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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Gaetano Chiurazzi Kant’s Revolutionary Metaphysics as a New Policy of Reason
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Kant’s critical project has been understood as a description of the functioning of knowledge (Strawson). Such an understanding of the first Critique seems however limited, especially if we consider Kant’s frequent use of political analogies. These analogies suggest another reading in which Kant’s critical project emerges as an attempt to overcome a state of nature in reason (marked by unavoidable conflict) through the institution of a legal state in and by reason itself. Seen in this perspective, Kant’s critical metaphysics can be considered revolutionary, because it assumes the issues of the two revolutions of modernity, the political and the scientific one: from the former, Kant adopts the conviction that a conflict can be settled only through the separation and reciprocal limitation of powers, as theorized by Locke and Montesquieu - and thus neither by force nor by the establishment of an absolute power; from the latter, he acquires a model of proof, which is based, not on description, but on the elaboration of an explicative hypothesis (of a condition of possibility). The Critique of Pure Reason, then, is not a mere treatise of epistemology or of descriptive metaphysics, but the attempt of setting up a policy of reason at the service of peace and civil communal life.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Amos Edelheit Moral Psychology in Renaissance Philosophy: On Conscience, Will and Love
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In the first part of the paper I shall discuss some difficulties and problems in the historiography of Renaissance philosophy arising from a gap between some assumptions and preconceptions concerning this period on the one hand, and historical and archival evidences on the other. The need for a new historiography arises both from the publication of new sources which have not yet been discussed with sufficient scholarly attention and from a new approach to the Renaissance and its place in the intellectual and cultural history in the transition from the Middle-Ages to the early modern era. In the second part I shall present three scholastic thinkers of the Renaissance: Antoninus Pierozzi and the concept of conscience; Giorgio Benigno Salviati and the concept of will; Lorenzo Pisano and the concept of love. I shall try to demonstrate their contribution and importance to philosophical and theological discussions pertaining to moral psychology.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Jan Forsman Descartes and the Suspension of Judgment – Considerations of Cartesian Skepticism and Epoché
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In this paper I will argue how Descartes in the First and Second Meditation of the Meditations uses a very clear suspension of judgments or assent that in many ways resembles the epoché of the ancient skepticism, especially that of pyrrhonistic variant. First I show how the pyrrhonistic epoché works and what purpose it was used. After that I show how this Cartesian epoché both resembles and differs from the ancient epoché. My main argument is that Descartes, when using the method of doubt, doesn’t really dismiss or abandon earlier knowledge or beliefs, as he is sometimes been viewed, but more likely doesn’t take any stance in them, suspending his judgment on the existence of the outside-world. I base my argument both on my reading of Meditations and the “as it were sensing” -interpretation of Descartes’ use of method of doubt by John Carriero.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Jesús Carlos Hernández Moreno The Schopenhauer’s “Will” or about the Triumph of the “genium malignum”
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Arthur Schopenhauer raises the “question of the meaning of existence” and, with this question, philosophy inverts its alienation implied by the discourse which usually has marked it as tradition. However, with this question the philosopher unleashes an “evil genius” far more incisive and deadly than Descartes’ one, since, being a-rational, it affects even the rationalistic mathematical-moral parameters in which Descartes’ one was defined. This genius appears in Schopenhauer’s philosophy as a “will” that manifests itself in a “world” of individuals who co-exist at the expense of eliminating each other, a “world” where pain and suffering urge the question for meaning. So, for Schopenhauer, it is the will that – having become independent of the desires that, according to Descartes, a priori understanding makes it desire, as both, understanding and will, compound this unit(y) called “cogito”. Hence, this response does not eliminate the question either, but only knocks the bottom out of it and even demands it more urgently, thereby vindicating the character of philosophizing as humanly essential.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Georgios Steiris Pico della Mirandola and the Pre-Socratics
