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semiotics of roland barthes
1. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Harri Veivo Introduction: Barthes’s relevance today
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2. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Michael Sheringham Writing the Present: Notation in Barthes’s Collège de France lectures
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In his lectures at the Collège de France in 1978–1979, Barthes focuses at length on the activity of ‘la notation’ (in English, notation): grabbing a fleeting event or impression as it happens, and registering it in your notebook. This article explores the ramifications of notation, as outlined in the lectures (where it is associated with haiku, Joycean epiphany and Proustian impressionism), linking it to Barthes’s longstanding interest in the ontology of modes of signification. Allied to his concept of the ‘third meaning’, and to later terms such as the incident and the romanesque, notation is seen to be central to the preoccupation with affect, subjectivity and individuality we associate with Barthes’s later work. Linked with the fantasy of writing a novel, notation also chimes with the “fantasmatic pedagogy” of Barthes’s lectures where ideas are explored in a highly personal way through the accumulation of discontinuous traits. Through notation the affect-driven, decentred Barthesian subject finds its voice.
3. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Michael Sheringham Olevikku kirjutades: ülestähendamine Barthes’i Collège de France’i loengutes. Kokkuvõte
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4. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Michael Sheringham Записывая настоящее: нотация в лекциях Коллеж де Франс Ролана Барта. Резюме
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5. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Harri Veivo Barthes’s positive theory of the author
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While it is well known that Roland Barthes consecrated his last lecture series at the Collège de France to the theme of the preparation of a novel, it is less known that his first writings on literature focused on the same question, but from a less individual point of view. The interrogation that motivates Le Degré zéro de l’écriture (1953) and many of the essays in Essais critiques (1964) is the question of how to write, of what procedures one can follow in preparing a literary work of art. At the two ends of Barthes’s career one finds the same themes of writing as action and of the writer’s possibilities and motivations in writing. The article explores the hypothesis that there is ground for a positive theory of the author in Barthes’s work. It seeks to discover similarities between writings from the early and the late period that concern three themes: (1) writing as action, (2) the deferral of its achievement, and (3) writing as representation. The article ends with a discussion on the relationships between Barthes’s positive theory of the author and related important issues that have been discussed recently in literary criticism.
6. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Harri Veivo Положительная теория автора у Барта. Резюме
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7. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Harri Veivo Barthes’i positiivne autoriteooria. Kokkuvõte
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8. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Heta Pyrhönen Ways of keeping love alive: Roland Barthes, George du Maurier, and Gilles Deleuze
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The article examines Barthes’s A Lover’s Discourse (1977) in conjunction with du Maurier’s Trilby (1894) in order to present an argument about the similarities they share with the male masochistic fantasy as theorised by Deleuze in his Coldness and Cruelty (1989). Barthes’s insistence on the connection between art and love directs my approach. Trilby deals with love and aesthetics in the contexts of art, music, and narrative. The discourses of Trilby’s competing lovers over the same woman serve as a point of comparison against which I read Barthes’s dramatisation of a lover’s discourse. I argue that Barthes’s lover shares a number of central discursive figures with the Deleuzian masochistic lover. I examine Barthes’s suggestion about the tension between the non-narrative discourse of love and the metalanguage of conventional love stories. I focus on those figures in a lover’s discourse that Barthes identifies as keeping this discourse from turning into a love story. My argument is that many of these figures are among the hallmarks of the masochistic fantasy. In particular the formula of disavowal safeguards the lover’s discourse, hindering it from turning into a conventional narrative about love.
9. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Heta Pyrhönen Как сохранять любовь: Ролан Барт, Джордж дю Морье и Жиль Делез. Резюме
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10. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Heta Pyrhönen Kuidas armastust elus hoida: Roland Barthes, George du Maurier ja Gilles Deleuze. Kokkuvõte
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11. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Patrizia Calefato On myths and fashion: Barthes and cultural studies
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Roland Barthes’s work has confronted contemporary culture with the question of what happens when an object turns into language. This question allowed Barthes to “construct” well known cultural objects — from novels to music, from images to classical rhetoric, from love to theatre — in an unthought way, and to create new, even more unknown ones — from contemporary myth to fashion, from Japan to food culture. In this paper, Barthes’s cultural criticism is considered alongside with the issues raised by Cultural Studies. More specifically, Barthes’s constant reflection on the myth undoubtedly entitles us to connect his cultural criticism to the work that, in those same years, was being produced by the English forge of Cultural Studies, namely the so-called “Birmingham school”. Even today, Barthes’s work makes it possible for semiotics to be, to use his expressions, both “the science of every imagined universe”, and a mathesis singularis, rather than universalis, that is to say a systematic way to approach the singularity of the objects of knowledge. On the basis of this “transcendental reduction”, we can therefore wish for a “second birth” and a transvaluation of linguistics and of semiotics, both to be applied through varied and disseminated forms ofintellectual activism.
12. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Patrizia Calefato Müütidest ja moest: Barthes ja kultuuri-uuringud. Kokkuvõte
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13. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Patrizia Calefato О мифах и о моде: Барт и культурология. Резюме
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14. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Anne Sivuoja-Gunaratnam Voicing Le Neutre in the invisible choir in Richard Wagner’s Parsifal
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Roland Barthes was suspicious about the ability of music and voice to signify, as revealed in many of his writings. However, his somewhat limited views on music and voice need not to restrain from profiting his semiotic theorising and his reasoning, which can be adapted for musical instances in ways not envisaged by Barthes. The Neutral (Le Neutre) is a recurrent topic in Barthes’s oeuvre from his first book, Writing Zero Degree (1953) up to his 1978 lecture series on The Neutral in Collège de France (published in 2002). This paper explores how Barthes’s Neutral may enhance a special kind of listening. The enigmatic sonorities emitted by the Invisible Choir in Richard Wagner’s Parsifal (1882) serve as the foil in this task, more precisely a phrase voiced by female altos and male tenors (“Nehmet hin meinen Leib [...]”, Act I). It is not its semantic content mediated by (written) language that is of interest here but how this phrase has been voiced, andfurthermore, how Barthes’s Neutral may be heard in and beneath it. Several commercially available live recordings made in Bayreuth have offered playground for listening to and for The Neutral. As my analysis shows, the audible Neutral is not a separate entity but works in conjunction with other modes of signification: visual, textual, biographical, spatial.
15. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Anne Sivuoja-Gunaratnam Neutraalsele hääle andmine Richard Wagneri Parcifali Nähtamatus Kooris. Kokkuvõte
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16. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Anne Sivuoja-Gunaratnam Озвучивание Нейтрального в Невидимом хоре «Парсифаля» Рихарда Вагнера. Резюме
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17. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Sirkka Knuuttila L’effet de réel revisited: Barthes and the affective image
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This article addresses Barthes’s development from a structuralist semiotician towards an affectively responding reader in terms of ‘postrational’ subjectivity. In light of his whole oeuvre, Barthes anticipates the understanding of emotion as an integral part of cognition presented in contemporary social neuroscience. To illustrate Barthes’s growing awareness of the importance of this epistemological move, the article starts from his textual ‘reality effect’ as a critical vehicle of realist representation. It then shifts to his attempt at conceptualising an affective reading which resists the universalising idea of one ideologically determined signified. Barthes’s progress towards embracing the actual reader’s embodied self-feeling is prompted by two conceptual milestones: the obtuse meaning found incinematic stills, and the experience of punctum felt in photos. In light of his lectures in the Collège de France, Barthes substitutes the Husserlian disembodied method of introspection with the Chinese wu-wei as a reading practice. As a result, his Zen-Buddhist concentration on bodily feelings elicited by visual/verbal images becomes a method capable of creating a fruitful link between language and wordless cognition. Finally, the article proposes an idea of the ‘embodied reality effect’ by reading affectively two similar scenes interpreted by the early and late Barthes himself.
18. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Sirkka Knuuttila Еще раз об «эффекте реальности»: Барт и аффективное изображение. Резюме
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19. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Sirkka Knuuttila Taaskord ‘reaalsusefektist’: Barthes ja afektiivne kujund. Kokkuvõte
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history of semiotics
20. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 36 > Issue: 1
Tuuli Raudla Vico and Lotman: poetic meaning creation and primary modelling
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The article is based on theories of meaning creation and the concepts of archaic mind of Juri Lotman and Giambattista Vico. It compares the notions fantasia, ingegno, memoria and poetic logic by Vico with Lotman’s concepts of text, memory and modelling systems. Donald Phillip Verene’s and Marcel Danesi’s interpretations of Giambattista Vico’s work are also taken into consideration in the analysis. The article aims to bring out the characteristic features of archaic meaning creation. The archaic mind is considered to be fundamentally poetic. Its main mechanism of generating new meaning is metaphorical identification of two otherwise separate elements. The creativity of this act lies in the presumption that imagination is needed to bring these two elements together — they cannot be identified with each other by the means of syllogistic logic. The archaic mind does not operate mainly with generic concepts, as rational mind does. It forms imaginative universals instead, which are based on the sense of identity between objects or their parts, not on the sense of similarity/ dissimilarity of distinct features of objects. This process forms the basis of poetic modelling, which is primary in relation to verbal modelling.