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editorial
1. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ilya Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
Collective Agent as a Matter of Epistemological Analysis
Коллективный субъект как предмет эпистемологического анализа

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In the article, there proposed an original idea of the collective agent of cognition (CAC) that overcomes the controversy of individualism and collectivism. In the history of philosophy a clear conceptualization of has been offered by I. Kant (the notion of transcendental agent and scheme of imagination). This was interpretedby, among others, G.W.F. Hegel ("Zeitgeist") and K. Marx (the concept of the total and joint labor). A critical analysis of analytic social epistemology (A. Goldman, J. Lackey) helps clarify the tacit presuppositions of the "individual-collective" dualism. In reducing the CAC to the cognizing individual, Lackey fails to interpret adequately the phenomenon of distributed knowledge widely spread in modern science and social practice (F. Hayek, H. Collins). As an alternative to reductionism, the article proposes a typological approach to CAC. It aims to understand its structure as consisting of four main levels (transcendental, imbedded, contract and distributed agent of cognition), each of which being illustrated by a paradigm example. In conclusion, the duality of collective and individual agents of cognition is unmasked as based on the mixture of everyday and philosophical discourses.
panel discussion
2. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Language and the Picture of the World
Язык и картина мира

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3. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander Antonovski А.Ю. Антоновский
Is There the World without an Observer?
Существует ли мир без наблюдателя?

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4. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ekaterina V. Vostrikova Е.В. Вострикова
Are There Any Objects of the World without the Language?
Существуют ли объекты мира без языка?

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5. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Petr Kusliy П.С. Куслий
Events and Times in the Ontology of Natural Language
События и временные интервалы в онтологии естественного языка

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6. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ilya Kasavin И.Т. Касавин
We Live in the World of Self-Evident Illusions
Мы живем в мире самоочевидных иллюзи

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7. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexander L. Nikiforov А.Л. Никифоров
Reply to Critics
Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology and cognition
8. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Steve Fuller Стив Фуллер
Customised Science as a Reflection of 'Protscience'
Клиентская наука как выражение научного плюрализма

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This article is concerned with two concepts. The first is a coinage of the author, 'Protscience', a contracted form of 'Protestant science', made in reference to the 16th—17th century Protestant Reformation, when the members of Western Christendom took their religion into their hands, specifically by reading the Bible for themselves and interpreting its relevance fortheir lives.Today we witness a similar tendency with regard to the dominant epistemic authority, science, whose 'reformation' often portrayed as 'democratisation'. However, a more exact understanding draws on the article's second key concept, the distinction drawn in marketing between 'customer' and 'consumer'. The former purchases to sell (i.e. a retailer), whereas the latter purchases to use. Many of the so-called 'anti-science' movements of recent times can be explained as a rise in 'science customisation', whereby people who have acquainted themselves with the latest science adopt a discretionary attitude towards what they will and will not believe of what they have learned. Keywords: anticipatory governance, democracy, New Age, placebo effect, Protestant Reformation, Protscience, science customisation.
9. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexandra A. Argamakova А.А. Аргамакова
Applied Socio-Humanitarian Knowledge, Social Technologies and Engineering
Прикладное социогуманитарное знание, социальные технологии и инженерия

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The article includes the description of factors, which determinated the formation of modern social and human sciences, as well as their applied sections. During the history, as many concrete cases illustrate, social and humanitarian knowledge has been always guided by the needs of practice. In the late 19th and early 20th century the practical interest to the improvement of humans and society has resulted in the conceptions of social technology and social engineering, the demand for which grows in contemporary technoscience and technoculture.
language and mind
10. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Garris S. Rogonyan Г.С. Рогонян
Asymmetry of the Radical Interpretation
Асимметрия радикальной интерпретации

