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Displaying: 1-20 of 45 documents


editorial
1. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Miguel Sánchez-Mazas eadem mutata resurgo
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2. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Héctor-Neri Castañeda Negaciones, imperativos, colores, existencia y la paradoja de Bertrand Russell
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This is a multifaceted semantico-ontological investigation of different types of families of concepts and properties. One major result is that contrast between: (a) the ontologically egalitarian or democratic, but epistemologically hierarchical family of colors, and (b) the ontologically hierarchical or pyramidal familiy of negations. The different negations (of propositions, imperatives, properties, predication) are studied, and the unity of the whole family under a genus reveals the pyramidal structure of the family. The negation or properties has a powerful bearing on Russell’s paradox -- which shows different strands in negation. The connections between existence and negation provides an introduction to Guise Theory and reveals some limitations in Bertrand Russell’s analysis of definite descriptions.
estudios
3. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Georges Kalinowski Sur le fondement des normes et des énoncés normatifs: á propos des idées de von Wright et de Castañeda
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A dix ans d’intervalle deux déontciens de premier plan, G.H. von Wright et H.N. Castañeda, ont abordé -indépendamment l’un de l’autre- le probleme du fondement des normes et des énoncés normatifs. Leurs solutions respectives méritent d’être attentivement examinées. Ne prêtent-elles pas a discussion? Pour qu’une norme juridique soit fondée, suffit-il qu’elle soit édictée par un législateur compétent conformément a la procédure législative en vigueur? Un énoncé nornlatif est-il fondé du moment que l’ordre en faisant partie est légitimé au sens conféré a ce terme par l’auteur de Thinking and doing? Et tout d’abord peut-on admettre que les ordres fassent partie des énoncés nomlatifs? L’article qui suit essaie de répondre à ces questions et aux questions connexes.
4. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Javier de Lorenzo Pascal y los indivisibles
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The pascalian use of indivisibles is here considered in the context of the theological and mathematical debates of the time, by distinguishing it clearly from this of Cavalieri. The combinatory and geometrical approaches are closely linked in Pascal’s work. His use of indivisibles has a heuristic, inventive character and not only a demonstrative one. Ontologically speaking, it stems out from the acceptance of actual infinite. The use of the symmetry axiom of Archimedes is the basis of the pascalian use of the infinitesimals, which has, in other respects, some close connexions with the Leibnizian conception of infinitesimals.
5. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Mario Bunge ¿Qué es un individuo concreto?
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The paper investigates the problems whether a concrete individual can be defined as a set or be characterized by an abstract theory. In particular, Jesês Mosterín’s objection to a theory of things proposed by the present author is discussed. Also, the view of scientific theories held by Sneed, and adopted by Mosterln, is analyzed. It is concluded that any adequate description of a concrete individual calls for more than a mathematical formalism.
6. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Miguel Ángel Quintanilla EI concepto de verdad parcial
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There are two kinds of philosophical problems in the theory of partial truth: semantical and methodological problems. The semantics of partial truth must be clarified by some standard system of multivaluedlogic. Fuzzy set theory should be applied to solve some methodological problems.
7. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
José Hierro Pescador Mundos imposibles
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An impossible world is a world which necessarily does not exist. Besides the paradigm of necessity, wich is logical necesslty, we must consider physical necessity and ethical necessity, both of wich can beexpressed in terms of logical necessity, in the way suggested by Montague. Accordingly, an impossible world can be logically impossible, physically impossible or ethically impossible, but in every case the impossibility can be reduced to logical impossibility, and in consequence an impossible world is irrational and cannot be understood by us. An illustration is taken from the incongruities of Kafka’s story in Di Verwandlung.
8. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Lorenzo Peña Agregados, sistemas y euerpos: un enfoque difuso-conjuntual
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A Fuzzy-Set Theoretical Framework -resting on a paraconsistent infinite-valued logic- is sketched, wherein a thorough ontological-reduction program can be carried out. The framework includes formulae of the form “x comprises z in the time-interval e”. Reducing aggregates to sets thus handled is shown to escape usual objections. Likewise, systems generally can be regarded as aggregates, hence as (fuzzy) sets -the purported nonextensionality of systems objection being disposed of owing to our system’s recognizing infinitely many membership degrees. So do bodies, too, which enables us to find a solutionto Unger’s sorites concerning ordinary material bodies.
9. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Juan David García Bacca Para la resurrecta THEORIA
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EI gran filósofo catalón, español, iberoamericano y universal Juan David García Bacca, cuya obra inmensa y de impresionante variedad y proyección sobre todas las áreas cientfíicas y humanas se sigue acrecentando cada día, a sus 84 años de edad, con nuevas creaciones -hombre a quien THEORIA tanto debe como inspirador, colaborador y fiel apoyo, desde su exilio venezolano, en los tiempos dificiles de la primera salida de la revista, entre 1952 y 1956- ha querido hoy hacernos llegar, junto a su primer artículo para la nueva etapa, que publicamos en las páginas siguientes, su cordial saludo a la nueva THEORIA, que reproducimos a continuación.
10. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Juan David García Bacca Tres ejercicios de Lógica: I. Potenciaciones de la negación
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11. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Eloy Rada Teorías y significado
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The purpose of this paper is to outline a thesis which in some ways attemts to retrieve the value of meaning as a constituent element of theories. It will be argued that theories possess in common a more or less explicit relational structure, but, at the same time, they possess a meaningful function by means of which they are instruments of knowledge or, rather, by means of which theories have the value ofknowledge in science. In conclusion, it will be suggested that this approach to theories allows those with weak relational structure (social, historical theories, etc.) to be treated with a degree of adequacy by the philosophy of science. Likewise, it will be suggested that the method of semantic analysis linked to the theory of “possible worlds” could be fruitful for this purpose.
12. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Javier Echeverría La identidad de las figuras geométricas
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The Erlanger Program of F. Klein ensures a ground for the ὲ́κθεσις procedure, which has not been much studied in the recent debates about geometrical analysis, but refers to a more general problem: the identity of a sign within a sign system, and the attempts of reduction of the mentioned system by another one. The exampIe considered is the reduction of the conics to characteristic rectangles realized by Apollonius. Starting from Klein and Apollonius, as weIl as from cartesian geometry, the figures are considered as geometric signs, and the proposed analysis of sign identity are conceived as models to follow in the analysis of identity of mathematical signs in general.
13. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
José Ferrater Mora Nota sobre “Los lenguajes de la historia”
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The article starts from previous contributions by the author about “Languages of History” (Dianoia, 1970), in which he distinguished three types of statements used by historians. In this context, he analyzes the various relationships between these three following languages (I, 11 and III): the positivist, the hermeneutic, and the recursive ones. After analyzing the two first ways in their strong and weak versions, the author decides in favour of the third one, in its weak or informal version.
14. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Yon Pérez Laraudogoitia Interpretación modal de la mecánica cuántica
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In this paper, we present a (propositionaI) modal-Iogic approximation to Quantum Mechanics from a reduced and characteristic number of “crucial experiments” and so independently of the lattice of subspaces of Hilbert space. Kripke’s semantics, which determinates this system, allows to define, from a new point of view, the notions of “measurement process” and “virtual world” and admits a natural interpretation which in turn can help us to understand the measurement problem. In this way, we can attempt a “many-worlds” interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, in the way of Everett.
15. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
José M. Méndez Systems with the converse Ackermann property
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A system S has the “converse Ackermann property” (C.A.P.) if (A -> B) -> C is unprovable in S whenever C is a propositional variable. In this paper we define the fragments with the C.A.P. of some well-know propositional systems in the spectrum between the minimal and classical logic. In the first part we succesively study the implicative and positive fragments and the full calculi. In the second, we prove by a matrix method that each one of the systems has the C.A.P. Thus, we think the problem proposed in Anderson & Belnap (1975) § 8.12 has been solved.
16. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Yosu Yurramendi Datuen analisia eta enuntziatuen logika
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17. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Yosu Yurramendi Analisis de datos y lógica de enunciados
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We understand by data analysis the full set of methods which are used to point out the structural relations between certain objects and the characteristics observed in them. In the case where these characteristics admit a process of dichotomy, the relations can be expressed in terms of propositional logic.In the present paper, we endeavour to make clear the opposition between the problems of propositional logic and those of certain model utilised in data analysis: in propositional logic, we look for a solution verified by a given set of propositions; as long as we are concerned with data analysis, we look for a solution in terms of propositions which include as proper parts the observed objects.Finally, we draw the main lines of two very used methods which can be relevant with the aid of computer: the factor analysis and the automatic classification (cluster analysis).
18. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Ernesto García Camarero Bases de datos y representación del conocimiento
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The computer has three fundamental analogies with the human being (senses, memory and intelligence), but the coming out of the data bases announced a new form of language: the computer language. The data bases not only set several new technical and social problems, but moreover are modifying the traditional form of social memory, supported by paper, by changing it in a memory based on electronic means. This situation creates new forms of representation of knowledge to which the author gave attention in previous contributions with his SENECA project, in which computer language tries to give a synthesis of oral and written languages, with their respective advantages.
notas
19. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Jesús María Goñi Zabala Logika euskeraz
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20. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Jesús María Goñi Zabala Lógica en euskera
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