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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Kozi Asano D. Miller on our Responsibility to the Global Poor
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I want to discuss D. Miller’s arguments concerning our responsibility to secure the basic human rights everywhere in the world. His arguments are very interesting because he tries to balance two perspectives to see human beings. First, as needy and vulnerable creatures, we need certain items or conditions in order to have minimally decent human lives. Without those items or conditions, we are harmed. Second, as choosing agents, we are responsible for the consequences of our actions. In the first half of the paper, I describe Miller’s arguments. Our basic needs give rise to basic human rights. So when somebody is denied basic human rights, it imposes upon the rest of us a responsibility to restore them. This is a demand of justice. So, at first Miller appears to advocate a strong claim of our responsibility to help the global poor. But he considerably weakens this responsibility. How? First, he thinks that the deprivation of basic human rights is largely brought about by people of poor developing countries. So, we do not owe a primary responsibility to fulfil their basic human right. Second, there is a justice gap between what poor people in developing countries can claim as a matter of justice and what we are obliged, as a matter of justice, to sacrifice. So, in the end we are demanded to offer humanitarian aids only. In the second half, I develop the three problems I find with Miller’s arguments.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Martha C. Beck The Veneer of Barbarism: Ignoring the Insights of Ancient Wisdom in the Era of Globalization
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This paper tries to show that the insights of Ancient Greek wisdom are still relevant today and can provide guidance, as we move toward what seems to be a historically unique, complex network of interrelationships between human beings all over the world and between human society and the natural world. The paper focuses on only two of the deities of the Olympian pantheon: Aphrodite, goddess of beauty and Ares, god of war, the extreme attraction they feel toward each other, and their relationships to the other de-ities and to human beings. Like all the deities, each of them can be either sacred and motivate human beings to noble achievements or they can drive individuals and societies to self-destruction. The lessons implied in the Iliad and myths apply to international development today. We seem to be creating a world of consumers who seek material comfort and wealth, worshipping Aphrodite without noticing she will always bring Ares with her: faction and conflict within and between nations. We are making the mistakes the Greeks thought most obvious and dangerous.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Purushottama Bilimoria Globalisation: Good, Bad, and the Ugly Casualties of Indian Liberalisation: A Postcolonial Perspective
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There is a lot of talk around about Globalisation and its mana-like benefits; indeed, there are many, in areas such as the spread of communication capabilities, social media, and wider distribution of goods in the free trade marketplace that in previous decades were ‘protected’ by exorbitant excise tariffs, licensing restrictions, and low turn-overs. Since Weber, Robertson, Wallerstein, Appadurai, Tambiah et al, there has been much theorizing on the inevitability of Globalisation and its neat corollaries, Free Trade, Liberalisation, Parallel Modernities, and Economic Rationalism. Yet, Globalisation has both its protagonists and antagonists alike. The paper focuses on case studies from the Indian-end, impelled by the question: in what ways has Globalisation benefited and hurt India’s economy, the slow growth and periodic stagnation of its capabilities, the stability of the nation and its people? As part of the reciprocal deal on Liberalisation, Free Trade agreement has enabled myriads of TNCs with to reign in large Western capital-investment and start-up industrial bases (within a set percentage of ‘Indian-vested’ collaborations), which have undoubtedly helped push India to becoming the third largest world economy. However, the encroachments of TNCs and their impact on agro-economics, biodiversity, the plight of farmers, the further disenfranchisement of numerically small from a share in the national weal, the uneven regional deliverance from poverty, malnutrition, the disproportionate gender-ratio, rural illiteracy among the neglected, and other fall-outs, have worried critics of India’s ‘easy ride’ on the highway of Globalisation. The arguments will be developed extensively with illustrations.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Germán Bula Cyborgs vs. Zombies: A Spinozist Ethology of Empire
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The following text attempts to map today’s biopolitical landscape in the form of an ethology: based on Hardt & Negri’s Empire and Deleuze’s reading of the body in Spinoza, it describes the main sorts of bodies in cognitive capitalism in terms of their affects, that is, the ways in which a body can modify and be modified by other bodies. Corporations are described as a body that has a single affect (profit) and is capable of incorporating other bodies into its service by exacerbating a single affect (such as fear). Communication technologies are seen as transformative of bodies, enabling them to increase their number and kinds of affects, and to create networks of cooperation and altruism, as a counterpoise to the obsessive powers of single affects. Finally, the Earth is also treated as a body, and its biopolitical role is also examined.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
René Ceceña The Common Topological Grounds of Modernity (15th-18th centuries) and Globalization
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The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of space in the building of Modern thought (taken to be a form of relationship of human knowledge with the world, built from the 15th to 18th centuries) and, on that basis, the foundation of geopolitical and geo-economic thought and practices that characterize what we now call globalization. It is in indeed on spatial forms of representation and understanding of reality, that signifies a rupture with the ontological orientation of Western premodern thought, that modern epistemology is developed making it possible for the West to think and engage the geopolitical and geo-economic appropriation of the Earth as a whole. I then sought in this work to account the process of constitution of Modernity that, on the basis of the fundamental quality of space and as, then, the organizer for the understanding of reality, operates the reconfiguration of the concept of space leading to the identification of the whole Earth with a homogeneous space, susceptible to the West of human habitation and appropriation.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Long Cheng China Model in Globalization Process