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This paper considers the problem of direct knowledge about oneself as a prerequisite of a self-consciousness. The explanation of the asymmetry between first and third person that is characteristic for such a knowledge could shed the light on the nature of self-consciousness as a natural phenomenon. The key to the problem is the asymmetry Donald Davidson proposed as the main feature of the process of interpretation. However, this solution is often either not fully appreciated or misunderstood as a kind of linguistic asymmetry. The paper argues that this asymmetry has a causal nature, and this is the first reason for irreducibility of our mentalist vocabulary and thereby for the necessary use of such concepts as self-consciousness.
vista
11. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ekaterina Vostrikova, Petr Kusliy Е.В. Вострикова
Neoliberalism in Science: the STS Approach
Неолиберализм в науке

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This article provides an overview of current research in the field of STS on neoliberalism. The paper discusses the major changes in science associated with the spread of neoliberalism. The following key aspects of neoliberalism influence on the development of science are discussed: the increasing commercialization of science (on the examples of commercialization of meteorology and privatization of stream restoration); an increasing influence of scientism in regulation of technology; and an increasing role of social activism in this regulation.
12. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Nadezhda Kasavina Н.А. Касавина
On Humanization of Science and Naturalization of Existence
О гуманизации науки и натурализации экзистенции

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Social philosophy of science focuses on the natural as well as on the social-humanitarian sciences as a subject matter of research. It is due to post-classic research paradigm because almost since their emergence in the second half of the XIX c. the social and human sciences have moved beyond the classics. Already under the influence of philosophy of life and philosophical hermeneutics there occurred new existential issues and the need to revisit the central concepts of the classical theory of knowledge including the concept of experience. From now on not only the object-oriented sensibility, but the subjectivity of experience, involvement in tradition with its cultural universals entered the structure of cognitive experience. In the article the author interprets these changes not only as a manifestation of specificity of the social and human sciences, but also as a trait of cognition in general. To rethink the existence in the social and humanities there proposed to use the term «naturalization of existence» with reference to a similar trend in analytic epistemology and the philosophy of mind.
case-studies – science studies
13. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Elena A. Mamchur Е.А. Мамчур
On the Search of Mechanisms of Scientific Knowledge Evolution
В поисках механизмов эволюции научного знания

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The multiple discussions on the mechanisms of interaction between scientific knowledge and socio-cultural context have brought no results. The question — "what type of interaction between culture and science is being realized — socio-cultural determination or (more feeble) socio-cultural conditionality" — remains open. The author suggests an alternative solution: speaking of the interaction between science and culture one should consider the idea of synchronicity introduced by C.G. Jung. Jung defined synchronicity as a third type of interrelation between various phenomena: it is neither causal nor purely accidental, but rather a meaningful interconnection of events. As a case-study, the paper considers the role of synchronicity in the transition from Aristotle's understanding of space to its galileo-newtonian interpretation that played a key role in the emergence of new physics. The special attention is given to the role of synchronicity in evolution of contemporary physics.
14. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ivan Kuzin И.А. Кузин
Is Evolutionary Epistemology of Science Compatible with Scientific Realism
Совместима ли эволюционная эпистемология науки с научным реализмом?

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Classical, selectionist (adaptationist) evolutionary epistemology of science draws an analogy between development of science and natural selection. But natural selection immediately increases only the relative fitness of organisms with regard to specific and changing environment. Therefore evolutionary epistemology of science is exploited (by van Fraassen in particular) against scientific realism which presumes existence of absolute scientific progress as an approach to truth. In modern biology in order to explain absolute evolutionary progress nonadaptationist, nonselectionist models based on a passive trend mechanism (a random walk limited by walls) were worked out, the ratchet model in particular. This paper suggests nonadaptationist extension of evolutionary epistemology of science, namely the ratchet model of scientific progress and illustrates it by history of thermodynamics. This model enables to combine realistic concept of scientific progress as an approach to truth with antirealistic concept of scientific development as an improvement of problem-solving ability: the former is ascribed to scientific dynamics on a global scale and the latter on a local.
15. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Nikolai S. Rozov Н.С. Розов
The Criticisms by Researches of Reforms of Russian Academy of Sciences and the Basic Values
Критика реформы РАН учеными и базовые ценности российской науки

