewed at as a historically formed name for a heterogeneous complex of philosophical, sociological, historical studies of sciences, which are integrated by their common epistemological orientation - epistemological anti-foundationalism. The latter is defended against the accusations of the extreme relativism.
4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexander Pisarev А.А. Писарев
Historical epistemology: epistemology and the other philosophy
«Историческая эпистемология»

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The author considers the thesis about the opposition between the universal (philosophy of science) and particular (history of science), and about the retreat of epistemology in their juxtaposition to the transformations in contemporary philosophy during last decades and its links to science studies. He claims that in order to define historical epistemology project a reason to support this project is to be found.
5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Olga Koshovets О.Б. Кошовец
Production of knowledge about the knowledge: from the need for the “normalizing law” to the interdisciplinary exchange and competition
Производство знания о знании

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The author discusses the reasons for the disciplinary and epistemological uncertainty of historical epistemology - why it is theoretically heterogeneous and fragmented as well why it needs excessive object domain and instrumental diversity, and what is the reason for its weak comparing with the philosophy of science disciplinary status. In this context, the author considers the conditions of the philosophy of science emergence that is the era of the science transformation into a productive force which causes the objective demand for “epistemological normativity". The author puts forward the hypothesis about the reasons that have led the philosophy of science to the subsequent loss of its role of normative meta-discourse. In particular, it's drawn attention to the problem of overproduction of scientific knowledge and the fundamental impact of this factor on the development of the modern science both on the epistemological and the institutional levels.
6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Tatiana Sokolova Т.Д. Соколова
Why so complicated?
Зачем так усложнять?

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In the article, author criticizes some points made by S.M. Gavrilenko regarding the status of historical epistemology and other social and humanitarian disciplines. Here the author relies mainly on the French tradition of historical epistemology, as well as emphasizes the need to keep clear the disciplinary boundaries between epistemology, philosophy of science, history and sociology of science.
7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Stanislav Gavrilenko С.М. Гавриленко
Historical epistemology: necessary complications: Reply to critics
Историческая эпистемология: необходимые усложнения

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This paper sums up the discussion on historical epistemology, pointing on it's ambivalence as singled out place in intellectual field and as some project, that should be assembled. Based on remarks of the discussion participants, we make an assumption, that historical epistemology is a specific zone of maneuvers and interchanges between philosophy and empirical studies of knowledge.
epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vladimir Filatov B. П. Филатов
Legal Marxism and philosophy of science
Легальный марксизм и философия науки

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At the end of the XIX century in the Russian socio-economic community dispute occurred on how to modernize the country - dispute about “the fate of capitalism" in Russia. One of the parties in this dispute were “legal marxists". The article analyzes the social, ideological and theoretical contexts of this dispute. It is shown that the marginal revolution significantly change the situation in the economics of that time. From the standpoint of the philosophy of science is given a rational reconstruction of the changing attitudes of legal marxists to Marx's economic theory. It is shown that they are quite rationally evaluated Marx's theory as obsolete and regressing and seen in marginal program a new and promising alternative in economic theory.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Sofia Danko C. В. Данько
Logic, meaning and value from the performative perspective of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s “Tractatus Logico-Philosophics”
Логика, смысл и ценность в перформативном измерении «Логико-философского трактата» Людвига Витгенштейна

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Many contemporary scholars converge the main issues of the “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" with B. Russell's agenda aimed at eliminating language confusion that causes “fundamental philosophical problems". Although this may be correct to a certain degree, the main idea of the “Tractatus" often remains overlooked: according to Wittgenstein, establishing the language boundaries must lead us to the inexpressible meanings and values of life, and somehow demonstrate them. It was done by Wittgenstein in “Tractatus", however results of his activity still remain in some way confidential, leaving a scope to various versions in this respect. This paper represents one of the possible approaches to this problem. It consists in the ultimate radicalization of characteristics of the logical structure showing that the facts within only the logical structure cannot be understood and described in comprehensible propositions. Thereby, it is possible to highlight the logical level of language and to show some non-logical meanings and values that contribute to the understanding of the world. This approach allows to show the performative perspective of "Tractatus" and to find the appropriate place for values and senses among the language expression.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vitalii Sukhovyi В.И. Суховой
Consciousness, reduction and physicalism
Сознание, редукция и физикализм