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Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) decided to study all the ancient and medieval schools of philosophy, including the Pre-Socratics, in order to broaden his scope. Pico showed interest in ancient monists. He commented that only Xenophanes’ One is the One simply, while Parmenides’ One is not the absolute One, but the oneness of Being. Melissus’ One is in extreme correspondence to that of Xenophanes. As for Xenophanes, Pico seems to have fallen victim of ancient sources, who referred to Xenophanes and Parmenides as members of the Eleatic “tribe”. In the case of Parmenides Pico draws mainly on the Platonic dialogues Parmenides and Sophist and not on intermediaries such as the Neoplatonists and other commentators. Despite of Pico’s knowledge of Empedocles’ philosophy, it is worth noticing that Pico was also strongly influenced by the medieval kabbalistic literature and the pseudo Empedocles. While Neoplatonists, such as Proclus, commented Empedocles and interpreted him according to the Neoplatonic spectrum, Pico’s appreciation of the philosophy of Empedocles was mediated through Arab and Jewish mysticism. Pico counted among his sources the Pre-Socratics, but the way he read them was not always direct and consistent. He intentionally chose to interpret them through the spectrum of intermediaries such as the ancient Commentators, the Neoplatonists, the Arabs and Jews mystics.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Athanasia Theodoropoulou Bessarion’s Conception of Platonic Psychology: The Immortality of the Soul in the Phaedrus (245c5-246a2)
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Bessarion’s major philosophical treatise In Calumniatorem Platonis is a systematic approach to Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy written in response to George of Trebizond’s Comparatio Philosophorum Aristotelis et Platonis, which attacked Plato’s authority and proclaimed Aristotle’s superiority. A striking example of this is Bessarion’s attempt to defend Plato against George of Trebizond’s accusation that Plato did not offer sound arguments in favor of the immortality of the soul. In this article, I focus on Plato’s proof of the immortality of the soul in the Phaedrus (245c5-246a2), as presented by Bessarion in the eighth chapter of the second book of the In Calumniatorem Platonis. The Phaedrusʼ proof is based on soul’s definition as a self-mover: since the soul always moves itself, it is the source of motion and is, therefore, ungenerated, imperishable and immortal. Bessarion’s interpretation of the Platonic proof gives the impression that Bessarion cites the text where Plato argues that the soul is immortal (245c5-9), and he summarises the text where Plato argues that the soul is ungenerated and imperishable (245d1-246a2). I argue, however, that Bessarion does not offer an original reading of the Phaedrus’ proof, and I also propose that Bessarion’s interpretation reflects his attempt to harmonize the Platonic and the Aristotelian views.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Julieta Vivanco Undurraga Pufendorf and the Foundation of the Modern Concept of Equality
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Despite the constant assertions made in the field of politics and law about the natural equality of all men, currently there are a significant number of claims arguing that human rights do not respect cultural diversity. Any law with a pretension of universality is perceived as a cultural imposition with no regard to the subjective aspects that would determine its legitimacy; consequently moral objectivity is viewed as impossible, extending thus the feeling of relativism. The main aim of this paper is to show how Samuel Pufendorf’s concept of natural equality must be reconsider as an important precedent of the universality of fundamental rights. The definition of equality given by this author is very significant and currently relevant in establishing a justification for this universality, overcoming thus the alleged claim of the impossibility of moral objectivity.
articles in french
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Mariana de Almeida Campos Définition et extension du concept de substance dans les Principes de la Philosophie de Descartes
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L’objectif de cette communication est d’analyser la définition du concept cartésien de substance dans les Principes de la Philosophie. Dans l’article 51 de la première partie des Principes, Descartes propose une définition de la substance, à savoir, comme une chose dont l’existence n’a pas besoin d’aucune chose créée pour exister. D’après cette définition, la notion de substance est liée à une indépendance. Cependant, le terme indépendance dans ce contexte n’est pas clair. On peut penser que Descartes considère l’indépendance comme causale. Mais, quoique la compréhension du sens du terme indépendance comme causale soit utile pour montrer que le sens du terme substance n’est pas univoque lorsqu’il est appliqué à Dieu et aux substances créées, elle n’est pas suffisante pour distinguer les substances créées de leurs modes. Une autre façon de comprendre la notion d’indépendance est de la comprendre comme une indépendance d’inhérence. Ce sens d’indépendance, comme non inhérence, permet de montrer que l’extension de la définition de substance créée comme entité indépendante n’est pas coextensive aux modes. La conclusion de cette communication nous amènera à déterminer l’extension du concept cartésien de substance dans les Principes.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Miklos Veto La question de la fondation dans l’idéalisme allemand
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La question de la fondation n’a cessé de hanter la métaphysique. Elle a reçu trois formulations majeures dans l’Idéalisme Allemand. Chez Kant la subjectivité a priori est montrée comme la base de la validité de la connaissance humaine. Dans la spéculation hégélienne, les notions mêmes de substrat ou fondement cèdent le pas à l’unité de la forme et de la matière, de l’historique et du conceptuel, c’est-à-dire à la transparence du réel tout entier. Finalement, chez Schelling l’idée de Dieu est repensée pour réunir l’intelligibilité de l’essence et la factualité de l’existence.
