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1. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mark Sultana Bridging the Gulf between Wittgenstein's Works: a Matter of Showing
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In this paper, I take three snapshots of Wittgenstein's philosophical work in order to jot a few notes on the issue of the continuity in his philosophy. I useWittgenstein's distinction between what can be 'said' and what can only be 'shown' in order to highlight Wittgenstein's continual insistence that our basic relation with reality is seamless. I propose that Wittgenstein holds, throughout his philosophical career, that our thinking does not stop short of the world. In brief, I suggest that Wittgenstein would note that our natural history is largely what the mediaevals would call second nature.
2. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tim Thornton An Aesthetic Grounding for the Role of Concepts in Experience in Kant, Wittgenstein and McDowell
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The paper begins by asking, in the context of McDowell's Mind and World, what guides empirical judgement. It then critically examines David Bell's accountof the role of aesthetic judgement, or experience, in Kant and Wittgenstein, in shedding light on empirical judgement. Bell's suggestion that a Wittgensteinian account of aesthetic experience can guide the application of empirical concepts is criticised: neither the discussion of aesthetic judgement nor aesthetic experience helps underpin empirical judgement. But attention to the parallel between Wittgenstein's discussion of understanding rules and the question of how empirical concepts can be applied to particulars suggests how to dissolve the felt need for an answer. This in turn helps shed light on McDowell's conceptualist account of experience.
3. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Giorgio Lando Tractarian Ontology: Mereology or Set Theory?
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I analyze the relations of constituency or „being in" that connect different ontological items in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. A state of affairs is constituted by atoms, atoms are in a state of affairs. Atoms are also in an atomic fact. Moreover, the world is the totality of facts, thus it is in some sense made of facts. Many other kinds of Tractarian notions - such as molecular facts, logical space, reality - seem to be involved in constituency relations. How should these relations be conceived? And how is it possible to formalize them in a convincing way? I draw a comparison between two ways of conceiving and formalizing these relations: through sets and through mereological sums. The comparison shows that the conceptual machinery of set theory is apter to conceive and formalize Tractarian constituency notions than the mereological one.
4. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Robert Janusz Ontology in Astronomy
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In the domain of astronomy the object oriented paradigm of informatics needs to constmct an ontology to be able to reason about concepts and to constructqueries in a computerized knowledge system. The article presents approaches to ontology in philosophy, the natural sciences and informatics and shows their limits and reciprocity.
5. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tadeusz Gadacz The Problem of Evil in Józef Tischner's Philosophy
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The problem of evil is a metaphysical problem bound up with the conditions of human existence. The radical evil of fascism and communism, according to Jozef Tischner, opens up the possibility that we live in the time of a modem Manicliaeism, understood as having two faces: nihilism and pessimism. The possibility of thinking of such a modem form of Manichaeism necessarily calls for a new inquiry into the question of evil. For Tischner, evil, like good, is not anobject, but something in which man participates, and for this reason it cannot be objectified and defined. One can only ask how it appears.
6. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Anna-Karin Andersson The Positive and Negative Rights of Pre-Natal Organisms and Infants/Children in Virtue of Their Potentiality for Autonomous Agency
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In this paper, a rights-based argument for the impermissibility of abortion, infanticide and neglect of some pre-natal organisms and infants/children is advanced. I argue, in opposition to most rights-ethicists, that the potentiality for autonomous agency gives individuals negative rights. I also examine the conjecture that potential autonomous agents have positive rights in virtue of their vulnerability. According to this suggestion, once an individual obtains actual autonomous agency, he or she has merely negative rights. Possible solutions to conflicts of rights between parents and their offspring are investigated. Finally, I discuss a lexical order between positive and negative rights, which may solve conflicts between the rights of potential autonomous agents and actual autonomous agents.
7. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Julia Tanner Intrinsic Value and the Argument from Regress
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Proponents of the argument from regress maintain that the existence of Instrumental Value is sufficient to establish the existence of Intrinsic Value. It isargued that the chain of instrumentally valuable things has to end somewhere. Namely with intrinsic value. In this paper, I shall argue something a little more modest than this. I do not want to argue that the regress argument proves that there is intrinsic value but rather that it proves that the idea of intrinsic value is a necessary part of our thinking about moral value.
8. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Roman Darowski Philosophy of the Jesuits in Lithuania since the 16th until the 18th Century
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In the philosophy of the Jesuits of this period one can distinguish philosophy connected with teaching, i.e. taught at schools led by the Jesuits, and Civicphilosophy, not connected directly with teaching. This was mainly social, economic, and political philosophy, especially philosophy of the state, law and the like.
9. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Piotr Aszyk Reception of Some Aspects of the Hippocratic Medical Ethics in Antiquity
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The Hellenic medical ideas have found appreciation among people over centuries. Though the initial concept remained the same, methods or ways to achievedesired aims have changed. Since Hippocrates, new generations of physicians have worked hard to find more powerful types of therapies to relieve their patients and make treatment less burdensome. The struggle of medicine is very specific and requires, apart from practical skills, a clear personal commitment to help people wisely. From the Early Antiquity, both medicine and medical ethics go together. Wherever Hippocratic medicine is practiced, an appropriate moral pattern accompanies it because the Hellenic doctor offered purely clinical data and his art should not be separated from anthropology, ethics and religion.
10. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Luke Fischer Derrida and Husserl on Time
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In this essay I take issue with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's phenomenology of intemal time-consciousness in Speech and Phenomena. Derrida's critique of Husserl's phenomenology of time also forms the basis for what Derrida regards to be an undermining of phenomenological philosophy itself. After first disagreeing with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's understanding of time I proceed to object to his „undermining" of phenomenology. I attempt to illustrate that his critique of phenomenology is unconvincing.