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1. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Frank Fair From the Editor's Desk
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2. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Linda Elder, Gerald Nosich Introductions to the Memorial Issue
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3. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Linda Elder Richard Paul’s Contributions to the Field of Critical Thinking and to the Establishment of First Principles of in Critical thinking
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Beginning in his PhD program, and over a period of years in the 1960s, Richard Paul thoughtfully examined and deliberately critiqued existing theories of logic and reasoning. He took what was a very narrow conception of reasoning and broadened it to more accurately represent human thinking when people reason. He captured the idea of universal intellectual standards by exploring standards typically used by skilled reasoners, and assembled these standards into a constellation of ideas that is easily understandable. Following the tradition of Socrates, Paul continually emphasized the importance of developing conceptual understandings based in foundational ideas and principles of analysis, and tested through life experience. His work laid the groundwork for what may be termed first principles in critical thinking and for a legitimate field of critical thinking studies.
4. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Gerald Nosich Richard Paul’s Approach to Critical Thinking: Comprehensiveness, Systematicity, and Practicality
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Richard Paul changed the face and the practice of critical thinking for hundreds of thousands of educators, professionals, and reflective persons across the world. In this paper I describe Paul’s goals and, briefly, some of his achievements in articulating his robust approach to critical thinking. I focus primarily on its direct orientation to practicality; its comprehensiveness, its applicability in any domain; and its systematicity, its coherent, interlocking way of laying out all the significant dimensions of critical thinking consistent with use in practice. I also describe some implications of Paul’s work: its relation to other models or approaches that are more limited in their comprehensiveness, systematicity, and/or practicality; the contrast between Paul’s maximally flexible account and accounts or teaching practices based on specific directives; and the capacity Paul’s articulation carries with it of being able to enhance any approach to thinking things through.
5. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Amanda Hiner Truth-seeking Versus Confirmation Bias: How Richard Paul’s Conception of Critical Thinking Cultivates Authentic Research and Fairminded Thinking
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This article, written in response to a kind invitation by Linda Elder, Gerald Nosich, and Frank Fair to contribute a reflective piece honoring the life, work, and intellectual contributions of Dr. Richard Paul, focuses on the ways in which his conception of critical thinking fosters fairminded, authentic, ethical reasoning and research. Richard Paul’s framework for critical thinking emphasizes and cultivates Socratic, “strong-sense,” fairminded thinking and intellectual humility, enabling students to understand the implications of fairminded research and providing them with valuable strategies to combat egocentrism and confirmation bias. This article explains not only why the Paul/Elder conception of critical thinking fosters fairmindedness and ethical reasoning in both students and teachers, but it outlines how the application of this framework for critical thinking can transform classroom teaching and research paper assignments in order to encourage and cultivate metacognitive analysis and authentic research in student writers.
6. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Robert Niewoehner Portaging Richard Paul’s Model to Professional Practice: Ideas that Integrate
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Richard Paul originally developed and disseminated his approach principally through venues targeting K-12 and university education. Together with Linda Elder he sought to ground a culture of critical thinking. Paul and Elder, in collaboration with this author, then extended their approach into the professional practice of engineering. The Engineering Reasoning Thinker’s Guide contextualized the model for engineers. Though intended for engineering students, it resonated with engineers in industry practice, providing a pattern for other guides, such as Clinical Reasoning. Presuming familiarity with the components of Paul and Elder’s approach, this article demonstrates their approach’s applicability to and utility in domains of professional practice, whether engineering, medicine, law, or business. Their approach provides a framework for conceptualizing, synthesizing, and applying material from disparate domains in popular business literature. Organizations that embrace Paul and Elder’s vocabulary will improve the collective thinking skills of their entire work-force. Paul and Elder’s approach provides ideas that integrate.
7. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Donald Hatcher Richard Paul and the Philosophical Foundations of Critical Thinking
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The late Richard Paul was arguably the most well-known and influential person in the history of the critical thinking movement. This reflection on and tribute to his work focuses on Paul’s genius in applying his knowledge of important works in the history of philosophy to the development of a robust conception of critical thinking, one that has wide appeal, not only to philosophers, but to faculties across academe. I also discuss the debt so many of us who teach critical thinking owe to his amazing scholarly and organizational skills, e.g., the 36 years of the Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform, his in-service work for hundreds of faculties, his distribution of over one million “Thinkers Guides,” and his successful efforts to make critical thinking the core concept in education.
8. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Patricia Payette, Edna Ross Making a Campus-Wide Commitment to Critical Thinking: Insights and Promising Practices Utilizing the Paul-Elder Approach at the University of Louisville
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The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the multi-year, critical thinking initiative at the University of Louisville called Ideas to Action, or i2a. This article discusses the rationale for the selection of the Paul-Elder critical thinking framework to guide the implementation and assessment of the project across curricular and co-curricular campus arenas. The co-authors used the research of Richard Paul to inform various facets of their project and worked with others on campus to create critical thinking learning communities, and to provide customized instructional consultations, in order to help faculty and staff choose and adopt methodologies that foster students’ explicit development of critical thinking skills. The article discusses three examples of scholarship and innovative programs that resulted from professional staff members’ integration of the critical thinking framework into their work with students.