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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Paul Anand Rationality and Intransitive Preference: Foundations for The Modern View
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“Radical The paper provides a survey of arguments for claims that rational agents should have transitive preferences and argues that they are not valid. The presentation is based on a chapter for the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Rational and Social Choice.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Ana Bazac The Endlessness of Work?
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Starting from the counter-position of the traditional model of labour and the traditional aim and ideal of a good life, the paper emphasises that philosophy had to solve the problem of the possibility to generalise the model of a creative and pleasant life. Therefore the goal of the paper is two-fold. The one is to question thenecessity of labour from the standpoint of the rebel thinking transfigured in the literature of laziness as alternative to the ancient tradition of hard labouring. The other is to mention some present philosophical theories about the cognitive labour. By asserting the fundamental changes in the regime of work opened up by the new industrial revolution begun more than thirty years ago, a mere conclusion would be that the present philosophy still has a big duty toward this crucial and obviously open problem.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Piotr Boltuc Philosophy and Thin Social Capital
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Reiterative coordination games in large groups demonstrate that social norms, once attained, create stable equilibria. This shows that thin social capital is stable, and in some cases preferable to thick SC since it lowers transacting costs. This finding, supported indirectly by R. Putnam’s own early research, runs counter to his claim that the loss of thick social capital is detrimental to the modern society and to Coleman’s argument that closure is required for maintaining social capital.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
César González Cantón Globalisation, Technology and Reason: Hans Blumenberg’s Ethics of Memory
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This paper intends to explore an aspect of Blumenberg’s metaphorology as memory of mankind and the ethical commitment derived from it. It is seen as the culmination of the fight that the human being maintains against the senselessness of reality. It manifests itself and it is perceived by a human being as theimmensurability of world time and life time (i.e. that the human being is born and dies), that impedes the human being from having all of the world i.e. the satisfaction of its infinite desires. In the fight against finity technology and money play a vital role. They have in common the power to enable an expansion of human capacities over the boundaries of factual existence: through technology and money the human being can do more or, do the same in less time. That is: tobring closer life time and world time. But in this process the instrumental character of technology and money causes homogenisation in the societies where they thrive. That’s one of the characteristics of globalization. This homogenisation is to be understood as the forgetting of other essential possibilities of the human creation of meaning. Thus, what technological and monetary processes construct on one side, come to be destroyed on the other side. Blumenberg’s metaphorology is the adequate response: it is understood both as the self-consciousness of the process of reason in its making sense of the universe, and as an “ideal store” of everything the human being has come to make in this process.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan Innovative Fiscal Policy: Dialectics of Philosophic and Economic Identity
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The article uncovers an inherent link between philosophy and political economy. Application of the dialectical analytical framework to economics opens up distinctly innovative opportunities in social policy and theoretical advancements. Evolutionary understanding of a phenomenon in its totality rather than its break up into seemingly unrelated bits is crucial. Such analysis is capable of offering an all encompassing scientific explanation of the social and economic transformations taking place in modern times. To ensure sustained and socially fair growth, a proactive fiscal involvement is called upon in the areas of a)infrastructure, b) human capital [i.e. education and healthcare] and c) labor migration. Innovative approaches to fiscal policy focus on Infrastructure Development Fund, Strategic Learning Systems, Migration Development Bank, involvement of the Diaspora mechanism and Sovereign Diaspora Bond program [managed viaState–Diaspora Supervisory Boards] to support developmental initiatives. A policy prescription cannot be a “one-fits-all measure.” Considerations of individuality of country specific development patterns as well as the need for understanding history and evolution of the economy, i.e. society, evolve in the dialectical analysis ofphilosophic and economic identity of the totality of social change. This prompts innovative fiscal policy in adequate balance with monetary policy and other development tools.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Craig Hanson Hyperbolic Discounting, Selfhood and Irrationality
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I argue that George Ainslie’s model of Hyperbolic Discounting fails to yield strict akratic action. But it does yield a deflated view. Furthermore, by understanding the nature of a hyperbolically discounting self, we can also offer a deflated view of self-deception, according to which self-deception is motivated error by hyperbolic discounters who desire to view themselves as rational.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Boris Kalachev Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past through The Present Time and to the Future
