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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Anthony Adler Literature after Philosophy: A Reading of Virgil, Aeneid, II, 604‐612s
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The following paper seeks to show, through a close reading of lines 604-612 from the second book of the Aeneid, that Virgil develops an understanding of truth opposed to the dominant understanding of truth of the philosophical tradition. Whereas philosophy (as exemplified in the “cave analogy” of Plato’s Republic)regards truth as a power over deception, Virgil comes to understand truth instead as the effect of a deception that cannot be “disillusioned,” and that in turn summons us towards an obedience to a power that deceives us. This way of understanding the truth, I further suggest, stands in a close relation to literature, and suggests a way to think of the possibilities of literature outside the perspective of philosophy.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Robin Attfield Philosophy on Poetry, Philosophy in Poetry
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The relations of philosophy and poetry include but are not exhausted by Plato’s hostility to mimetic poetry in the Republic and Aristotle’s defence of it in the Poetics. For poetry has often carried a philosophical message itself, from the work of Chaucer and Milton to that of T.S. Eliot. In yet earlier generations, poetry was chosen as the medium for conveying a philosophical message by (among Greek philosophers) Xenophanes, Parmenides and Empedocles, and (at Rome) by Lucretius, who struggled both with the Latin language and with the standard metre of didactic poetry, hexameters, to spread what he considered enlightenment and to reach for his Epicureanism an audience that might otherwise have remained unreached. To the extent that poets such as Lucretius succeeded, the philosophical critics of poetry in the tradition of Plato would have to recognise merit in some mimetic poetry. (Thus Lucretius compares clouds of atoms to flocks of sheep, which he graphically depicts.) Yet a defence of poetry other than Aristotelian katharsis would be needed for works such as those of Empedocles and Lucretius. Perhaps Enlightenment can be conveyed equally well in verse as in prose, mimetic components notwithstanding; for some purposes perhaps itcan be conveyed uniquely well. De nihilo nil fit, to quote Lucretius, comprises an example.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Bermúdez Barrera Wittgenstein’s Language Games and García Márquez´ Magical Realism
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“There’s no need for DNA tests to prove that One Hundred Years of Solitude is Don Quixote’s heir.” G. Rabassa This paper is a personal attempt to relate the concept of language games as portrayed by the Austrian Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein with the literary magic of Gabriel García Márquez. The topic came up to me after reading an essay of the Colombian writer Carlos Patiño Roselli. His exposition on the language games in Wittgenstein triggered a series ofassociations in me that made me see spoken language as the actor that plays the leading role in both authors. In order to address this topic I will first summarize Wittgenstein’s notion of language-games, on one hand, and then I will remind us of what we commonly understand under “magical realism” in GGM; then, I will propose a free interpretation of §103 in PhU relating it to Melquiades’ return from death to live in a story he tells in some papyrus. And now, “Back to the rough ground!”
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Adriana de Teresa Taoist Traces in Octavio Paz’s Poetics
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The discovery of the oriental poetry, specially Japanese and Chinese, had a deep impact in the poetic writing and personal evolution of the mexican poet Octavio Paz. The initial approach to the taoist aesthetic and philosophical universe was made trough the synthetic, sensorial and deeply suggestive strength of oriental poetry, and Paz found immediately an essential resemblance between the universe just discovered and the prehispanic cosmovision. As a result of that experience, in 1955 he published “Piedras sueltas”, a brief poem collection, in which he combines the evocative power of the poetic image typical of the japanese haiku with several indigenous topics. The influence and the attraction to Oriental thought, particularly Taoism, is also present in El arco y la lira (1956),book that represents the pinacle of Octavio Paz’s ultimate poetic thought.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Moisés del Pino Peña From Be-usurped to Be-re-owned: Towards a Narrative Construction the Otherness
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The fictional beings are another story ourselves, and tell us another way to recover what we, wanting to be what we want; Stories in which they live, not knowing that his life is a story, a story that does not live as if it were, as if they lived their lives. The fictions of the world show us, not necessarily, as others do not, who am not! But who still am not, because I have not discovered completely all myself, and sometimes I am without be them in this otherness for myself it is mine, but not mine yet, I am part of stories that are not my history, the world of text, stories where I am another, even myself, intratextual entity and not intraworld, reowned those others who just the text opens so imaginary and that the actual closure and silent, to the point where it is discovered that about me are the many stories that tell me I have the me or other me, where the mirror the other gives me an identity different readings, Be-who-I-am-and-who-else-to be-said-that-I, because I have built my own history identity, but the pair, others tell my story as the story of another, stories over and over that overlap but without being the same but the same, the stories of others that I am for others, who suspect without built my otherness, my other identities.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Vasil Gluchman Literature as Philosophical Theodicy: Augustín Doležal’s Tragoedia
