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1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Ilie Parvu Editorial Introduction
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2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Ilie Parvu The Unity of Scientific Knowledge in the Framework of a Typological Approach of Theories
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The paper proposes a typology of the scientific theories based on the modality of mathematizing (relying on the kind of mathematics which participates to the theory edification and the level of mathematical organizing of the theoretical frame). This gives us, like the classification of the geometries from the famous -Erlagen Program- initiated by Felix Klein, an internal principle for the connection of the different forms or levels of the theorizing, a constructive basis for the understanding of the complex structural nets of the mature scientific disciplines.
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Mircea Flonta Does the Scientific Paper Accurately Mirror the Very Grounds of Scientific Assessment?
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This paper presents aprevalent representation about the objectivity and impartiality of scientific knowledge that emerges from the structure and style of the standard research paper. This representation is critically examined considering some rather untypical scientific papers reporting controversies between researchers in a certain field of experimental science. The role of personal preconceptions and intellectual prejudices in the assessment of scientific theories is emphasized by reference to Einsteinls grounds for his general theory of relativity.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Adrian-Paul Iliescu Rational Reconstruction: Preconditions and Limits
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the preconditions and the limits of rational reconstruction in the philosophy of language, as these preconditions and limits can be deduced from Wittgenstein’s arguments against philosophical constructivism. It will be shown that a main precondition of reconstructions in the field of language is the existence of non-arbitrary patterns of linguistic use, while the limits of this kind of theoretical enterprise derive precisely from the absence of such patterns.
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Valentin Muresan Transcendentalism, Nomicity and Modal Thought
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The main purpose of this paper is to show that Kant’s transcendental philosophy is tacitly laden with the structures of modern modal thought. More exactly, the surprising parallelism which seems to exist between Kant’s manner of defining necessity (and, on this basis, nomicity) and the modern approaches of the same concepts in the frame of “possible worlds philosophy” is stressed. A new interpretation of the Categorical Imperative is also offered on this basis.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Adrian Miroiu Global Warming and Moral Theorizing
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The aim of my paper is to explore in some detail some epistemological issues concerning moral theorizing on global warming. First, I consider the issue of the structure of the theoretical approach in a field of inquiry requiring normative assessments. How do theoretical principles work here? What is to be regarded as a normative evidence for such a theory? Second, the criteria to determine which part, if any, of the theory gets normatively constrained, and which does not, are discussed. Third, I focus on the procedures to reach an equilibrium between such a theory and its evidence and to reach it, changes might be required on the normative side of the theory, rather than on its non-normative one
seccion monografica
7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Alejandro Sobrino Presentación
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8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Enric Trillas Menger’s Trace in Fuzzy Logic
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This paper deals with the relation with Fuzzy Logic of some of the ideas of Karl Menger published between 1942 and 1966 and concerning what he called “Hazy Sets”, Probabilistic Relations and Statistical Metric Spaces. The author maintains the opinion that if Lofti A. Zadeh is actually the father of Fuzzy Logic, Menger not only was a forerunner of this field but that his ideas were and still are influential on it.
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Rohit Parikh Vague Predicates and Language Games
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Attempts to give a Logic or Semantics for vague predicates and to defuse the Sorites paradoxes have been largely a failure. We point out yet another problem with these predicates which has not been remarked on before,namely that different people do and must use these predicates in individually different ways. Thus even if there were a semantics for vague predicates, people would not be able to share it. To explain the occurrence nonetheless of these troublesome predicates in language, we propose a different approach based on asking the question, “How do these vague predicates help people to communicate with each other?” We show that in general, even though different people assign different extensions to vague predicates, they usually benefit from receiving information framed in terms of them.
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Didier Dubois, Henri Prade New Trends and Open Problems in Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning
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This short paper about fuzzy set-based approximate reasoning first emphasizes the three main semantics for fuzzy sets: similarity, preference and uncertainty. The difference between truth-functional many-valued logics of vague or gradual propositions and non fully compositional calculi such as possibilistic logic (which handles uncertainty) or similarity logics is stressed. Then, potentials of fuzzy set-based reasoning methods are briefly outlined for various kinds of approximate reasoning: deductive reasoning about flexible constraints, reasoning under uncertainty and inconsistency, hypothetical reasoning, exception-tolerant plausible reasoning using generic knowledge, interpolative reasoning, and abductive reasoning (under uncertainty). Open problems are listed in the conclusion.
11. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Gonzalo Escalada-Imaz, Felip Manyá Serres, Alejandro Sobrino Principios de programación lógica con información incierta. Descripción de algunos de los sistemas más relevantes (Principles of Logic Programming with Uncertain Information. Description of Some of the Most Relevant Systems)
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EI objetivo de este artículo es presentar los principios de la programación lógica borrosa y de sus principales variantes, ilustrándolas a través de un conjunto de aproximaciones que, a nuestro entender, son representativas de los avances en esta área. También incluimos la descripción de otros sistemas de programación lógica que se sustentan en lógicas de la incertidumbre diferentes de la lógica borrosa. En esta presentación presuponemos que la mayoría de los lectores no son expertos en programación lógica; para seguirla sólo se requiere un conocimiento básico de la lógica de predicados.The purpose of this paper is to present the principles of the fuzzy logic programming, exemplifying them by a couple of proposals that we think are representatives of the advances in this field. We include also the description of another systems of logic programming with uncertain information that are based on other logics of uncertainty which are different from fuzzy logic. This article only presuppose anelementary knowledge of the classical first-order logic.
12. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Senén Barro, Alberto J. Bugarin ¿Cuáles son las aplicaciones de la lógica borrosa? (Which Are Some of the Applications of Fuzzy Logic?)