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No matter from which perspective, the presentation of the China model is an important event in the process of globalization. Why can the Chinese model achieve its success? What problems has it encountered? How can it resolve the problems and keep its sustainable development? What effect will China model bring to the world? In my opinion, the Chinese success depends upon five decisive factors: the pragmatic theories, the authoritarian political system, the special market economic structure, the well-controlled and gradual opening-up policy and the hardworking people with a creative spirit. However, the Chinese development confronts several problems: for example, its cost is too high, some important relations have lost their balance, the reform of the political institution has lagged behind the economic reform, some countries feel nervous about China’s development, etc. To maintain its sustainability China must deal with five pairs of relations, including those between social justice and efficiency, political reform and economic reform, economic development and ecological protection, native culture and foreign culture, and between righteousness and benefit. Finally, improving the China model will be beneficial to the world development.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Zaharia Clitan Globalization of Capabilities
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Globalization is a term so broad in its scope that there is an inherent issue in defining what it truly means. The word globalization lends itself to unlimited interpretations and one would be hard pressed to find a concordant definition amongst scholars, practitioners and every people. The following paper is an attempt at refining and clarifying the concepts of globalization following the antithetic curse/blessing separation and asking: Is globalization the “Good, the Bad or the Ugly?” In the second half of this essay there will be a focus on normative aspects with the help of the “Capability approach.”
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Ana Luiza da Gama e Souza Individual Freedom in the Economic Global Market: A Defense of a Liberty to Realize Choices
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Human life in contemporary society is extremely complex and there are various external factors that directly affect the realization in the individual ends. In this work I analyze the effects of the global market economy, manifested by a mode of production and distribution of goods and services in the form of a global network of economic relations, which involve people, transnational corporations and political and social institutions in moral sphere of people, affecting their choices and the realization of these choices. Individual freedom can be understand as a freedom to realize our choices in the environment of a global economic market, but it is still problematic in the sense that the choices of goods and services available in this market do not reflect individual choices, but a set of preferences standardized according to the market itself. In this paper I will reflect about the individual freedom in economic globalization pointing from the debate between Pettit and Berlin that social freedom advocated by Republican Petit can be satisfactory for a start.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Bregham Dalgliesh Towards a Critique of Globalisation
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This presentation examines globalisation’s homogenising effects that negate the construction of a world in common, or mondialisation, which in turn is linked to the ineffectiveness of classic vitalistic criticisms of capitalism. The need to find an alternative critique that can also take into account the role of technology at the global level in transforming power relations is then addressed. To this end, globalisation is distinguished from liberalisation, internationalisation, modernisation and universalisation in terms of spatio-temporal deterritorialisation and its engine room of relations of power/technoscience. For this reason, the mode of critique of critical history is advocated because it seeks to make the will to know that drives technology conscious of itself as a problem. Critical history thus serves to illuminate the parallel changes in power relations that technology engenders and, secondly, to articulate their ambiguous effects on ethico-political subjects whose subjectivity is framed against relations of power/technoscience. On this understanding, critical history reveals the contingency of globalisation and acts as a hedge against it, or as a long-term investment in mondialisation.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Chris Durante A Cosmopolitan Ethos
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In our current era of globalization many have turned toward theories of cosmopolitanism as a means of fostering a sense of global citizenship. Often such theories promote our shared humanity at the expense of our cultural diversity. Yet, as regions of the globe continue to diversify we need to search for ways in which these communities will be capable of engaging in inter-cultural and interpersonal pursuits without having to eschew or eradicate our differences in the process. Thus, this paper will argue for a re-conceptualized form of cosmopolitanism as an ethos that is capable of forging a middle ground between universalism and particularism by enabling individuals and communities to cultivate an open attitude toward that which is foreign and different without having to eschew their own cultural particularities or their partiality toward their own communities. Through an analysis and re-conceptualization of the ideas of “diaspora,” “proximity,” “partiality,” and the “foreign” it will be suggested that through our rootedness in particularity – our ability to be partial to particular persons and identify with particular places – we are capable of creating a sense of world citizenship on both interpersonal and intercultural levels.