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The subject of my report is Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past Through the Present Time and to the Future.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Jordi Mundós The Political Economy of the Household: An Institutional Approach to the Limits of The Freedom of Labour Contract
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Neoclassical economic theory has often failed to reflect adequately the particular features of labour. The assumption that there are no political relationships between capital and labour has led to the development of incomplete—and sometimes false—economic models. An institutional approach, one which takes intoaccount the historical social dynamics underlying the relationship between capital and labour, shows more clearly how the asymmetry of power in the labour contract affects freedom in a wider—and political—sense. Through consideration of the different forms of household government in Locke and Aristotle we can reach a better understanding of how the ancient contract of servitude, which Roman law defined as locatio conductio operarum, became today’s ‘labour contract’. This paper aims to show that the supposed contractual freedom is structurally limited by social asymmetries, in other words, by the fact that one of the parties to the contract is not completely autonomous as he/she is not a property owner. Good economic theory should seek to incorporate not only the economic dimension of social asymmetries but also their unyielding political dimension.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Donald V. Poochigian An Economic Paradox: Entropy and Growth
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Economics presents the paradox of the entropy of the law of diminishing returns and infinity of the substitution effect. Resolution assumes the substitution effect is greater than diminishing returns. Technology presupposing entropy, introduced is a new paradox of entropic technology generating infinite growth. Resolution assumes serial substitution of technologies, generating an infinite continuum. Physics and economics contest mechanic entropy and organic growth conceptions. A mechanic conception resolves set disjunctives exclusively, every set disjoined from a contiguous set, constituting entropy. An organic conception resolves set disjunctives inclusively, every set conjoined with a contiguous set, constituting growth. Causally each instance of something decreases the preexistent set of all possible instances by one, dying. Functionally each instance of something increases the postexistent set of all possible instances by one, living. Economists have the advantage here. Endlessly divisible, substance is something constituted of nothing, ungoverned by the law of conservation of energy. Physicists implicitly concede this assuming substance emerges from a Big Bang. Alas lunch is not free. Product of an economic growth equation being endless and non-repetitive, calculation is irrational, rendering growth economics irrelevant. Calculation requires marginal analysis, sequences initiating anywhere within a set governed by conservation of energy and entropy converging in parallel upon a common limit, “the unseen hand.” Energy conserved, however, economic growth is bounded.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Mauro Rossi Interpersonal Utility and Pragmatic Virtues
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It is a commonplace that, in everyday life, we compare different people’s preferences with respect to content and strength. We typically make such comparisons with relatively little difficulty. Furthermore, we often do not find inter-personal comparisons of preferences more difficult than intra-personal comparisons, that is,comparisons involving our own preferences. This contrasts with the difficulties that comparing preferences across individuals pose at the theoretical level. Since preferences are typically represented numerically through a utility function, the problem is known as the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons (IUCs for short). In this paper, I examine the most common solution to the problem of IUCs. According to it, we can assume that preferences are interpersonally comparable on pragmatic grounds (i.e. explanatory power, parsimony and simplicity) I argue that, contrary to our intuitions, the assumption of interpersonal comparability is not pragmatically advantageous. I conclude that this strategy to solve the problem of IUCs fails.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Tuytsyn Yury Value of the Commodity and Intellectual Labour: Rethinking Philosophy of Economics of K. Marx
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The Paper is dedicated to philosophical fundamentals of the Marx’s theory of product value. The author proves that in the Marx’s theory the value of the product of labour and, correspondently, of the commodity is defined inaccurately. He thinks that the concept of labour, presented in the economic theory of K. Marx, undeservedly ignores the role of intellectual activity of an individual in production of material goods. Marx considered mental activity as integral part of physical labour. This Marx’s viewpoint takes in account only the controlling mental activity of an individual in the process of labour. The author thinks that such form of labour existed only in conditions of primitive manufacture, when a worker himself invented the product of labour and then created it with the help of materialactivity. In the period of industrial production of material goods, starting from the late 18th century, the intellectual labour separated from the physical labour and by its status became a sufficient independent stage of public production process. In this connection it is necessary to reconsider a number of such important concepts of philosophical fundamentals of economics as labour, value and wealth.