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Since the autumn of 2013 the scientific community in Russia feels anxiety and dismay. The discontent is articulated at conferences in numerous publications. Analysis of typical criticisms of the reform of the RAS reveals underlying scientists' ideas about organization of Russian science and proper directions of its development. To assess these judgments about the reforms the basic values about science and theoretical foundation are needed. Priority should be given to the following ones: a) the intrinsic value of knowledge and the growth of scientific knowledge, of development of philosophical thinking; b) openness and freedom of intellectual exchange, communication links,the unacceptability of scientific and educational exclusion; c) science must respond to the requests of social groups and strata, to the needs of the economy and the business, to public requests from both the central government and the regional authorities. The ideal of national science is considered as an imaginary model that meets the values stated above There are tactical problems related to current government policy, legal and administrative conditions, that should not replace the long-term strategic goals, based on the fundamental values of science and modern social theories of creativity and cultural production. If the strategic vision of the development of Russian science should take into account the principles of the plurality of network centers, the institutionalization of crossing networks and competitiveness, transparency, financial and administrative autonomy of research centers, multiple channels of support and funding, the tactical objectives should be focused on minimizing the damage to the research teams in the current circumstances, as well as on finding ways to promote strategic objectives.
interdisciplinary studies
16. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Alexandr Pozdnyakov А.А. Поздняков
Leibniz's Principle of Continuity and the Concept of Homology in Biology
Принцип непрерывности Лейбница и концепция гомологии в биологии

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This article discusses the problem of the influence of the Leibniz' continuity principle on the concept of structural plan and homology formation in biology. The concept of body plan was established for the justification of the thesis about the structural sameness of the all living objects at the organismal level. However, the continuity hypothes is testing which was made on the comparative anatomical material has showed the impossibility of reducing the animals structure explanation to the single plan. The idea of organic evolution has made it possible to present the continuity of the organic world as a historical consistency. From an evolutionary point of view homology was interpreted as a homogeny. That made it possible to consider the continuity of the organic world on the suborganismal level. This hypothesis was tested on the embryological material. The results, however, showed that the morphological structures, which seemed to be identical according to the first criterion of the Remane homology and occurred epigenetically, are not really gomogenic. This fact does not allow us to recognize the continuity ofthe organic world on the suborganismal level. The key concepts of classical biological disciplines (comparative anatomy, systematics, evolutionism) could be reconciled only on the basis ofthe discrete principle.
archive
17. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Vladimir Seliverstov В.В. Селиверстов
Ernst Mally's Antipsychologism and His Solution of Golden Mountain Problem
Антипсихологизм Эрнста Малли и его решение проблемы золотой горы

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This article considers the contribution of Ernst Mally to the theory of objects, namely he introduced a distinction of two types of properties (determinations) — formal and extraformal, that allowed Meinongian theory of objects to provide a satisfactory response to the criticism of Bertrand Russell, related to the question of the existence of the golden mountain. According to Meinong, object's so-being (Sosein) is logically independent of its ontic status (Sein). In this case Russell asks, how the existent golden mountain can be existent, golden and a mountain, because golden mountains do not exit (as well as round squares). So it was obvious that the independence of Sosein from Sein thesis should be revised. That's why Mally made a remark that the properties that make object's Sosein are extraformal. Later these ideas have formed the basis of the contemporary study of nonexistent objects, the basis of the theories of Terens Parsons, Richard Routley etc. In particular Parsons's distinction of nuclear and extranuclear properties is a revised version of Mally's distinction.In addition, the article analyzes Ernst Mally's critics of epistemological idealism and its connection with the famous psychologism dispute in logic and semantics in the late 19th and early 20th century. This dispute is more associated with the works of G. Frege and E. Husserl, which accused of psychologism many representatives of Brentano's School. Particularly Alexius Meinong was also called a psychologist. That's it's important to find out, which side was Mally on in this dispute.
18. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ernst Mally Эрнст Малли
Theory of Things and Mathematics
Теория предметов и математика

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19. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Ernst Mally Эрнст Малли
On the independence of the Things from the Thought
О независимости предметов от мышления

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book reviews
20. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 46 > Issue: 4
Petr Kusliy П.С. Куслий
Formal Semantics without Variables, Binding and Moving of Quantifiers
Формальная семантика без переменных, связывания и передвижения кванторов

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