rozprawy 
1.

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Stanisław Mazierski
Stanisław Mazierski
Zagadnienie funkcjonalizmu na terenie nauk szczegółowych
The Question of Functionalism in Exact Sciences
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"Functionalism” is a complex and ambiguous notion. The author decided to explicate the differentiated content of the notion in the naturalscientific and ethnological fields. In general, functionalism is a direction of studies or an attempt at description and interpretation of facts in terms different from the casual (mechanistic) terms. Functional analysis serves this purpose which brings one to a cognitive grasp of the specific role that the parts play in a system and to a detection of a "deeper” sense of naturalistic, ethnological and other phenomena.Various ways of the use of the functional analysis are presented in the article and the difficulties connected with it are pointed out. At the end of his considerations the author came to the conclusion that functionalism is not a strictly defined and homogenous direction of scientific investigations. Certain positions toward the direction are distinguishable. These authors who suspect a disguised teleology in it hold a negative position toward it. There are distinct associations between the notion of a function and notion of a goal.Still others (e.g. E. Nagel) deny the existence of the two independent directions of the study, that is functionalism and teleology. They hold that teleological thesesare reducible to functional ones.According to W. Stegmüller there are situations in which we cannot give the causal explications of phenomena and therefore we must refer to the explications by means of functional or teleological hypotheses, but the latter are in fact methodological and heuristic rules (Alsob Betrachtung) and not empirical theses.B. Malinowski belongs to the authors, who are of the opinion, that functional analysis is a useful and fruitful method as it leads to detecting new elements of a system. In his opinion functionalism has certain traits of autonomy.C. H. Hempel deserves special attention and should be situated between the optimistic position declaring functionalism to be an autonomous theory of scientific research, and a sceptic one, holding, that this direction cannot be accepted because of a careless way of thinking and of difficulties involved with empirical verifiability of theses proposed by it.



2.

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Michał Heller
Michał Heller
Matematyczny model czasoprzestrzeni
Mathematical Model of SpaceTime
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1. A given space P is a mathematical model of spacetime T provided that between P and T a certain isomorphism exists, which maps certain physical constructs on T onto certain mathematical structures on P.2. Macroscopic physical theories assume that spacetime is: (1) Omanifold, (2) 4dimensional, (3) without boundary, (4) orientable, (5) Haus dorff, (6) para compact. Mathematical definitions of these concepts are given and their physical sense is discussed. Assumption (3) may be considered as a more preacise formulation of the Newtonian view, according to which the space ought to be infinite, or of known Einstein’s saying that the space of the Universe is finite however unbounded.3. The following geometrical structures are defined on Crmanifold in a natural way (i.e. without the introducing new structures, which are not assumed in the definition of the Crmanifold): (1) (covariant) vectors, (2) 1forms, (3) tensors of the type (r, s), (3a) in particular: qforms — with all algebraic operations suitable for them. In addition, the exterior differentiation operator may be defined for qforms, and the Lie derivative for tensors.4. Crmanifold appears to be a rich mathematical structure. According to Newton the space is absolute and Euclidean. In our views the spacetime is absolute and Euclidean only locally, not globally: Crmanifold is locally Euclidean with respect to its topological and differential properties. This feature of spacetime manifold has to be considered as its strong absolute (antiMachian) element.5. An affine connection and a metric may be introduced as the extra structures on Crmanifold. By means of an affine connection the parallel transport and the Riemann curvature tensor are defined. An affine connection must not by symmetric. Affine connection with torsion appears to be the best natural generalization of the ordinary General Relativity Thèory.The metric tensor and the connection may be introduced as separate structures on Ormanifold. However, given metric on Crmanifold, there is a unique symmetric connection on the manifold defined by the condition that the covariant derivative of metric tensor must vanish.6. As a mathematical model for spacetime we use an equivalenece class of all pair^(M', g') (Crmanifold M with the metric g) which are equivalent to (M, g). Two pairs are sayd to be equivalent if they are isometric. To ensure that spacetime includes all nonsingular points we assume that (M, g) is inextendible, i.e. that there is no isometric Crimbedding: M → M'.7. The presented model of spacetime is common to all relativistic the ories of spacetime. In prerelativistic theories the concept of spacetime, although not known by name, played an essential role. Mathematical structure of prerelativistic spacetimes has been reconstructed by Trautman.



3.