articles in russian
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Anton Gordeev Протестантизм как основа современного капитализма
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Society economics has been always connected with religious and ethic views of each people. A lot of philosophers and theologists closely studied the problem of synthesis and mutual influence of these social institutions. Within the frame of historical development of philosophy there were such periods. The most illustrative example of such synthesis, maybe, is the parallel development of Protestantism and capitalism. It is possible to note this world tendency in the places with strong protestant influence (in particular its conservative branch – kalvinism). Capitalism influence is also strong enough. Kalvin was the first to speak against the capital growth condemnation. He considered economy to be a natural aspect of man’s life which should be regulated in agreement with Bible. It’s worth noting that Kalvinist approach to personal life bred a new type of ascets in secular world very wealthy people who consider their wealth as their duty to the God. The main goal of these people was accumulation for accumulation sake and for their possibility of soul salvation but not for their demand satisfaction. These people consider themselves as some kind of tool; their direct religious duty was to accumulate wealth. This was the essence of “protestant spirit”, the intersection point of capitalism and Protestantism, the starting point of political economics.
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Boris F. Kalachev Movement of Narcogenes: From the Past through the Present Time and to the Future
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There is no broad dispute in the doctrine on the matter how and on what purpose did the drugs appear in the nature and in the society. Why does a certain spectrum of light and sound waves and electromagnetic radiations bring a person into a state of euphoria? The Author has united biological and chemical substances as well as the sources of other origin changing person’s consciousness into a joint hypersystem: narcogenes’ movement recorded in the past,observable in the present and expected in the future. It is admissible to associate the sources of formation of the modern variety of narcogens with the origin of life by means of «the reasonable plan», «lucky coincidence», panspermia in their interaction or otherwise. The life distribution on the Earth during 3.5 billion years with the participation of narcogenes has caused such global phenomena as drug trafficking and narcomania (toxicomania). Today narcogenes are discovered in all earthly environments and the vector of theirmovement is directed by a man beyond the limits of the earthly surface. In a set of regular medicines they are placed onboard tens thousands flight vehicles, shuttles and ISS are supplied with them. In 1969 onboard «Apollo-11» narcogens were first delivered to an orbitof the Moon. The happenings of their «exterrestia» consumption on the circumterrestrial orbit have already been recorded. Onward are narcogenic mixers, nanorobots, transferring narcogenes in a human’s brain and so forth. The postglobal scope of the narcogenes’ movement may get a colossal swing as the people develop the deep space, build circumplanetary settlements (upward 10 thousand people) and planetary colonies. It is time that the scientists payattention to the prognostic side of the problem under consideration and develop preemptive measures.
articles in chinese
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
ShanKan He 文化•创新文化•自主创新
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Innovation is the nature of culture. There is no culture without innovation. Firstly, culture is the center of society, is the motive, condition and result of socialdevelopment. Culture plays a leading role in social development. Social innovation should show by culture, therefore, culture innovation is an important part of social innovation. Secondly, Innovation is law of culture development. Thirdly, the foundation of culture innovation is innovation of people’s life model, behavior model and thinking model. Innovation culture which shows the nature of culture is the most active part of culture. Innovation culture is a kind of innovation spirit, a kind of innovation ideology and a kind of humane environment. Innovation culture plays an important role in science & technology innovation on selves. Innovation culture which consist of idea culture and system culture provides inside and outside power for creation activities. In order to promote culture innovation, we must hold the direction of advanced culture, in view of human-oriented and develop innovation education.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 22
Abraham Zhang 真气经济学
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The peper rethinks the demands in various economic branches: market, macro control, institution, innovation, investment, monetary, anti corruption, demand inward and outward, etc., just for return to the Truetone that meets all the economic demands. What is the Truetone? <Holy Bible> says: “God is Spirit.” The spirit of Hebraic is ruagh that means the Truetone in Tao, so God is the Truetone in Chinese Taoists. All complex economies can be simplified as the two: one is thesustainable economy in the Truetone, another is the unsustainable bubble in the conceittone. The Truetone, Truespring, and Trueword, is the Triplehelix impossible to be isolated, so the Truetone is the Triplehelix. The belief in the Truetone clears out the conceittone that blocks the free transactions and causes corruption in economy. Any economy has its own advantage with its Truetone. The paper trys to allow all economies to return to their own genuine believes toreceive full graces in the Truetone, and also Chinese government to get genuine economic policies to avoid the big crisis with the conceittone ahead.