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Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society

Social Innovations that Create a Better World

Volume 24
Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Meeting

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Displaying: 1-20 of 40 documents


1. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
About These Proceedings
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business ethics
2. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
James D. Carlson, Adam D. Bailey, Ronald K. Mitchell Competition and Morality
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We review an argument that proposes two moralities—“everyday” moral norms and “adversarial” moral norms—are required for business contexts. We take issue with an implication of this idea, namely that competitive actions do not need to be in accord with “everyday” moral norms. After showing that the argument for two moralities in business does not succeed, we propose a distinction between two types of competitive actions: principled, those actions which comport with every day morality, and merely self-interested, those actions that do not comport with every day morality. The merits of this distinction are discussed.
3. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Marc-Charles “M-C” Ingerson, Bradley R. Agle, Katie A. Liljenquist Negotiating Ethically: Resilience, Moral Identity, and Power in Negotiations
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Everybody negotiates. But not everybody negotiates ethically. One driver of unethical negotiation behavior is power. Yet, we still haven’t discovered the principalmoderating and mediating influences between power and ethical negotiation behavior. In this pair of experimental studies we’re interested in finding out how resilience and moral identity affect an individual’s ethical behavior in both simple and complex negotiations when primed for power.
corporate social responsibility and performance
4. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Pamala J. Dillon Virtuous CSR: Blending Positive Organizational Scholarship and Social Responsibility
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Theory development surrounding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been ensconced in a rational economic logic, exploring both financial and ethicaljustifications (Basu & Palazzo, 2008; Margolis & Walsh, 2003). Venturing outside of this logic and viewing corporations as organizations from a positive organizational scholarship (POS) perspective provides an opportunity to broaden the exploration of CSR. Within POS, organizations are assumed to be driven by a need to contribute to human flourishing and well-being (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). This viewpoint does not preclude the importance of organizational performance or survival, but rather provides a reorienting perspective to the study of organizations (Margolis & Walsh, 2003). In this paper, the concept of Virtuous CSR is proposed as part of a continuum of CSR theory ranging from strategic to virtuous. Virtuous CSR changes the lens through which organizations and CSR are studied. Specific attributes of Virtuous CSR are proposed.
5. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Tanusree Jain The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Corporate Social Orientation: A Comparative Analysis of U.S., German and Indian Companies
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This paper addresses two main issues. First, it develops a systematic mechanism to examine corporate social orientation (CSO) by contextualizing the researcharound the 2007 global financial crisis and second, it applies this mechanism to compare the CSOs across the U.S., Germany and India. Using a 7-code index of CSO on a sample of financial companies across the three countries, this paper captures the dissolution of loose couplings between corporate private intentions and corporate public pretentions thereby exposing the de-facto CSOs. The results provide evidence of country of origin effects on CSO and capture the dynamic aspect of CSO, not yet shown in previous studies.
6. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Bruce Paton, Caterina Tantalo Changing the Landscape: Battling Information Asymmetries to Accelerate Adoption of CSR Business Practices
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In the absence of credible information and corresponding positive feedback from stakeholders, firms have limited incentive to invest in CSR practices. This paper focuses on the under-exploited potential of initiatives designed to overcome the inhibiting effects of information asymmetries on the adoption of socially responsible behaviors. Mechanisms to address information asymmetries can accelerate the adoption of socially responsible practices by increasing the rewards firms receive for responsible behavior, and raise the cost of retaining less responsible behaviors by making them more visible to interested stakeholders.
7. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Karen Paul Business Cycle Effects on Socially Responsible Investment: Evidence from Two Business Cycles 1991 to 2009
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Socially responsible investing (SRI) is a significant part of the U.S. equity market. Studies of the relationship between social performance and financialperformance have not considered the effect of business cycles, which is the main topic of this study. An SRI Fund of Funds is compared to the S&P 500 over two complete business cycles from 1991 to 2009. The SRI Fund of Funds had financial performance comparable to the S&P 500 during market contractions, but underperformed during market expansions. The factors associated with SRI returns are examined using both the Fama-French 3-Factor Model and the Carhart 4-Factor Model. Momentum appears to be of special importance during market expansions. The implications of these findings for the field of SRI are examined.
8. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Caddie Putnam Rankin, Harry J. Van Buren III The Professionalization Continuum: The Expanding CSR Function
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In this paper, we investigate the factors that predict professionalization of organizational occupations in order to (1) predict how the CSR function might evolve inways that move it closer to a well-defined profession and (2) assess why moving toward professionalization might make the CSR function more effective within organizations. We use our historical analysis to make research propositions as to which elements of professionalization are most important in promoting ethical behavior. We also discuss whether we believe a path exists for the CSR function to move along the professionalization continuum from less established to well established in ways that promotes the function’s effectiveness.
9. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Duane Windsor Authenticity, Greenwashing, and Institutionalization of CSR Best Practices
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This paper explores relationships among authenticity, greenwashing, and institutionalization of best practices for corporate social responsibility (CSR). The issue of authenticity versus greenwashing in CSR and stakeholder engagement practices has become an increasingly important topic of activist debate and scholarly inquiry. This paper identifies some relevant literature, defines authenticity and greenwashing, and seeks to connect the definitional distinction to institutionalization of CSR best practices. Connection involves definition and identification of “best” practices for CSR.
sustainability, sustainable development, and social entrepreneurship
10. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Robbin Derry, Michael B. Elmes Hunger, Hegemony, and Inequality: The Discourse of Food in the U.S.
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This paper addresses the intertwined issues of rising income inequality and food insecurity in the U.S. The ways that food security and insecurity are defined anddiscussed by the major agricultural companies are contrasted with the concepts and definitions used by food sovereignty activists. We argue that the hegemonic discourse of hunger and food security articulated and disseminated by the agricultural production companies, such as Monsanto and Cargill, contributes to, rather than alleviates widespread food insecurity. Local and regional food production offer alternatives that enable low income people to control and optimize their food choices.
11. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Bryan W. Husted, José Salazar Pricing Social Externalities: The Case of Income Inequality
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Using the Theil index to measure income inequality, we define a specific firm’s contribution to overall income inequality and propose a simple model to find theequilibrium price for a given target of income inequality reduction. We first establish income inequality reduction targets for a population of firms. We then model a marginal income inequality reduction cost curve and match demand and supply to derive the equilibrium price. Using a small sample of fifteen firms, we simulate a market for income inequality reduction and calculate the equilibrium price.
12. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Linda C. Rodriguez, Patsy G. Lewellyn Shared Value Creation through Community Health Initiatives: A Social Innovation
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Should the private sector concern itself with the health of the communities in which it operates? Should the community look to local businesses for collaboration in the effort to elevate the health of its citizens? Is there an opportunity between the public and private sectors to create shared value through the enhancement of public health? These are questions this paper explores and analyzes, using theoretical models that originate in disparate literatures.
13. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Linda M. Sama, R. Mitch Casselman The Dark Side of Fairtrade© in BOP Markets: Critical Perspectives and a Case Study
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Fairtrade-certified products are sold through retailers to consumers who are willing to pay a premium in exchange for assurances that products were produced under acceptable working and environmental conditions, and that farmers were paid a fair market price. While touted as a positive social innovation, the Fairtrade movement has invited critical scrutiny and in its wake, suggestions for improvements in terms of sustainability, transparency, and tangible benefits for producers subsisting in Base of Pyramid (BOP) markets. In this paper, we uncover the debate swirling around Fairtrade and stipulate as to the theoretical reasoning for why the system should work and why it can fail. Focusing on the coffee industry, a case study of a socially responsible coffee roaster in Kansas City illustrates one of the alternative business models we discuss that seeks to solve the same problems addressed through Fairtrade, albeit through different producer-buyer relationships.
14. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Sashi Sekhar Employee and Organizational Environmental Values Fit and its Relationship to Sustainability-relevant Attitudes, Commitment and Turnover Intentions
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A model is presented that examines the interactions between employee and organizational values toward the natural environment and its influence on important sustainability-related outcomes. Perspectives from the new environmental paradigm (Catton & Dunlap, 1980; Stern & Dietz, 1994), anthropocentric value orientation (Shrivastava, 1994, 1995; Pursor, Park & Montouri, 1995; Starik & Rands, 1995), behavioral view of HRM (Schuler & Jackson, 1987, 1995), and person-organizational (Chatman; 1989; Kristoff, 1996) are applied. The overall proposition is that level of congruence between employee and company values toward the natural environment influences employee attitudes toward firm green initiatives, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions.
15. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Mark Starik Connecting and Advancing the Social Innovations of Business Sustainability Models
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Numerous business research models or frameworks have been developed to explain, predict, and prescribe the decisions and actions behind changing organizational behaviors to advance sustainability, including sustainability issues related to businesses. The objective of this paper is to recognize that the integration of business sustainability models for the purpose of highlighting the need and prescriptions for more urgent and effective socio-economic and environmental crises resolution is a social innovation that can be encouraged both within and outside of business academics. The scope of the paper is the full set of current and near-future entwined socio-economic and environmental challenges that appear to need to be addressed holistically by entities at the multiple levels of organization (including business), individual/community, and society.
environmental management and regulation
16. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Frederik Dahlmann, Stephen Brammer Reducing Carbon Emissions Worldwide: MNCs and Global Environmental Performance
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This paper prepares an investigation into environmental performance among multinational enterprises in the context of greenhouse gas emissions. The authors offer a theoretical background about how MNCs are faced with opposing choices with regard to standardising or adjusting their local environmental performances. Moreover, we outline a potential methodology for exploring the variation in MNCs’ levels of greenhouse gas emissions around the world.
17. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Frederik Dahlmann, Stephen Brammer Corporate Governance vs. Corporate Environmental Governance: Complementary or Separate Drivers of Environmental Performance?
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This paper prepares an investigation into the roles and effectiveness of different types of corporate governance and environmental governance mechanisms in driving improvements in environmental performance. More specifically, the authors provide background theory regarding the way in which different types of traditional corporate governance and new concepts of environmental governance might have an impact on reducing firms’ levels of greenhouse gas emissions intensities. The paper also suggests a method of how this could be empirically tested.
18. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Christine Husmann Business Opportunities Versus Socialist Heritage: The Role That Business Can Play in Reducing Poverty in Rural Ethiopia
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Against the background of various innovative business approaches developed in the last two decades that aim at directly targeting poor people as producers or consumers, this research looks at the potential of the private sector to contribute to poverty reduction in rural Ethiopia by providing improved seed to poor smallholder farmers. Smallholder productivity is very low and demand for improved seed is higher than supply in Ethiopia. An institutional economics framework is applied to analyze more than 40 expert interviews carried out in Ethiopia with stakeholders of business, government and NGOs. Results suggest that national institutions vitiate incentives for seed producers and cause transaction costs to be very high for Ethiopian seed companies. This hampers private sector development, which causes a lack of improved seed in the country. Institutional reforms are undertaken but are ambiguous in their effect on private sector development.
public affairs, public policy, and regulation
19. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
Michael Hadani, Jonathan Doh, Marguerite Schneider An Examination of Corporate and Regulatory Responses to Socially Oriented Investor Activism
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Shareholder activism challenges management control over the corporate status quo. Drawing on reactance theory and recent empirical work on corporate political activity (CPA) and on firms’ response to shareholder activism, and testing using data complied by the Interfaith Center for Corporate Responsibility, the Federal Election Commission and others for S&P 500 firms from 1999-2006, we find evidence that CPA buffers firms from corporate social responsibility-related or socially-oriented shareholder proposals. Greater CPA, particularly greater relational CPA, influences responses of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as well as responses of the targeted firm, to help neutralize socially-oriented shareholder activism.
20. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 2013
John M. Holcomb Corporate Electoral Activities and the 2012 Elections: Impact of the Citizens United Decision
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This paper challenges the conventional wisdom concerning the impact of the Citizens United v. FEC decision by examining the flow of corporate money into the 2012 election. The decision, which is consistent with most prior case law and was not a radical departure, promoted the use of super PACs and 501-c(4) committees for political money that were not widely used by corporations, and the super PACs and c-4 committees were largely ineffective in the 2012 election. They also did not produce a marked advantage for the Republican Party, especially in the presidential election. The Citizens United decision did, however, lead to other legal and regulatory developments in an effort to promote greater disclosure, though those developments have not been successful. Investors have been somewhat more successful in promoting limits on corporate political spending through shareholder proposals. Some state laws and upcoming court cases maylimit other restrictions on political contributions.