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Mieczysław Lubański
Mieczysław Lubański
Algebraiczne aspekty teorii języków formalnych
On the Algebraic Aspects of the Theory of Formal Languages
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Theory of formal languages is an youngest branch of contemporary mathematics. The purpose of this paper is to present some kind of algebraic characteristics of the theory of formal languages.Let S be an alphabet. By a word over the alphabet S we mean a finite immediate sequence of letters. The set of all words over the alphabet S is denoting by S+. We define in the set S+ the operation of concatenation. Let a and b are two words over the alphabet S. The concatenation of the words a and b is the following procedure. We construct a new word, which contain all letters of the word a and all letters of the second word b. The operation of concatenation is an associative operation. Therefore the set S+ with the operation of concatenation is a semigroup.By a formal language over the alphabet S we mean any subset of the set S+. Let K and L are the languages over the alphabet S. We may define some set  theoretical operations on the languages K and L; their sum, intersection, product, the complement, the inversion and the iteration of an language. Thus we obtain here some algebraic constructions. In the special case there are the semigroups.On this way one obtain the possibility of an application of the theory of semigroups to the theory of formal languages. It seems to be an interesting thing. And also this gives, in at least some degree, a reasonable hope to have a background to justify the proposition concerning the hypothesis of the unification of knowledge.



4.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
Filozoficzny i fizykalny aspekt przyczynowosci w ujęciu Dawida Bohma
The Philosophical and Physical Aspects of Causality in D. Bohm
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The author attempts to answer the question concerning the connection between Bohm’s conception of causality and those of others. The discrimination of distinct positions both philosophical and physical is done in the aspect of agreement and disagreement points. Out of the philosophical positions the following are taken into consideration: Hume and Mill’s empiricism. Kant’s criticism, acausalism and the rule and classical positions. Out of physical notions of causality: the predictive and objective notions are discussed. This division has several reasons. The first deals with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Bohm’s interpretation goes along the line of objective notion of causality. The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is, instead, a certain realisation of the predictive character of causality, which leads to its negation in microphysics. The exponents of the objective facet (to whom Bohm’s also belongs not denying the predictive value of causality, only refuse to oceept the unverified identification of both these notions.



5.

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Stanisław Kiczuk
Stanisław Kiczuk
Zygmunta Zawirskiego koncepcja logiki mechaniki kwantowej
Z. Zawirski's Conception of the Logic of Quantum Mechanics
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Zawirski was a pioneer of the probabilistic approach to the manyvalued logics. Here are presented in a precise ^ay Zawirski’s ideas concerning the conditions of application of manyvalued logics. It has been stressed, that Zawirski had built the system of manyvalued logic Z which was to be the system of the quantum mechanics logic. He ’’agreed” the system with the calculus of probabilities meant as a ’’tool” to the empiric studies. In this system the mathematical functions on the sum and product of calculus of probabilities have logic function character. Giving credit to Zawirski trial, the other authors’ ideas concerning the quantum mechanics logic have been presented. It has been pointed out that any sytuation in microphysics that can be described by manyvalued logic can also be described in twovalued logic. The author underlines that Zawirski, in agreeing of the theorems of calculus of propabilities on sum and product with the theorems of his manyvalued logic system, has shown a great invention in using the x function. This idea can always be used in the formal logic. It has been presumed, that in the formalization of the reasonings really existent in sciences, the important role can have certain parts of so called "philosophical logics”.



6.

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Włodzimierz Sedlak
Włodzimierz Sedlak
Ewolucja Bioplazmy
The Evolution of Bioplasma
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The concept of bioplasma unifies three living processes, namely: the biochemical evolution the molecular evolution, and the bioelectronic evolution, i.e., the development of semiconductive properties of organic compounds. By bioplasma (Bplasma) the author understands the averaged electronic states of a system, i.e., an entirety of electric particles of both signs in a quasibalance. Bioplasma consists of delocalized electrons, transfer electrons, protons, ions, free radicals and electrons of metabolic processes. Bioplasma is conditioned by electrons of molecular structures and electrons of metabolic processes. In both cases there occurs quantum emission either as biolaser effects of sandwich patterns of biochemical structures or as chemiluminescence photons. Figure 1. The evolution proceeded toward a production of structures with mobile electrons through the selection of semiconductive organic compounds and toward the improvement of metabolic processes. The biochemical, molecular and bioelectronic evolution aimed at the creation of the best ’’plasmo creative” conditions. Here, electromagnetic information conditioning metabolic and electronic processes is an important evolutionary factor. Figure 2. The evolution of Bplasma is the most essential, fundamental, and developmental part of living matter. Figure 3 and 4.