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This paper is dedicated to the mind-body problem. My aim is to show that not only consciousness resists to reductive explanation, but also that the latter itself is a big, complex and yet unsolved problem.And if there is a gap between conscious phenomenal experience and other psychical processes as dualists think I will show that similar gaps exist between different facts of such sciences as psychology (intentions, desires etc.) and neurophysiology (activation of nervous system). And the very fact of existence of such gaps is compatible with physicalism. I also aim to show that resistance of consciousness's reduction to the physical processes is compatible with the doctrine of physicalism.The well-known argument in the defense of dualism belongs to the philosopher David Chalmers which is often also called “the zombie-argument". This argument tries to demonstrate that consciousness is irreducible to the physical facts. Zombie- argument grounds on the two premises: 1) reducibility of physical facts and 2) the possibility of complete physics. The former means that conjunction of all microphysical facts is sufficient for inference of the only one conjunction of macrophysical facts. I will try to show that we can infer from the very same conjunction of microphysical facts to different conjunctions of macrophysical facts even if the whole system would be identical in its own behaviour. Thereafter if my arguments are sound it would demonstrate that irreducibility of consciousness isn't enough for conclusion that physicalism is wrong.
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vsevolod Ladov В.А. Ладов
Logical paradoxes solution in semantically closed language
Решение логических парадоксов в семантически замкнутом языке

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The author considers following question: is a consistent semantically closed language possible? The negative answer is the orthodox answer in the logic of the 20th century. It was presented in Russell's theory of types and Tarski's semantic theory of metalanguages. Nevertheless, contemporary logicians and philosophers of language return to this problem time and again, pointing to its relevance in various aspects. In particular, it is asserted that semantically closed language is a very important tool for expressing logical and philosophical ideas. In logic of the 20th century, the problem of semantically closed language was discussed in connection with the problem of logical paradoxes. Russell and Tarski saw a fundamental cause of paradoxes in the phenomenon of self-reference that arises in semantically closed language. Accordingly, a solution for paradoxes was seen in eliminating the cause, that is, in prohibiting semantically closed language by means of a hierarchy of logical types of classes (Russell) or a hierarchy of metalanguages (Tarski). However, some contemporary logicians criticize the hierarchical approach, whose main argument consists in asserting that the approach was wrong in its diagnosis of the cause of paradoxes. This author does not try to correct the diagnostics of the hierarchical approach by identifying another cause of paradoxes. Instead, the author recognizes that a general solution of the problem of paradoxes cannot be given, a priori, by eliminating what fundamentally generates them. In this article, a new “ad hoc solution" of the problem is offered that rests upon an empirical method of identifying and eliminating paradoxes. A specific characteristic of the method is admitting the existence of consistent semantically closed language.
vista
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexandra Argamakova A. А. Аргамакова
Social and humanitarian dimensions of technoscience
Социогуманитарное измерение технонауки

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The article is dedicated to re-conceptualization of ideas, implied by the theories of technoscience. In particular, they imply our understanding of technologies as material artifacts and technics, which is not the only possible one. In the same time, the presence of social technologies and innovations, practices of social planning and engineering, humanitarian labs and applied socio-humanitarian knowledge can provide reasonable ground for changes in our ways of speaking about social and human sciences in techno-scientific discourse. The first part of the article presents an updated approach to the key ideas of technoscience theory. In the second part of the article the author develops the historical argumentation for this approach. The practical functions of social sciences are described as follows: professional training for specialists; social critics and applied research; production of ideological concepts; intellectual support for social engineering; enlightenment and formation of humanitarian culture. The author argues that there are close ties between social sciences and practices, and the impact of social knowledge on developing of modern technoculture is being specifically revealed in this context.
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vadim Rozin B. М. Розин
Discourses and the types of future
Дискурс и типы будущего

