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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Santiago Argüello Overcoming an Anaxagorian Conception of Noûs by a Metaphysical Theory of the Best Possible: From Socrates to Aquinas
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This paper intends to show that our reception of Plato’s criticism of Anaxagoras’ philosophy of mind (noûs) is mediated by Thomas Aquinas’ conception of freedom. The Socratic-Platonic Metaphysical theory of mind as essentially connected to the best is transformed by Aristotle into a theory of the intelligence which, in its acting, necessarily records the possibility of performing the opposites or contraries. Therefore, ‘the (Platonic) best’ is now specifically understood as ‘the best possible’. Within this Metaphysical conception, Aquinas distinguishes two levels (which are also to be found in ‘freedom’). In the first or more superfical one–here called ‘horizontal’–, the mind chooses to perform the best possible or not, that is, it can fulfill the science which is within the mind itself or not. In the second or more radical one –here called ‘vertical’–, the mind has to perform a reflexive act, by means of which it chooses willing or not its necessary possibility of performing the science that the mind possesses.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Konul Bunyadzade Pantheism in Thinking of the Medieval East
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Pantheist thinking in Islamic East and its adequacy to western pantheism is complicated and controversy problem. To make the problem somewhat clearer, it needs first of all to emphasize that it is possible to divide the development of the theories of world outlook and trends relied on essence of Koran’s esoteric meaning and religion towards inner world in Islamic East, into two direction: pantheist and “vahdat al-vujud”. The trend, in organization and formation of which ismailism, hurufism, nogtavism played important role and some sects of tasavvuf considered to be heretic may be referred to the first orientation. As far as the second one, only tasavvuf may be referred to it. Though some issues, categories of each of them (orientations) seem alike at first sight, however there are the important differences in their fundamental principles from both ontological and epistemological points of view, it stipulated that, first of all, by the factors and purposes of their formation. Each trends of the first direction, philosophy of which been significant part of thinking system in Islamic East, left its traces in history ofphilosophy and possessed a vast circle of influence. There were many prominent figures whose works ranked among the philosophical treatises of the period, need particular study to complete Islamic philosophical panorama.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Antoine Côté Medieval Philosophy: Simplicius on idoneities
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The following paper offers a brief discussion of Simplicius’ intriguing concept of “propensity” (epitedeiotes), an attempt to account for particularized qualities in terms congenial to a Neoplatonist. For although claiming to follow Aristotle, Simplicius ultimately explains the existence of particularized qualities in termsof a metaphysic of participation. Although his doctrine does not seem not have enjoyed much popularity in Late Antiquity, it will be adopted and expanded upon both late 13th century scholastic authors such as James of Viterbo who see Simplicius’ theory as offering a philosophically rigorous equivalent to Augustinian seminal reasons.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
María del Carmen Dolby Múgica The Person in Saint Augustine
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The concept of person arises in the conjunction of Greek Philosophy carried out by Saint Augustine. Both men and women are persons because they carry the image of God in their soul. On bearing the mind God's mark in its memory, it will wish for happiness. On bearing God's mark in its intelligence, it will wish for Truth and on bearing God's mark in its will it will wish for the Good since the desire for happiness is a wish or remembrance of God, the desire for Truth is a wish of God because He is the Truth, and the desire of Good and Beauty is a wish of God because He is the highest Good and the supreme Beauty. Human being's strongest motivations: happiness, truth, good and beauty, they all just come from being a person, from being the brightest bearer of the Trinitarian image which, on leaving its mark on him, at the same time marks the direction of his deepest desire. The anchorage of those metaphysical desires of man is in God and they can be thought of as anthropological universals.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Alec Gordon Philosophical Translation, Metalanguage, and the Medieval Concept of Supposition
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In his Welcome Message for the XXII World Congress of Philosophy hosted by Seoul National University in August 2008 the President of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP), Peter Kemp, said that—inter alia—it will be an occasion “for rethinking the great philosophical questions.” Amongst there questions how we in the present understand the philosophical past is surely a perennial query before us. In this short paper I will refer to the endeavor of understanding past philosophical thought on its own terms or as presented in a current idiom as “philosophical translation.” The latter can take three forms: logical, analytical, or hermeneutic. This paper will briefly discuss all three forms vis-à-vis modern attempts to understand the medieval concept of “supposition” with special regard to the role metalanguage plays in philosophical translation.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
George Heffernan Augustinian Skepticism in Augustine’s Confessions
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The goal of this paper is to show that Augustine’s Confessions, understood “sub specie dubitationis”, constitute a substantive argument for the philosophical position that may be described as “Augustinian skepticism”. The point is that, according to Augustine’s conversion narrative, what human beings can know becomes thematic only within the horizon of what they must believe, and therefore a doxic attitude other than rationality plays the primary and ultimate role in their quest for answers to questions about the meaning of life and death. An explication of the text of the Confessions suggests that a failure to understand Augustinianskepticism makes it impossible to account for a long list of big philosophical topics in Augustine’s thought.
