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1. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Sanford S. Levy Philippa Foot’s Theory of Natural Goodness
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Philippa Foot’s book, Natural Goodness, involves a large project including a theory of natural goodness, a theory of the virtues, and a theory of practical rationality. Natural goodness is the foundation for the rest and is used to support a more or less traditional list of the virtues and a theory of reasons for action.Though Foot’s doctrine of natural goodness may provide an account of some sort of goodness, I argue that it is not adequate as a foundation for practical rationality or as a defense of more or less traditional virtues.
2. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Catherine Cowley Philia and Social Ethics
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Benedict XVI’s first encyclical, Deus Caritas Est, treated the different characteristics of human love and their expression. The first section discusses erosand the second shows how agape provides the essential framework for Catholic charitable organisations. I will be arguing that by omitting any reflection on therole of philia, he missed a significant opportunity to retrieve an important part of the Tradition and expand our usual understanding of the elements of social ethics. Part I briefly gives the background of Benedict’s non-use of philia in his encyclical and indicates the basis for the view that philia has no place in Christian social ethics. The favoured approach is that of agape. Part II presents Thomas Aquinas’ view of friendship and how it might counter the shortcomings identified by the authors in Part I. Part III applies his view of friendship to the key principles in Catholic social teaching of solidarity and preferential option for the poor. Part IVconcludes with some general summary remarks.
3. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jonathan Bowman Extending Habermas and Ratzinger’s Dialectics of Secularization: Eastern Discursive Influences on Faith and Reason in a Postsecular Age
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In the unlikely confluence of two colossal intellectual heritages, neo-Kantian Jurgen Habermas and Catholic prelate Joseph Ratzinger agree that wehave entered a postsecular age. For both, the inauguration of such an age entails skepticism towards absolutist science and a growing recognition of the contributions of spiritual worldviews to social solidarity. Following their call for a multi-faceted purification in the West whereby secular and religious commitments are subjected to mutual critique, I explore potential Eastern contributions to this process by providing a micro-analysis of the interaction of discursive subjects in three traditions: for Confucianism, the rectification of names; Taoism, truth disclosure; and Buddhism, right speech.
4. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jan Konior The Interplay of Philosophy and Religion in the Chinese Culture 互相作用中國哲學宗教和文化
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The aim of this article is to present the interplay between philosophy, religion and culture in China, to give a clear picture of philosophical, religious and cultural aspects of Chinese culture. What do we understand by Chinese culture? What is the role of Religion and Philosophy in Chinese Culture? The goal of this presentation is to present a deeper account of the philosophical, cultural and traditional differences and similarities between the Chinese and the Western World.What is the meaning of Chinese philosophical ideas? How do we understand and interpret Chinese thought? How do we build a bridge between East and West focused on cultural, philosophical and religious aspects? What has the West done for China and what has China done for West? Are we partners in inter-religious, cultural and philosophical dialogue?
5. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Thomas Storck Culture and the Embodiment of Cultural Ideals as Preliminary to a Philosophy of Culture
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In order to lay the ground for the construction of a philosophy of culture the origin, meaning and some of the implications of the word „culture” are examined and discussed in light of a working definition of the anthropological concept of culture taken from C. Dawson. In Section II another concept of culture is examined, based on the idea of culture as human perfection. Then in Section III the concept of cultural levels is introduced, that is, the differing levels at which the central concept of a culture can be understood or embodied.
6. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Petr Dvořák The Relational Logic of Franciscus Toletus and Petrus Fonseca
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The well-known Ratio Studiorum of 1599 states that logical instruction should follow F. Toletus (Toledo) or P. Fonseca. The latter authored the famousInstitutionum Dialecticarum Libri Octo (1564), the former a similar manual, Introductio in Dialecticam Aristotelis (1561). As is often observed, the contrast between the Aristotelian and present symbolic logics is perhaps most striking in their analysis of relational statements. Both authors recognize the relational logical form as independent from the traditional subject-predicate form and see the need to recognize relational inferential rules. They differ in their specific rules, however, so neither of the authors has captured the system of relational syllogism in its entirety.
7. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Marc Sultana How does the akratês intentionally do what he intended not to without changing his mind?
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8. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Piotr Stanisław Mazur The Dignity of the Person in the Context of Human Providence
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Thomas Aquinas understands providence as the reason of directing things to ends (ratio ordinis rerum in finem), and as the execution of that directing, i.e. governance (gubernatio). Thus, providence is one of the fundamental attributes of the person that reveals the person’s perfection and dignity. Providence consists in a free and reasonable directing of oneself and the reality subject to oneself in order to actualize potentialities of oneself and of other beings in the context of the ultimate goal of existence. Human providence joins the providence of the Absolute with regard to the world. In spite of its deficiencies human providence reveals the essential dignity of the human person.
9. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Paul Douglas Kabay Did God Begin to Exist ex nihilo?
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I argue that the following two claims provide us with sufficiently strong reason to conclude that God came into existence from nothing a finite time in the past: (1) that God is omnitemporal; and (2) that there is a first moment of time. After defending the possibility of God beginning to exist ex nihilo from various objections, I critique two alternative attempts at providing an account of the relationship between an omnitemporal God and the beginning of time (that of Alan Padgett and William Lane Craig). I show that these either fail to be an alternative to my own model or are less supported by the relevant evidence.
10. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jacek Bielas, Rafał Abramciów Dimensions of corporeality. A metatheoretical analysis of anthropologists’ concern with the human body
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Since the very dawn of its history, modern philosophical anthropology has been addressing the issue of the human body. As a result of those efforts, Descartes,de Biran, Husserl, Sartre, Marcel, Merleau-Ponty and others have brought forward a variety of conceptions concerning various aspects of human corporeality.Anthropological explorations concerning the question of the human body, appear in a particularly interesting way, when they are considered in the context ofthose points of view which, in an essential way, refer to the subjective character of the human being. It is a matter of reconstructing and analyzing how the subject’s corporeality is given to the subject, originarily, according to the phenomenological rule zu den Sachen selbst. The aim of this paper is thus to put into some order the concerns of a variety of anthropologists with regard to the question of the human body, as it is given to, or experienced by, the subject. A metatheoretical analysis of this field proves it is possible to do so with the use of a tool, which is called here, a dimension of corporeality.