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The article discusses the problems of the understanding of the future. The author suggests to consider this problem in accordance with the analysis of its discourse and types. He distinguishes the following kinds of temporal discourse: event time; contains the past; present; future; future reconstruction created on the basis of reconstructions of past and present; present actions in accordance with the images of future, finally, practices aimed at the implementation of the future as the plan or project. Based on the analysis of several cases and general considerations the author introduces his classification of the types of the future discourse. Firstly, it is “uncertain future" (“future as a thing in itself") as the most relevant type for modernity. Secondly, it is “objectively subjective future" that could be considered both as religious vision of the future and as the rational concept allowing a person to participate in the future constructing. Thirdly, it is “local technological future" that is considered on the example of the analysis of the US and the USSR nuclear project. The current understanding of the future is analysed as an attempt to predict and to build the same future for everybody. The author argues that this attempt doesn't seem to be feasible. Implementing different ideas and projects of the future and acting spontaneously without any particular image of the future, one cannot create the same future for everyone. Probably, it is necessary to accept the fact that there're a number of images of the future and each of them is narrow. Somehow, they all are involved in the formation of the future, although we do not know how exactly. It is better to assume that any of them, even inadequate and destructive are involved in the formation and flow of social processes. That's why it is so important to analyze them in order to understand their action and place in the structure of life.
case-studies – science studies
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Denis Sivkov Д.Ю. Сивков
Visualizations of “self’ and “other”: immune systems in the schematic illustration and microphotographies
Визуализации «своего» и «чужого»

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Since the 1980-s the number of immune system's depictions has increased dramatically. Often in classroom or in hospital immunologists or doctors could show you how our immune system works. Most popular hand-drawn schema is a model of self-other distinction with clear and rigid border between body and environment. But there is a tension between different models of immune system and their visualizations. For example, it's difficult to explain autoimmune diseases in terms and pictures of classical model self-other distinction because immunity means a war of self against self. Niels Jerne's network model of immune system does not react on other or non-self. It deals only with its own components and prepares immune response before any possible invasion. In another model that's called “symbiotic model" we cant tell about self and non-self, because some nonself entities are friends of organism. Besides some of bacteria in our body are responsible for our immune response. So there is no unity and consensus in immunity system's visualization. But how do we know that immune systems exist? What if schemata are just a product of immunological imagination? Microphotographs made by electronic microscope are evidence of truth. They stabilize all arguments and controversies in visualization of immune systems. First Donna Haraway and later Emily Martin demonstrated microphotographs and asked people about their feeling and impression. Lay people couldn't associate biological of microphotographs and their limited body. Microphotographs are out of context of human bodily experience and in this sense there is no stabilization of arguments. Immune system's microphotographs depend on hand-drawn pictures. Micrographs as fragments of immune system are not linked with immunological patterns. In this sense schematic images are “golden standard" for electron micrographs. There is no self and other in this picture but we define self and other in microphotographs by schemata.
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Oleg Zarapin, Olga Shapiro О.В. Зарапин
Symposion and symposium as the modes of the text culture
Симпозион и симпозиум как форматы текстовой культуры

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The article investigates the problem of the correlation between sense and communicative situation which characterizes philosophical and scientific texts. The analysis of ancient genre of “table-talk", which goes back to Plato's dialogue “Banquet", shows that the dialogue as a text construction form defines the philosophical sense of the text in coordination with communication features of a real table-talk (symposion). This communicative mechanism coordinates text (dialogue) and reality (symposion), and its action can be clarified by “format of text" concept. It is determined by three essential characteristics of the text: the circumstances of his generation, communicative situation between the author and the reader, and the form of the text. The variety of formats in every cultural and historical situation is determined, in its turn, by the actual text culture.dentification and analysis of symposion format allows to trace the transformation of its textual expression of “Table Talk" through “aphorisms" of modern times to modern “abstract" and “round table materials". It is noted that the process of cultural transformation of the text reflects the changes in the social reality of the transition from the ancient symposion to the French salon in the seventeenth century and further to modern symposium. It is revealed the basic feature of the modern version of symposion format that is convergence, and sometimes interference of communicative and public dimensions of the text.
interdisciplinary studies
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexander Pozdnyakov А.А. Поздняков
Epistemes in the modern science of living things
Эпистемы в современной науке о живом

