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articulos
1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Javier de Lorenzo Para una lectura de Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
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estudios
2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Denis Miéville Axiomes et définitions chez Leśniewski: Une manière génétique de développer les systèmes formels
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The logical theories of Stanislaw Leśniewski differ profoundly form classical formal systems. Unlike the latter, they do not have an entirely predetermined vocabulary. Nor do they have a determined list of functors of syntactical-semantical categories. Due to formalized directives for definitions, the logics of Leśniewski are constructed progressively, making new theses and consequently functors of new syntactical-semantical categories accesible. In this article we present the genetic aspect associated with these theses-definitions. We also show that the property of creativity makes it possible to bridge some of the fundamental gaps in contemporary classical logics.
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Jerzy Wroblewski Nature and Man: Dilemma of the Present and the Future
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There are three kinds of nature singled out according to the physical contact with the man: “nature immune from man”, “nature touched by man”, and “nature transformed by man”. The latter type is of highest relevance for the man’s present dilemmas. The extrapolation of present tendencies of the man-nature relations is summarized in the two basic dilemma: ecological dilemma/either the development of the modern technologies or the destruction of human ecological environment/, and peace dilemma /either to continue the nuclear arms race or the total nuclear disarmament/. There are four types of situations facing the man when avoiding the negative results of trends in the transformation of nature, which are linked with legal phllosophy. The man-nature relations are axiologically ambivalent because the transformed nature is the challenge, but calls for looking at nature as apart of our life, and to exist with it in in it.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
León Olive Ciencia y Tecnología: distinciones externas
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In this paper the role of values in scientific and technological processes of inquiry is discussed. It is argued that a distinction between science and technology cannot any longer be attempted on the basis of being based upon respectively different sets of values and aims. Furthermore, it is argued that usually these attempts have wrongly characterised science and technology in terms of a fixed and immutable set of aims, values and norms. This sort of characterisation has often been put forward not only for the purposes of such a distinction but as a general idea in philosophy of science. Some of the problems of such and approach are discussed, particularly by examining some recent ideas of Shapere and Laudan, concerning the processes of consensus shaping in the sciences. So, it is concluded that we have to reject the idea that both science and technology are based on a technical interest in knowledge, an idea that normally blurrs the significance of changes at their axiological level, as much as the conception that science and technology belong to completely different camps, which quite often takes their respective axiological levels as immutable.
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Carlos Álvarez Sobre las posibilidades de una equivalencia para el fundamento de la aritmética
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Our aim in this paper is to analyse the possibilities of a logical or epistemological equivalence between the projets of R. Dedekind and G. Frege for the foundations of arithmetic. It is well know that both of them have a “logicist” point of vew. But we think that even if some coincidences exist in the wa y they define the main concepts of arithmetic, some important differences remain.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
W. Balzer, G. Zoubek On Electrons and Reference
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7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Miguel J.C. de Asúa, G. Klimovsky Ensayo de axiomatización de la teoría celular
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8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Constancio de Castro Introducción a la medición axiomática en las ciencias comportamentales. I. Estructuras de ordenación.
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There is a frequent attitude of scholars against the quantification of Social Sciences. Our purpose here consists of describing the central topic of quantification, namely the measure ment topic by the axiomatic method. We emphasize the significance of measurement axioms for building the laws of experimental knowledge. The first step which seems unavoidable for every measuring process, thus the order structure, is presented as the initial topic which must be followed up by the more sophisticated topics in the future. The above mentioned attitude against the quantification is disclosed as a prejudice without any rational support given the actual scientific development of measurement.
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Juan José Acero La teoría de los juegos semánticos: dos enfoques
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Currents expositions of game-theoretical semantics two lines of interpretation are mixed. On the one hand, the theory provides a way of extending truht-conditions from atomic to non-atomic sentences. On the other hand, the theory analyze meaning by allowing us to describe a certain kind of compIex activities: verification games against Nature. In this paper, both inteperpretations are sorted out and their respective emphasized.
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Nicanor Ursúa Conocimiento y realidad: aproximación a una hipótesis
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This paper presents and analyses the epistemological question, central to all theory of knowIege and the science, regarding the correspondence between cognitive structures and the structuring of reality. It offers a hypathetical perspective from the evolutionary theory of knowledge, resulting from a philosophical-scientific effort.
11. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Miguel Sánchez-Mazas Un lenguaje aritmético como instrumento de análisis y de decisión en Lógica y en Derecho
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An arithmetical language, whose words are natural numbers written in hexadecimal numeration system, is defined and its applications for the representation, analysis and decision of formulae of some logical and normative systems are described and illustrated.The formulae, operations and relations of the represented system are associated as follows respectively to the numbers and the arithmetical operations and relations of the proposed language:1. Each well-formed-formula of the system is associated to a number of a set of natural numbers between zero (associated to all tautologies and theses) and the binary supremum Φ of the set (Φ is associated to all contradictions and antitheses and his value is 2n-1, n depending on system’s dimensions and structure).2. Negation of a formula and disjonction and conjonction of t wo other more formulae of the system are associated respectively to the binary complement Φ-N(f) of the number associated to the first and to the binary infimun and supremum of the numbers associated to the last.3. The logical relations “f1 implies f2” (f1 -> f2), “f1 is incompat.ible with f2” (f1|f2), “f1 is the contradictory opposite of f2” (f1wf2) and “f1 is alternative to f2” (f1vf2) are true in the represented system if and only if the associated arithmetical relations, respectively “N(f1) absorbs arithmetically N(f2)”, “binary supremum of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to Φ”, “sum of of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to Φ” and “binary infimum of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to 0”, are true.The applications of the proposed arithmetical language as very rapid and simplified tool of analysis and decision method are shown for the following systems: propositional logic, syllogistic, some deontic and alethic modal systems and some normative systems of statutory law:1. In the propositional logic, after fixing the maximum of variables considered, the numbers associated to these variables and to the contradictions are calculated. On this permanent basis, the evaluation of a farmula (especially in the case of many occurrences of many variables) is performed by the calculation of the associated number faster as in the traditional way.2. In the syllogistic, after the calculation of the number associated to each type of premise or conclusion, an arithmetical table of syllogisms shows that a proposed syllogism is valid if and only if the binary supremum of the numbers associated to the premises absorbs arithmetically the number associated to the conclusion. It is well-known that the search of this sort of arithmetization of syllogistic and the study of its possibilitiy has been a recurrent topic in modern logic, from Leibniz to Łukasiewicz and to-day.3. In a deontic equivalent:ial system who includes Von Wright’s deontic system of 1982 far norms of the first order, the calculation of the numbers associated to an types of permission and obligation sentences allows the im mediate arithmetical verification of an the classical relations between those sentences. The same is shown for an alethic modal system including the modlities of the first order of Lewis’s S5.4. For normative systems of statutory law, the arithmetical verification of the logical and normative relations is shown in precedent author’s papers -especially in recent “The ‘Ars Judicandi.’ Programme”-, though not yet in hexadecimal numeration system but only in binary and decimal ones.In all the represented systems, the arithmetical verification of the metalogical properties of the system -consistency and completeness- is performed in a very easy and rapid manner, after the arithmetic representation of the axiomatic basis of the latter by a system of equations.
discusion
12. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Carlos E. Alchourrón On the Philosophical Adequacy of Set Theories
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13. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Ernest J. Welti The Philosophy of Strict Finitism
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The philosolphy of strict finitism is a research programme containing developmental theory and mathematics as its main branches. The first branch is concerned with the ontogenetic and historicaldevelopment of various concepts of infinity. The frame work is Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemology. Based upon these develop mental studies, the mathematical branch introduces a new concept of infinity into mathematics. Cantor propagated the actual infinite, Brouwer and the constructivists the potential infinite. Still more radical is strict finitism, favoring the natural infinite, i.e. the phenomena of the unsurveyable, unfeasible, unreachable. There exist by this time strict finitistic reconstructions for arithmetic, geometry, calculus, and even for infinitistic set theory.
libros y revistas
14. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Andoni Ibarra Theorie und Erfahrung: Die Entwicklung des neuen Strukturalism us seit 1973
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15. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Mikel Olazarán La explicación social del conocimiento
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16. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Aurelio Arteta Teoría y metodología de la Historia de la Filosofía
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17. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Nicanor Ursua Galileo Galilei: el filósofo
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18. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Julián Pacho El pensamiento vivo de Séneca
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19. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Xavier Puig Dinámica de sistemas. 1. Simulación por ordenador
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20. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2/3
Xavier Puig Del algoritmo al sujeto: Perspectivas de la investigación social
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