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1. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
John Hooker Editor’s Foreword
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education research articles
2. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Manuel Wörsdörfer Inside the “Homo Oeconomicus Brain”: Towards a Reform of the Economics Curriculum?
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Economics students and economists have—grosso modo—a bad societal reputation. This is, roughly speaking, the provocative result of the majority of empirical studies on economic education. On average, economists and economics students behave in a more self-interested way than others; they are more prone to deviate from the moral good; they tend to free-ride more often and invest less in public goods games; they are more corrupt and less honest in lost letterexperiments, less cooperative in solidarity games, and accept less and keep more in ultimatum bargaining games. In short: they seem to behave more in accordance with the predictions of the rational or self-interest model of standard economics, the Homo oeconomicus model. What might be the reasons that the degree of anti-social and uncooperative behavior is on average significantly more pronounced among economics students compared to other student groups? Can these empirical findings be explained by the self-selection effect and/or the indoctrination effect? What are the implications of these empirical results for economic ethics and economic education? Which roles do the economics curriculum and economic textbooks play? Do they have any effect on everyday behavior? Is the way economics is taught at (business) schools, colleges and universities co-responsible for the considerable behavioral differences? And what can be done in order to reverse these trends and to foster other-regarding preferences and pro-social behavior? The paper analyzes these and other questions with the help of experimental economics, behavioral economics and neuroeconomics. It also draws on recent findings of brain physiology research in general and neuroplasticity in particular.
3. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Robert A. Giacalone, Mark D. Promislo, Daniel E. Goldberg, Elizabeth A. Giacalone Shifting Values, Student Educational Preferences, and Ethics in the Business Curriculum
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In the past 40 years, a global shift has taken place towards a constellation of values known as “expansive values”, which de-emphasize pursuits of money, possessions, and status, and instead focus on quality of life and humanistic goals. This study investigated what students holding expansive values desired in business school course content and student quality of life, and how these preferences differed from students holding materialistic values. Results revealed a number of different factors that were associated only with expansive values, though on a few factors the two student values cohorts shared similar preferences or had inverse preferences. One clear implication of this study is that business schools need to consider offering more ethics classes in order to satisfy the growing number of students with expansive values.
4. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Lydia Barza, Marc Cohen Culture, Moral Reasoning and Teaching Business Ethics: A Snapshot of United Arab Emirates Female Business Students
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The aim of this study is to examine moral reasoning in a cross cultural Islamic context. The moral reasoning of female business students in the United Arab Emirates is described based on Kohlberg’s theory of Cognitive Moral Development (CMD). Business students were asked to participate in a brief individual interview which involved reading three moral dilemmas and answering open-ended questions. Results were analyzed based on each dilemma as well as acrossall three. Most students made their decisions at the first two levels of Kohlberg’s stages, prioritizing how their decision would secure rewards for themselves and compliance with rules to maintain the social order. However, a fairly large percentage also scored at the highest stage of reasoning. Results are explored based on the sociocultural context and implications for ethics education are outlined, including an emphasis on examining conflicting cultural values and the use of context-specific dilemmas for teaching ethics.
5. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Kimberly Carbo Pellegrino, Robert Pellegrino, Debra Perkins “Call of Duty” in the Classroom: Can Gamification Improve Ethical Student Learning Outcomes? A Pilot Study
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Increased emphasis has been placed on teaching ethics in business schools. A recent meta-analysis of business ethics instruction indicated that instructional programs have a minimal impact on improving ethical behaviors (Waples et al. 2008). One of the newest trends in MBA education is gamification which allows instructors to employ video game concepts to engage students in serious business problems. Educators are attempting to harness a similar sort of power exhibited by games like FarmVille or Call of Duty and translate this power into improved educational outcomes. This trend leads to the question; can gamification improve ethical learning outcomes? Using a single cohort of MBA students, ethics instruction in the MBA program was gamified and then operationalized in the students’ first required class and last required class. Although the sample was limited to a single cohort of students, results were promising, indicating improvement in ethical decision making and warranting further study.
6. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Sohyoun Shin, Vincent Aleccia Students’ Academic Misconduct and Attitude Toward Business Ethics
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This paper expands the current business ethics research area by empirically testing the relationships between students’ misconduct including academic dishonesty (i.e., plagiarism/fabrication and/or exam cheating) and undesirable academic behaviors (i.e., disrespectful behaviors and/or slacker behaviors) and their perception of business ethics. Based on 133 surveys from the students in a northwestern regional comprehensive university business program, this study reveals that students who have reported higher frequencies of engaging in exam cheating, disrespectful behavior, or slacker behavior have perceived the given questionable, unethical employee practices as more acceptable conducts than the students who have reported lower frequencies. Students who have more frequently engaged in plagiarism/fabrication are found to be more accepting of both questionable, unethical business operations and employee practices. Gender, age, and cumulative GPA have been additionally explored and found to have correlations with business ethics perception. For ethically-sensitive future practitioners, this paper calls for institutions of higher education (IHEs) to provide clear guidelines on academic conduct/misconduct along with business ethics education in curriculum.
7. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Gerald L. Plumlee, T. Gregory Barrett, L. Carolyn Pearson An Examination of Business Ethics Curriculum in AACSB-Accredited Business Schools
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American businesses, their leaders, and the business schools that developed these leaders find themselves under public scrutiny. As a result, business programs have placed increased emphasis on developing and implementing curriculum to address business ethics, which presents practitioners with the issue of how to define, measure, and evaluate business ethics curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the business ethics curriculum in AACSB-accredited business schools in the U.S. A framework for defining and examining the curriculum was developed using Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) Academic Plan, and other variables from the literature relevant to the business ethics curriculum were examined. The results indicated that the current business ethics curriculum in most business schools has all of the academic plan elements: an ethics-related learning goal; content in a variety of subjects and at a variety of levels; a sequence that has been applied to it; learners’ needs addressed; appropriate and even innovative learning processes; the necessary resources including faculty; assurance of learning at the program level; and has been adjusted an average of 2.6 times in the last five years. Commonly, business ethics is integrated throughout the business curriculum in addition to having an ethics class available, whether elective or required. Faculty generally create and support an ethical culture and the program’s efforts to include business ethics in the curriculum.
teaching articles
8. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Marianne Marar Yacobian, Leslie E. Sekerka Business Ethics and Intercultural Management Education: A Consideration of the Middle Eastern Perspective
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Multinational corporations (MNCs) have brought attention to the challenges of business ethics in intercultural settings. A lack of understanding regarding cultural pluralism in business ethics education has motivated some scholars to consider a broader lens, one that recognizes the influence of religion (Spalding and Franks 2012). Management awareness of the similarities and differences that stem from deeply held beliefs is essential, as unstated thoughts and feelings caninfluence starting assumptions, even before ethical decision-making processes begin. If deeply entrenched cultural traditions and religious values remain implicit and/or misunderstood, collaborative efforts may be derailed due to an inadvertent lack of respect and understanding. Because many Westerners remain unfamiliar with Muslim-based beliefs, the authors advance business ethics education by offering an overview of business practices in the Middle East. A modeland exercise are presented as tools to promote awareness of cultural perspectives. This platform for understanding will help adult learners see how their personal origins can shape and influence management thought.
9. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Richard S. Simmons Integrating Ethics into an Undergraduate Tax Planning Course at a University in Hong Kong
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Recent scandals involving accounting firms raise serious concerns about ethical attitudes in the provision of professional tax services. Enhancing the ethics education of prospective tax professionals presents a means through which this situation can be improved. In order to promote such educational development, this study describes the infusion of an ethics intervention in a tax planning course at a university in Hong Kong. Also, the findings of an exploratory survey into theeffect of the course on student attitudes towards the ethicality of tax avoidance and evasion are reported. The findings show that student attitudes towards the ethicality of tax avoidance, but not towards tax evasion, became more critical following the course. Several opportunities for future research are proposed.
10. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Jennifer Cordon Thor, Kenneth M. York, T.J. Wharton It’s Different Because It Affects Me: An Experiential Exercise in Ethics
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Ethics education in higher education often uses a model that allows students to apply ethical theories to a hypothetical dilemma in order to make a decision. However, it is rare that students directly experience the effects of unethical decision making by others. This paper presents an in-class exercise that provides a concrete experience. The exercise gives students the experience of being the victim of unethical behavior, and subsequently allows them to apply basic ethicaltheories to a real life situation. It is suitable for courses in legal environment of business, ethics, and organizational behavior, at the undergraduate or graduate level. When used in a business ethics class, more emphasis can be placed on developing various ethical constructs. A narrative for how this exercise was used in an undergraduate Legal Environment of Business class is provided, along with a list of other experiential exercises that are available to teach ethics.
11. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Wayne F. Buck A Theory of Business Ethics Simulation Games
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This article discusses the use of computer-based simulation games to teach business ethics. The current theory of business ethics simulation games (BESGs) is built on two axioms. The first is that BESGs are best used to teach students ethical principles, and the second is that this is best accomplished by presenting students with ethical dilemmas. This article disputes both of these axioms and proposes new theory. The purpose of BESGs, on the new theory, is to induce in students certain thought processes, not to simulate business situations. According to this new theory, simulation games should be designed to induce in players decision-making processes analogous to those of managers and employees confronted with ethically fraught decisions that have no obvious right or wrong answer. These ethical conundrums involve balancing risks to others and benefits for oneself in the course of ordinary, everyday work. This new theory is illustrated by describing a BESG designed by the author and currently used at several colleges and universities.
12. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
David S. Waller, Lynne M. Freeman, Gerhard Hambusch, Katrina Waite, John Neil Embedding Ethics in the Business Curriculum: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach
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In response to recent corporate ethical and financial disasters there has been increased pressure on business schools to improve their teaching of corporate ethics. Accreditation bodies, such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), now require member institutions to develop the ethical awareness of business students, either through a dedicated subject or an integrated coverage of ethics across the curriculum. This paper describes an institutional approach to the incorporation of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary ethics framework into the business curriculum. We discuss important implications for the assessment of ethics within institutional assurance practices, and address critical issues related to the support of academics whenrequired to incorporate new ethics material within their subject which may be outside their field of expertise. As an example, the successful application of the framework within the marketing discipline is presented and discussed.
13. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Dennis Wittmer, Kevin O’Brien The Virtue of “Virtue Ethics” in Business and Business Education
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This article offers an approach to advance the use of virtue ethics in the training of business managers and leaders, as well as in the education of business students. A thesis is that virtue ethics offers a valuable way to think about how we want to be and what we should strive to become qua businessperson, manager, and leader. The article provides a framework for thinking about virtue ethics in the context of business and leadership, with emphasis on building trust in organizations. It includes a brief summary of Aristotelian virtue ethics, core concepts, and how they apply to management and leadership decision-making. The article concludes with a summary of an approach for teaching a virtue ethics module, which has evolved over the past 20 years. Included are exercises, a survey tool, and a business case as components of the module. The module has been used in corporate training, as well as graduate and undergraduate business education. It is hoped this approach will spur others to explore other ways to bring virtue ethics to business and business education.
14. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Angelo Carlo S. Carrascoso Integrated Business Ethics Education Through Business and the Liberal Arts
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Despite the notable roles that the liberal arts and ethics have played in business education, both domains are regarded as educational burdens rather than opportunities for business to improve its role in society. This paper seeks to change the discourse by reconstituting the mostly adversarial relationship between business and the liberal arts. Undertaking this requires the liberal arts to embrace practical education and business to rediscover its foundation in the liberal arts. The improved dialogue between these domains enhances the internal dimension of student learning which refers to delivered content. However, sustaining the degree of interaction necessary to create high quality content greatly depends on external enabling conditions which include faculty attitudes on collaboration and the level of institutional support for initiatives that promote interdisciplinarity. The outcome of this reconceptualization is a relevant, holistic and strongly grounded student educational experience. It also provides the groundwork for an Integrated Business Ethics Education framework that properly reflects the integration of the internal and external aspects of student education.
15. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Ruud Welten Case Studies in Business Ethics: A Hermeneutical Approach
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Business ethics exists only because people do business—hence applied ethics—and like other forms of applied ethics, it is based on two poles: (ethical) theory and (entrepreneurial) practice. But what is their exact relationship? And what about the role of the case itself, which is always a narrative? Case studies are neither merely practical nor purely theoretical. Education and training as well as academic and popular debate regarding business ethics often involve the use of case studies. This contribution is a hermeneutically oriented exploration of the role case studies play in business ethics training. To that end, I will introduce an interpretative concept Paul Ricoeur developed in his 1986 Du texte à l’action and his 1965 study of Freud De l’interprétation.
case studies (with accompanying teaching notes)
16. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Andrea L. Santiago, Fernando Y. Roxas Reaching Out to Survivors: Typhoon Haiyan, Philippines (A) and (B)
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This case illustrates the dilemma facing a medium-sized family business, EMME Logistics and Security Agency that wanted to do more for the victims of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan. About a third of the company’s personnel had family in the hardest hit areas and were anxious to go to find out if their relatives had survived the wreckage caused by the strongest typhoon ever to hit landfall in the Phillipines. Committing the company’s resources to the relief operation would behampered by a damaged infrastructure and the breakdown of civil order. There would also be significant costs associated with disrupting normal business operations and diverting resources. How much humanitarian assistance should businesses shoulder in response to such events? How should businesses better plan for such disasters?
teaching articles
17. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
James E. Fisher, Denise Guithues-Amrhein Ethics Without Borders
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John Berry, a risk manager for a U.S.-based pharmaceutical firm (Best Co.), is assigned additional responsibilities when his territory is expanded to include the South America region. When an employee in one of Best Co.’s South American manufacturing facilities dies in a work-related incident, John must determine an appropriate response. In a business context that is increasingly global, ethical decisions are further complicated by cultural differences. This case considers thefactors influencing John as he weighs his options on how to resolve this incident. The case further considers how cultural differences coupled with John’s limited cross-cultural sensitivities and personal viewpoint might inevitably skew his judgment. San Luis, the disguised name for this South American locale, is less litigious than John’s home country, the U.S. In light of these differences, the case raises a number of ethical questions. For example, how should an international corporation compensate an employee’s family for the employee’s work-related death – if at all? Are John’s own cultural limitations preventing him from doing the right thing?