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Este trabajo orienta su contenido a las aplicaciones de la lógica borrosa, pero no desde una aproximación que trate de abordar ciertas caracterrsticas relevantes de algunas de ellas y/o comentar sus coincidencias y discrepancias desde el punto de vista dei soporte dado por la lógica borrosa. Existen excelentes y abundantes revisiones de este estilo (véanse, por ejemplo, Zadeh, Vager 1992), por lo que nosotros hemos optado por introducir algunas reflexiones a modo de respuesta a preguntas formuladas al hilo de la más general que da trtulo al trabajo. Contestar a algunas de ellas es, sin duda, uncometido realmente arriesgado, como ocurre al tratar de plasmar, por ejemplo, y aunque sea con trazos “borrosos”, cuáles serán las aplicaciones futuras de la lógica borrosa. Esperamos que se nos disculpe si el acierto torna a ser escaso.This paper discusses about the field of fuzzy logic applications, but not from the point of view of its importance or commenting their main features and how they are formally supported by fuzzy logic. Very good (Zadeh, Yager 1992), exist in this field, and so we decided to present some reflections trying to answer very general questions about this issue. Answering, for example, to the question about possible futureapplications of fuzzy logic is, no doubts, a very risky task. We look forward to be forgiven if our approach proves not to be very successful.
articulos
13. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Luis Fernandez Moreno Un examen de la argumentación de Frege contra la definibilidad de la verdad (An Examination of Frege’s Argumentation Against the Definability of Truth)
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La argumentación de Frege contra la definibilidad de la verdad pretende mostrar que una definición de verdad es circular o nos involucra en un regreso al infinito. En la obra de Frege cabe distinguir dos nociones de verdad: la verdad expresada mediante el termine “verdadero” y la verdad expresada mediante la aserción. La argumentación de Frege no muestra que el términe “verdadero” sea indefinible, pero, si se acepta la concepción de Frege acerca de la aserción, de su argumentación, adecuadamente reformulada, cabe concluir la indefinibilidad de la verdad en su segunda acepción.Frege’s argumentation against the definability of truth aims to show that a definition of truth is circular or involves us in an infinite regress. In Frege’s work two notions of truth can be distinguished: truth expressed by the word “true” and truth conveyed by the assertion. Frege’s argumentation does not show that the word “true” is undefinable, but, if Frege’s view on assertion is accepted, then from his argumentation, suitably reformulated, the undefinability of truth in the second sense can be concluded.
14. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Matthias Schirn O principio do contexto nas Grundgesetze de Frege (The Context Principle in Frege’s Grundgesetze)
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Pretendo usar o exemplo dos nomes de percursos de valores como prova de que, contrariamente ao que Michael Resnik e Michael Dummett sustentam, Frege nunca abandonou o seu princípio do contexto: “Apenas no contexto de uma sentenya tem uma palavra significado”. Em particular, pretendo mostrar que a prova da completude com relação ao significado, que Frege tentou introduzir na linguagem formal das Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, baseia-se em uma aplicação do principio do contexto, e que, em consequencia, tambem nomes de percursos de valores tem significado apenas nocontexto de uma sentença. A teoria Fregeana do sentido e do significado somente pode ser entendida adequadamente sob o pano de fundo do princfpio do contexto.Taking course-of-values names as an example, I want to show that, contrary to what Michael Resnik and Michael Dummett claim, Frege never abandoned his context principle “Only in the context of a sentence do words have meaning”. In particular, I want to show that Frege’s attempted proof of referentiality for the formal language of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik rests on the context principle and that, consequently, course-of-values names have a reference only in the context of a sentence. It is only in the light of the context principle that Frege’s theory of sense and reference can be understood appropriately.
notas
15. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Javier Gomez Ferri EI estudio social y sociológico de la ciencia, y la convergencia hacia el estudio de la práctica cientifica (The Social and Sociological Study of Science, and the Convergence Towards the Study of Scientific Practice)
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Dentro dei ámbito de estudio da la ciancia, recientemente ha surgido con fuerza un nuevo enfoque, la sociología dei conocimiento científico (SSK). Desde su aparición a mediados de la dacada de los setenta, la SSK ha tomado formas diversas. Entre éstas y la filosofía de la ciencia ha existido una continua disputa. Ultimamente, sin embargo, la SSK se ha ido transformando en una “sociologfa de la practica cientrfica”. A partir de este cambio, ambas disciplinas -la filosofía de la ciencia y a SSK- están encontrando puntos en común de influencia, diálogo y estudio. Mi propósito es mostrar la trayectoria de la SSK y analizar esos puntos de contacto.Within the field of science studies, recently a new approach has taken a strong hold -the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). Ever since its appearance in the mid-seventies, within SSK there have been diverse tendencies. Between these and the philosophy of science there has been a perpetual confrontation. Lately, SSK appears to be undergoing a metamorphosis, transforming into a sociology of scientific practice. What is interesting about this case is that both disciplines -philosophy of science and SSK- are finding a common point of confluence, dialogue and study. My aim is to trace the trajectory of SSK and to analyze these points of contact.
in memoriam
16. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Ana Rosa Perez Ransanz In memoriam Thomas S. Kuhn
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recensiones
17. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
Carlos J. Moya Naturalism and Normativity
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libros recibidos
18. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
LIBROS RECIBIDOS / BOOKS RECEIVED
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cronicas y proximas reuniones
19. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
AGENDA / NOTEBOOK
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sumario
20. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 11 > Issue: 3
SUMARIO DEL VOL. XI / CONTENTS OF VOL. XI
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