articles in spanish
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Anna Maria Brigante El hombre inepto como Ícaro: La crítica viquiana a la filosofía monacal de Descartes
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Este escrito pretende abordar la crítica que le hace Vico a la educación de corte cartesiano que se impartía a los jóvenes de la Nápoles de su tiempo. La razón para ello era que formaba ciudadanos ineptos para la vida civil. La propuesta viquiana se encamina a mostrar que además de educar en el método cartesiano, se hace necesario promover entre los jóvenes el estudio de la elocuencia, dado que esta es una poderosa herramienta para que puedan enfrentarse con prudencia a la vida civil. Esta propuesta debe comprenderse a la luz del verum factum, este principio es la posibilidad de articular los dos métodos de estudios y zanjar, de una forma original la querella entre antiguos y modernos en aras de educar hombres aptos para la vida en la ciudad.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Francisco de Jesús Angeles Cerón La metafísica cartesiana de la continuidad
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El estereotipo de René Descartes como reformador, reforzado por la visión de un agudo y vigoroso pensador como Jacques Maritain, así como por el seductor discurso heideggeriano quienes a su modo ven en Cartesio más que a un Parménides de la modernidad, a un Protágoras moderno, hacen que se construya en torno al Caballero de la Turena, una versión convencional de nuestro tiempo a partir de la cual el autor del Discurso es el responsable (si no, más bien el culpable) de las atrocidades de nuestros días, por un lado, así como por otro, como hace, por ejemplo Richard Watson, se crea en torno a él, el mito del nuevo Prometeo que nos trajo no el fuego, sino la televisión, la democracia, la ciencia “liberada” y la internet. Analizaremos la filiación metafísica de Descartes al proyecto de la Contrarreforma, y señalaremos que su pensamiento no es de ruptura civilizacional sino antes bien, de continuidad, pese a su originalidad.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Daniel Leserre La cuestión del lenguaje en Kant: una observación en la Crítica de la razón pura
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A partir de la constatación de que la cuestión del lenguaje en Kant oscila entre un polo, donde se verifica que Kant prácticamente no ha hablado del lenguaje y que en sus obras no se halla una filosofía del lenguaje elaborada y articulada explícitamente, y otro donde se ve su decisiva influencia en la filosofía del lenguaje, el presente trabajo: presenta un caso relevante en la Deducción metafísica de Crítica de la razón pura para un enfoque de dicha cuestión. Con ello el trabajo sugiere, entonces, la posibilidad de una interpretación interna que asume positivamente las indicaciones kantianas explícitas y su valor como punto de partida para la reconstrucción de la posición de Kant respecto del lenguaje. Esta interpretación sostiene que cuando se analiza lo que Kant explícitamente indicó en el marco de su propia terminología y conceptuación se puede, a pesar de que no está desarrollada, identificar una posición respecto del lenguaje fundada en la concepción misma de la filosofía crítica, de posible relevancia para discusión actual en filosofía del lenguaje.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Juan Carlos Moreno Romo La gracia en el trasfondo spiritual de la duda metódica cartesiana
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La Modernidad es hija, se dice, de esa voluntad cartesiana de refundación radical de la filosofía y la ciencia como tales, que pasa por la prueba decisiva de la duda metódica. El pensamiento existencialista que va de Pascal a Kierkegaard, y de éste a Barth, pasando por Unamuno, cuestiona la radicalidad de esa refundación, que deja intacta a la fe religiosa profesada por Descartes. En la (re)fundación del mundo Moderno, cabría “traducir”: ¿qué es lo que en el fondo pesa más, Atenas, o Jerusalén? Se trata de una crítica muy aguda, que nos obliga a elaborar toda una relectura del presente, y del pasado inmediato de nuestra civilización occidental. Esta breve comunicación intenta, simple y sencillamente, trazar los ejes “cartesianos” de ese importante problema.
articles in greek
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 70
Αθανασία Θεοδωροπούλου Η πρόσληψη της πλατωνικής ψυχολογίας από τον Βησσαρίωνα: η περίπτωση του «αὐτοκινήτου»
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Ο καρδινάλιος Βησσαρίων υπήρξε ένας από τους σημαντικότερους Έλληνες λογίους και συνέβαλε στον επαναπροσδιορισμό της πλατωνικής φιλοσοφίας στη δυτική Ευρώπη του 15ου αιώνα. Το In Calumniatorem Platonis (1469) είναι το σημαίνον φιλοσοφικό έργο του και αποτελεί μία συστηματική παρουσίαση της πλατωνικής φιλοσοφίας. Πρόκειται για μία συγκροτημένη ανασκευή του Comparatio Philosophorum Platonis et Aristotelis (1458) του Γεωργίου Τραπεζούντιου, μιας πραγματείας που εναντιώνεται σθεναρά στον Πλάτωνα αναδεικνύοντας την υπεροχή του Αριστοτέλη. Αντιπροσωπευτικό παράδειγμα είναι η απόπειρα του Βησσαρίωνα να αντικρούσει την κατηγορία που επιρρίπτει ο Τραπεζούντιος στον Πλάτωνα αναφορικά προς την αδυναμία απόδειξης της αθανασίας της ψυχής. Προβάλλοντας την επιχειρηματολογία του Πλάτωνα που διατυπώνεται στο Φαίδρο (245c5-246a2), ο Βησσαρίων επιχειρεί να αποδείξει ότι ο Πλάτων τεκμηριώνει την αθάνατη φύση της ψυχής. Μέσω της συγκριτικής μελέτης των δύο κειμένων, του Πλάτωνα και του Βησσαρίωνα, η παρούσα εισήγηση επικεντρώνεται στην κριτική αποτίμηση της ερμηνευτικής προσέγγισης του πλατωνικού εγχειρήματος από τον Βησσαρίωνα και στην ανάδειξη των ερμηνευτικών αποκλίσεων αυτού, που υπαγορεύονται από τη γενικότερη σκοποθεσία της πραγματείας του: το συγκερασμό των πλατωνικών και αριστοτελικών αρχών.