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The author discusses issues of evil in Doležal’s Tragoedia (1791) influenced by Leibniz’s Theodicy (1710). Despite the fact that, in Doležal’s work, emphasis is placed on theological and religious aspects, he was able to be above too strict a theological-religious scope of the contemporary interpretation of Adam and Eve’s sin and he was even able to find a number of positive features and values that emerged for man from the origin of evil and sin. Finally, we can say that Doležal’s work can be seen as man’s attempt to gain autonomy from God (although only an unintentional one). On the other hand, it can also be possibly interpreted as an eternal temptation or an eternal desire for knowledge, for exposing of which so far has been undiscovered or unknown. Humanity is attracted by mystery, unsolved or unanswered questions and as the primary sin resulted in evil, it was also the origin of much good that was appreciated by Doležal even more than primary evil. It may sound rather heretical to state what Doležal only implied that „thanks“ to the primary sin or desire for knowledge, for the discovery of the newand unknown, man became a full person able to realize his potential, to develop his knowledge and skills.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Alec Gordon The Philosophical Poetics of Counter-World, Anti-World, and Ideal World: Some Reflections
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What might the project be of lyric poetry in late global capitalism in the early years of the new millennium which acknowledges both a post-romantic and modernist lineage, and which faces the critical challenge of postmodernist theorizing? This paper endeavors to respond to this question forwarding the Adorno-inspired viewpoint that the praxes of individual lyric poems reveal orientations of affirmation or negation be they intended or not. The thesis is stated that the “arguments” of modern poets are creative litigations posing counter-worlds, constituting anti-worlds, and projecting ideal worlds. The philosophical anthropology that informs this thesis focuses on the homo duplex conception of man as a double being—as a unique human individual and as members of the human species socialized into the social life-world. Thus a counter-world privileges the human subject in society as homo externus, whereas an anti-world centers on the human subject as homo internus opposed, at odds, or turned away from the external social life-world. These reflections finally concentrate on Northrop Frye’s idea of a “third order of experience” that, in his words, contrasts with “an existing world and a world which may not exist but is pointed to by the articulate orders of experience... this world is frequently called… an unborn world, a world that never quite enters existence.”
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Daniela Kato Walking out into the Order of Things: Movement, Stillness and Landscape Perception in the Poetry of Thomas A. Clark
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This paper explores the perceptual space of Thomas A. Clark’s poetry and its links with the long and influential Western literary and artistic traditions of walking in the landscape, from Romanticism to Land Art. Particular attention will be given to the relations that Clark establishes in his writing between walking as a bodily practice and the multi-sensory engagement with the landscape it provides. It will be shown that Clark’s most significant contribution to the literature of walking lies in the balance he creates between movement and stillness. In this dynamics, walking is envisaged as means of contemplation and communion to be found within the body, but which is at the same time directed towards the world, and the landscape appears as an infinite variety of perspectival views and as a dynamic process of discovery.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Jae Seong Lee Contributing to the Development of Postmodern Critical Theory with Eastern Philosophy
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This paper concerns broadly with the works of such ethical postmodern theorists as Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, Giles Deleuze, focusing on how we can contribute to the development of their ideas by discussing Laozi and Zhuanzi’s Taoism, Buddhism, and modern Korean Neo-Confucianism of Toe-gae Lee. I claim that for criticism and art, literature, film and culture as well as philosophy itself, we are now facing this new need of another notion of subjectivity that not only accepts difference but takes the position of whole positivity toward the Other. This different view of subjectivity that can be called "the sublime subjectivity" or the sublime totality of a human being or a society is essentially an aesthetic one, rather than one that depends upon logic, and it is vital to take advantage of Oriental ideas. From the perspective of the ethics of Levinas, I first place the sublime, jouissance, or pure enjoyment, at the heart of literary criticism. The pure sensibility of the sublime, or jouissance, unlike the raw feelings of pleasure, is an aesthetic sensibility beyond the ontological unity of feelings of pleasures and pains. Then with the Oriental thought, I make an attempt to contribute to the development of the ideas on the ethics of the relation of the reader and the literary text’s language. Laozi’s Taote Ching, Chuanzi, Diamond Sutra, and Toe-gae Lee’s notion of Taeguk are briefly explored in view of the aesthetic transphenomenal dimension and the sublime totality.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Alekseeva Olga Pavlovna Virtual Aspects of the Fairy Tale: Philosophical Approach
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Virtual elements can be found not only in information and computer technologies but in such cultural phenomenon as fairy tale. "Virtual" as a philosophical concept has no any categorical and generally shared definition nowadays. The main properties of a virtual reality are geniture, actuality, autonomy and interactivity. In the fairy tale context we treat virtual as a transformed form, a feature of being artificial and created with the help of imagination, built-on a day-to-day existence, having self-entirety and determinancy and crossing the reality. As a therapeutic implement the fairy tale allows a person to enter a virtual space and to perform a personal conversion which is transmitted from a fairy tale’s virtual world to a real world of a man consciousness.