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Mukhsin Rakhimov The Position of the Human in Avicenna's Mysticism
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In Avicenna's allegorical treatises humans are envoys of two worlds; on one hand, as products of natural evolution they are representatives of the earthly, physical world; on the other, as products of divine emanation they represent the cosmic principle. But in the process of spiritual contemplation they overcome theduality and split nature of their being and restore the fractured harmony between themselves and the cosmic world. Thus, having attained the highest form of cognition and moral beauty, the individual 'self becomes the universal essence identified in the language of Sufism as 'the perfect human'. Avicenna tries in hisallegorical treatises to makes his of becoming a perfect individual is not a sudden act of illumination, but a pyramid-like development, arranged, like the heavenly spheres, hierarchically, and calling for an incredible exertion of followers recognize that each person is able to rise to the level of the 'perfect individual', the road to which lies through moral purification and mastery of learning and the sciences, primarily philosophy. But the process strength, self-limitation and effort of will to pass through the stages of perfection and achieve the aim.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Yoshihisa Yamamoto Thomas Aquinas on the Ontology of Friendship: Selfness and Otherness
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The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ontological character of Friendship in Aquinas. The originality of Aquinas's theory is found in the ontological foundation expressed by Neoplatonic concepts (unio, unitas, communicatio). By integrating such Neoplatonic concepts with his analysis on the transcendentals(aliquid, unum), I will make a new ontological foundation to the theory of amicitia. In order that a man is a one (unum), he must establish himself as something different (aliud quid) in the midst of the relationship with others and then has to return to himself. So long as he stays self-contained without moving outward, he cannot constitute himself as an independent being which is different from other beings (aliquid). The ontological oneness (unitas) as an independent rational substance makes it possible for a man to form the mutual relationship of unity (unio) without losing himself in the midst of the deep relationship with someone else.
articles in french
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Hyun Sok Chung Siger de Brabant contre St. Thomas d’Aquin: Á Propos de la Séparabilité du l’Intellect Humain
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Siger conçoit sa critique à l’encontre de la théorie thomasienne de l’intellect en s’appuyant sur les adages tels que « agere sequitur formam » et « potentia non potest esse simplicior aut immaterialior quam eius substantia ». Structurant son argumentation autour de ces deux principes, il tente de démontrer que la position de Thomas d’Aquin se réduit finalement à une position matérialiste ou, se révèle encore être philosophiquement intenable lorsque ce dernier soutientces deux thèses qui, pour Siger, sont contradictoires, à savoir que l’intellect est, d’une part, une des parties de l’âme humaine et d’autre part une puissance indépendante et séparée du corps. Or, Siger semble faire l’économie de l’une de ses arguments les plus puissants qui peut, a priori saper le fondement même de la théorie de l’intellect chez Thomas, à savoir le problème de se séparation du corps. Cependant, une analyse détaillée de la terminologie thomasienne nousrévèle la raison qui a poussé Siger à ne pas utiliser cette critique majeure ; en effet, il était conscient que cet argument qui semblait indiquer un possible incompatibilité entre l’intellect et le corps ne se réduisait en réalité qu’à un problème unsinnig. Cette retenue et cette maîtrise témoignent de de la perspicacité de Siger qui a su précisément demeurer à l’intérieur de la limite conceptuelle où il lui est possible de se présenter non pas comme un critique manqué deThomas d’Aquin, mais comme un véritable philosophe capable de mettre sa position en parallèl avec celle thomasienne concernant l’homme pensant ou « cet homme-ci qui pense ».
articles in spanish
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 14
Lázaro Pulido Repensar la Filosofía Medieval: San Buenaventura y el Pensamiento Romántico en el Siglo XXI, una Hipótesis de Trabajo Manuel
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This paper presents a way of rethinking the current thought and the medieval philosophy, understanding that we can define the actual philosophy like neo-romanticism. The challenges of this thought can be approached from a reading of to medieval philosophy of St. Bonaventure. St. Francis of Assisi can appear as a romantic personage and the access to the philosophy is done bearing other texts in mind as the Leyenda Maior.