7.

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Krystyna Szpanbruker
Krystyna Szpanbruker
Ochrona przyrody — ochroną człowieka
The Protection of Nature — A Protection of Man
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The natural environment is man’s only environment. Man is organically a part of this environment. Therefore, the problem of the maintenance of healthy and vital societies depends on our possibilities of the preservation of balance in nature and its protection. The traditional methods in the field of ’’protection of nature” have been replaced by the new ones. The most important tasks in this movement are: 1. protection and cultivation of landscape, 2. prevention against the destructive action of natural forces, 3. protection of natural resources. The wasteful exploitation of natural resources (i.e., atmospheric air, water, soil, the world of living creatures, mineral deposits) has often brought about disastrous conseqeunces (e.g. the large desert areas in the Middle East). In the last few decades the rapid growth of industry, transportation and urbanization have led to the destruction of creative forces of nature; therefore the protection of nature became the problem of man’s protection against his inconsiderate economy with natural resources. Fascinated by new technological achievements we forget the fate of future generations.



8.

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Stanisław Zięba
Stanisław Zięba
Zasada emergencji w filozofii przyrody Georgesa Matisse’a
The Principle of Emergency in G. Matiss’ Natural Philosophy
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The paper embraces the presentation and interpretation of G. Matiss’ emergency theory. Stricly, finding an answer to the question: to what extent the theory meets methodol ogival and substantial requirements and how it could be an adequate instrument in genetic explication of qualitatively new objects, new properties and regularities which take place in the evolution of reality. The content of the publication is divided into three parts. The first, of an introductory character, describes the problems involved with emergentism, and points out the genesis and various kinds of studies and their directions. The sketch of the genesis of the problem situates G. Matiss’ approach in the development of the doctrine. The second part, of a presentative character, reveals the way of understanding the emergency and gives an argumentation of this French thinker, both form the animate and unanimate nature, and for its adequateness. The last part, in turn, is an attempt at analysis of the principle on methodological and substantial grounds. The result of this publication is and indication of the usefulness of the emergency principle to the explications of real events, and a revelation of its disadvantages in the form presented by Matiss.



sprawozdania 
9.

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Stanisław Mazierski
Stanisław Mazierski
Niektóre atrybuty filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu
Niektóre atrybuty filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu
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10.

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Julian Aleksandrowicz
Julian Aleksandrowicz
Zagadnienie zdrowia i osobowości człowieka a ochrona i kształtowanie środowiska
Zagadnienie zdrowia i osobowości człowieka a ochrona i kształtowanie środowiska
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11.

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Jerzy Strojnowski
Jerzy Strojnowski
O ruchu teilhardowskim w krajach języka niemieckiego
O ruchu teilhardowskim w krajach języka niemieckiego
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12.

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Teresa Pankowska
Teresa Pankowska
Środowiskowe uwarunkowania nowotworow
Środowiskowe uwarunkowania nowotworow
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recenzje 
13.

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Stanisław Kyć
Stanisław Kyć
Molekularne podstawy: pamięci
Molekularne podstawy: pamięci
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14.

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Stanisław Kiczuk
Stanisław Kiczuk
Logika nauki
Logika nauki
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15.

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Mieczysław Lubański
Mieczysław Lubański
Filosofskije osnowanija problemy sinteza relatiwistskich i kwantowych principow
Filosofskije osnowanija problemy sinteza relatiwistskich i kwantowych principow
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16.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
The Study of Time. Proceedings of the First Conference of the International Society for the Study of Time
The Study of Time. Proceedings of the First Conference of the International Society for the Study of Time
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17.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
Personelle und statistische Wahrscheinlichkeit
Personelle und statistische Wahrscheinlichkeit
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18.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
Probleme und Resultate der Wissenschaftstheorie und analytischen Philosophie. Bd. 2: Theorie und Erfahrung
Probleme und Resultate der Wissenschaftstheorie und analytischen Philosophie. Bd. 2: Theorie und Erfahrung
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19.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
Temporal Logic
Temporal Logic
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20.

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Zygmunt Hajduk
Zygmunt Hajduk
Theoretical Concepts. Library of Exact Philosophy
Theoretical Concepts. Library of Exact Philosophy
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