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The author considers that the basic principles and concepts of natural history that distinguish it from biology, namely, the law of continuity, interpretation of a living being as a natural body, focus on the description of the surface of the living body, recognition of equivalence of properties, use of procedures of 'identy and differences' for the designation of place of living being in the universe, the denial of naturalness of classification hierarchy, the interpretation of the taxon as a place in the universe, the dependence of taxon name from its location. He claims that the law of continuity of natural history should be considered as the basis of modern concepts in the taxonomy and theory of evolution. He notes that the geometric approach that was typical for natural history is now widely used to describe the living beings. The author argues that in the context of modern phylogenetics biodiversity is interpreted as only spacely structured.
archive
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexander Antonovski А.Ю. Антоновский
Evolutionary approach to the development of science: On the Russian translation of N. Luhmann’s “Evolution of Science”
Эволюционный подход к развитию науки

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The author considers the evolutionary approach to the development of the scientific knowledge in framework of the Niklas Luhmann's system-communicative theory and presents a thesis that in respect to the final evolutional state (state of stabilization of new form of knowledge) the organization of the Russian science has not yet achieved the world-level of sufficient autonomy because there was not yet been established the self-substitutive order of the knowledge accumulation which is inherent to the autopoiesis of the contemporary science i.e. the process of continued change of some ones truths by some others. The factors impeding to establish such a self-substitutive order are to be connected by the author with the impact on the scientific discourse from some external communicative forms (the theological, financial, economical, political ones) and with the continuous change of some selective criterions that have to define what has to be accumulated as a memory of the science as a communicative system.
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Niklas Luhmann Н. Луман
Evolution of science
Эволюция науки

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The paper reconstructs the evolution process of scientific knowledge. The evolution theory has been applied hitherto exclusively to the famous reference problem. It the eye would be incapable seeing something really available it could not establish itself it the reality as such evolutional achievement. Contrary to this view the author states that the cognitive apparatus could survive not due to their achievements in the representations of the external world but rather due to their selfreproductive capabilities. By extrapolation of this view on the level of the epistemology it means that the knowledge itself selects that it can know on the base of that it already knows. The author suggests the principles of such cognitive evolution - the mechanisms of variety, selection and restabilization. The mechanism of variety concerns exclusively some particular operations (i.e. the communicative occurrences). Something innovative (unexpected, out of the ordinary) which has been recently created would occasionally be uttered, suggested, described, and probably printed under sole condition that it is apprehensible and writable. The selection is always based on some structures i.e. on the expectations of some reproductive use of some meaning affitudes. Only the structures can be marked out symbolically: applied to the science it means that they are marked as the true or the false ones. Finely, the stabilization level consists in the continuality of the autopoesis of the scientific communication.
book reviews
19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Vladimir Martynov В.А. Мартынов
“High culture” as an indicator of constructivism’ options
Проблема «культуры с большой буквы» как индикатор вариантов конструктивизма

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The author claims that recent publications on the theory of music and literature show some new trends in constructivist philosophy of culture. One of them is the idea of subconscious roots of cultural artifacts that has been applied in music studies. It was at this point it becomes clear that in order to identify variants of constructivism as indicators you can use some very simple assumptions, for example, the assumption of the possibility of the ontological significance of the “artistry" of the text. Such an assumption implicitly contains epistemological realism. So it becomes clear that realism is not something completely dead, including those for constructivism. Where constructivism allows the existence of good (“classic") texts, that is, of “high culture", he is tolerant to realism. On the other side, rejection of the classics is a sign of the radical versions of constructivism. There is possibility of fixing the difference between ontologies, which differ among themselves as a state of loss and forgetting the reality.
in memoriam
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 52 > Issue: 2
Alexander Karpenko (07.04.1946-07.02.2017)
Памяти А.С. Карпенко (07.04.1946-07.02.2017)

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