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1. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Frank Fair From the Editor’s Desk
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2. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Gerald Nosich From Argument and Philosophy to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum
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This reflective article details the evolution of Gerald Nosich’s view of what critical thinking involves. Nosich recounts three major stages in the development of his views: (1) starting a course on Reasoning that strongly engaged students in the actual practices of argument analysis and evaluation, (2) then teaching a course Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum which called into graphic prominence other aspects of critical thinking beyond arguments, for example, observing thoughtfully and reflectively, raising key questions with respect to an issue, and discerning a common structure underlying different phenomena, and, finally, (3) realizing the power of Richard Paul’s emphasis on common elements and standards involved in critical thinking.
3. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Steven Trickey How Can Students be Encouraged to Think Critically? Infusing Inquiry Across Subject Disciplines
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This paper discusses the use of collaborative inquiry approaches to promote critical thinking and ‘deep’ learning across different subject domains and at different educational stages. The content of this paper follows on from a four-year evaluation of the Thinking through Philosophy project that took place in a number of schools in Scotland. Although the original research focused on developing thinking in young students (aged 10 to 12 years), the project subsequently widened the targeted age range both down to younger pre-school students (aged 4 years) and upward to pre-Higher Education students (aged 16 years). The author argues that interactive thinking and learning processes, as exemplified by ‘collaborative inquiry,’ appear equally relevant to students of different ages andstages including those studying higher education courses. The paper starts with an overview of the Clackmannanshire research before considering the application of inquiry-based approaches across a wide range of subject disciplines and educational stages, including higher education.
4. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Robert L. Williams, Kathleen B. Aspiranti, Katherine R. Krohn Critical Thinking and Sociopolitical Values Reflective of Political Ideology
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Critical thinking measures have often been empirically associated with other cognitive dimensions (e.g., achievement test scores, IQ scores, exam scores) but seldom with sociopolitical perspectives. Consequently, the current study examined the relationship of critical thinking to sociopolitical values reflective of political ideology, namely respect for civil liberties, emphasis on national security, militarism, and support for the Iraq War. In a sample of 232 undergraduates attending a Southeastern university, critical thinking correlated significantly with respect for civil liberties (.19), emphasis on national security (-.29), militarism (-.25), and support for the Iraq War (-.28). A logistic regression analysis showed that the sociopolitical measures significantly predicted placement in high and low critical thinking groups, with support for the Iraq War being the primary predictor. A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) revealed that the sociopolitical means for the high and low critical thinking groups all differed significantly. The results suggest that critical thinking scores are generally predictive of liberal versus conservative political ideology.
5. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Kevin Possin The Power of Critical Thinking
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6. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Monica Pignotti Social Work Practice: A Critical Thinker’s Guide
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7. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 3
Monica Pignotti Critical Thinking for Helping Professionals: A Skills Based Workbook
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8. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Daniel Fasko, Jr. From the Editor’s Desk
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9. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Frank Fair A Word to INQUIRY Readers
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10. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Yoram Harpaz Conflicting Logics in Teaching Critical Thinking
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The article aims at (1) organizing the theoretical ideas of critical thinking on the basis of an overall and systematic conception of education, (2) exposing tensions and contradictions in the various conceptions of critical thinking and (3) suggesting a directing principle for the teaching of critical thinking. In order to achieve these far-reaching aims, the author projects “The Cognitive Map of Instruction” developed by Zvi Lamm on the discourse of critical thinking. Through this “map” it seems that all sub-trends of teaching critical thinking may be divided into three defined “logics,” and that these sub-trends harbor two kinds of internal contradictions: between the different “logics” of teaching, and between their pattern of teaching and the idea of critical thinking. Since none of the three “logics” suggested by Lamm (1976) in “The Cognitive Map of Instruction” suits the purpose of teaching critical thinking, the article turns away from this “map,” that served it so well to locate and expose the various trends of critical thinking. This turn is made on behalf of another idea of Lamm—that of undermining pedagogy. This well-rooted idea may direct the pedagogy of critical thinking toward a coherent and effective instruction.
11. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Ana M. Nieto, Carlos Saiz Critical Thinking: A Question of Aptitude and Attitude?
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Traditionally, it has been held that critical thinking requires a set of cognitive skills and dispositions. The present work supports the opinion of some theorists who have proposed that these might not be the only two ingredients necessary for improving critical thinking. More specifically, new factors could be necessary if critical thinking is to be achieved, such as gaining an epistemological understanding of critical thinking; reaching a given level of epistemological development, or the beliefs that are held about thinking. These new components are analysed conceptually and instructionally. Special attention is also devoted to dispositions.
12. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Harikumar Sankaran, Mariza Dimitrijevic Implications for Critical Thinking Dispositions: Evidence from Freshmen in New Mexico
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13. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Frank Fair, John Miller, Valerie Muehsam, Wendy (McCoy) Elliott TACTS™: Developing a New Critical Thinking Assessment Instrument
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When the accrediting association for collegiate schools of business, AACSB International, reformulated its accreditation standards to include a systematic assessment of undergraduates’ progress in analytic and reflective thinking, our interdisciplinary team looked at available instruments. Logistical problems, concerns about validity, and an interest in assessing quantitative skills not covered in the available instruments led us to devise the Texas Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills™ (TACTS™). As part of the process we followed a suggestion from Scriven and Fisher and incorporated novel multiple-rating items. We went through a lengthy process of test validation, employing both expert consultants and a large-scale comparison between performances on a standard critical thinking skills test and the TACTS™. Consequently, our university is in a position to regularly assess the progress made by undergraduates from our College of Business in acquiring the relevant analytic and reflective thinking skills.
14. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Daniel Fasko, Jr. From the Editor’s Desk
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15. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Frank Fair INQUIRY in Transition: A Note to INQUIRY Readers
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16. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Amy L. Skinner Introduction to the Special Issue on Critical Thinking and Disability in Higher Education
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17. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Amy L. Skinner, Lee Ann R. Rawlins, Cynthia Hughes A Preliminary Investigation Comparing Academic Locus of Control and Perceived Quality of Academic Life across College Students with and without Disabilities
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In the current study we compared academic locus of control (ALoC) and perceived quality of academic life (PQAL) across three groups of university students: those without disabilities, those with attention deficit disorder or learning disabilities (ADD-LD), and those with other disabilities. Results showed no significant differences in ALoC scores, with each group reporting an internal ALoC. However, students with other disabilities (e.g., sensory, motor, chronic health, and/or mental health) reported significantly lower satisfaction with their overall quality of academic life than students without disabilities. Applied implications are discussed along with recommendations for further research.
18. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Donna Gilbertson, Sherrie Mecham, Kara Mickelson, Seth Wilhelmsen Training and Generalization of Study Skills for College Students with Disabilities
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This study utilized a multiple baseline design across two study skills to examine the impact of a self-monitoring checklist and follow-up performance feedback on the generalization of study skills for seven college students with disabilities. All training and follow-up support took place in a remedial college course. The accuracy of study skill use was analyzed to evaluate whether training gains occurred in a college level subject area different than the course in which the skills were taught in the absence of teacher-guided stimuli and verbal prompts. Results provide evidence that relatively simple, classroom-based training and follow-up support markedly increased the accurate use of the notetaking and study guide skills immediately for three of the seven students. However, following a booster session, all but one student’s performance increased following intervention. Results were socially validated by students who indicated they were generally satisfied with the intervention and found it to be useful when studying for the college class. This type of training is critical because low retention rates in college programs are a likely outcome for students with disabilities when study skills are not used.
19. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Juliann Mathis, Amy L. Skinner Enhancing Pre-Service Students’ Learning and Thinking about Bipolar Disorder Via Lecturer Descriptions of Living with Mental Illness
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Two lecture styles were examined to determine which was more effective for enhancing content learning in college students. The same experienced guest lecturer presented information about bipolar disorder (a combination of depression and mania) to college students in human service-related fields. Students in classes assigned to the control group received a standard, didactic lecture. In classes assigned to the experimental group, the presenter began the lecture by informing the students that she had bipolar disorder and enhanced the standard didactic lecture by interspersing descriptions of her personal experiences living with bipolar disorder. Content-specific pre-tests and post-tests developed by the researchers were used to compare acquisition of knowledge about the disorder across groups of students. Results showed that students who received the personal/experiential lecture acquired significantly more knowledge about bipolar disorder than did students who received the standard, didactic lecture. Theories and procedures that may enhance student learning and thinking in related areas are discussed.
20. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Katherine H. Greenberg Thinking about Critical Thinking: Disabilities and Learner-Centered Instructional Design from the Perspective of Mediated Learning Experience Theory
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This paper presents an analysis of commonly held views about critical thinking and how they relate to learning and teaching at the college level. It focuses on assumptions often held by researchers, such as those expressed in the three studies included in this issue, and considers as well the conclusions raised by these studies when addressing needs of those with disabilities. The theory of mediated learning experience offers a uniquely effective way to further critical thinking skills. The paper compares learner-centered vs. content-centered instructional design.