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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Helena Costa de Carvalho Blanchot and the Possibility of Philosophy: The Literary as Disruption of Philosophical Discourse
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Blanchot shook the foundations of Philosophy like few others in its systematic and totalizing discourse and its close relationship with academism, appealing to the need for a new and disruptive theorizing about its role and its possibility. Refusing the title of philosopher, he called himself a writer who became interested in (literary) writing itself as an experience of the outside (dehors) and expression of a neuter, an absolutely other that resists any attempt at apprehension and discursive unification, interrupting the various discourses and deconstructing the boundaries between them. In the radicalism of his thought, philosophical discourse loses its status of superiority and its possibility of overcoming literary ambiguity, seeing itself also devoted to seeking a non-existent unity and to the condition of not-knowing and non-power, whereby philosophy should approach literature and become itself image and fragment. In this context, the literary emerges as disruption of philosophical discourse, like the other word that resists within its boundaries to interrupt the word-concept by pointing to a there where thought does not arrive, and philosophy becomes, as the poetic, an investigation into the neuter, an exercise in listening and paying attention to this Other that remains nocturnal, infinitely moving discourses and their meanings and interrupting dialectic progression.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Gökçe Çataloluk Trakl’s poietic Silence: A Quasi-systems Theoretical Dissection
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Georg Trakl is known to be a poet that uses images of silence and one that uses as less words as possible when writing. This paper tries to examine whether it is possible to analyze this preference, following systems’ theory. For this, it examines the ways people communicate and communications bind to each other, the value of silence as negation and its anschlussfaehigkeit.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Vitor Cei Santos Machado de Assis on Nihilism and Voluptuosity of Nothingness
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Machado de Assis was the 19th century Brazilian writer whose work registered the nihilism with greater consistency. Despite the fact that the presence of nihilism in his works has already been recognized, the subject received little attention from critics and scholars, remaining an unexplored field. This paper aims to fill this gap in the critical fortune, and not only argue for the relevance of the subject, but also in favor of the thesis that the Brazilian writer had an acute awareness of the complex and multifaceted nature of the nineteenth-century nihilism. Attentive to the rise of nihilism in 19th century, Machado de Assis approached the problem in a critical and comic tone, contrasting their approach with the philosophical tradition seriousness. By writing with a playful pen, he used humor as one of the main principles of literary composition in his work. He enriched this feature using it as a kind of centerpiece to criticize and deride the spirit of his time, demonstrating that the problem of nihilism may be responded to with an attitude of good humor and irony.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Vicente Claramonte, Marietta Papamichail The Existence, Identity and Loneliness of the Migrant Human Being: Present and Persistence of Ancient Greece in Desaparecer (Disappear) Theatrical Play
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This article proposes a philosophical reflection about the underlying bonds between the Greek Classical Drama and Contemporary Theatre, with special attention to its concomitants in the treatment of the personal identity, the periplus towards revealed self-conscious and the self-estrangement in an alienated environment. It presents the context of Valencian Contemporary Theatre at that effect, and observes, from the point of the complex questions raised to the individual by the immigration, the possible existing parallelisms between the author’s preoccupations and some of the universal and atemporal themes in the Classic Greek Drama. It concludes pointing out the cost of autonomy implicated by the modern civic identity and suggesting its dissolution like a prosperous journey to the rediscovery of liberty and consciousness.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Tanuka Das Auden’s Poetic Excursion into Philosophy: A Study of his English Poetry (1927-38)
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Auden’s poems of the ’thirties bear witness to his social awareness and social commitment almost from the beginning. The great depression of the 30s gave Macspaunday, i.e., Macneice, Spender, Auden and Day Lewis, the conviction that it was the duty of poets to take sides in politics using poetry for that purpose. In the late 1920s the contemporary scene with its grave financial crisis was observed as a dark and sinister one. Auden, the leader of the group, found strong inspiration from the reading of Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud in the programme of using poetry to send messages, and create, and spread awareness among common people, whom he and his group saw as “sick” people. The ‘sick” people were for him either politically or psychologically, “sick”. Auden’s poems of 1927-1938 constitute a text with potential effects which call for actualization. Being university-educated, Auden would write in a language brilliantly witty, symbolic and allegorical. He was also an extremely reticent poet. Thus, was produced a complex poetic utterance fit for intelligent reception by a coterie of fellow poets. At the same time, he must reach out to the (lay) people, if - as a poet- he had to heal his fellow members of the society. The resultant dilemma was one from which he could not extricate himself successfully. Remembering how Wolfgang Iser raises the issue of readability of a text, leads to the question: did the contemporary readers of Auden find an easy job before them?
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Celine Dewas The Philosophical Reading of Experiences in Novels and its Implications: Merleau-Ponty, Bergson, Kazantzakis
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According to Merleau-Ponty, the renewal of philosophy (mainly with phenomenological and existential philosophies) has led to a new relation between philosophy and literature, from which we can assist to a real collaboration: novels are being used as real experiences inducing philosophical ideas, but without being reduced to them. This observation allows us reevaluate the possible philosophical implications of the influence of Bergson on the Greek writer Kazantzakis, envisaging a similar work to the one that did Lapoujade in his book Fictions du pragmatisme William et Henry James. Applying in our reading the requirements of this new relation between literature and philosophy, we will show that a philosophical approach of the Greek writer’s works cannot submit its understanding to an external knowledge or try to abstract ideas from the fiction as if they were really belonging to it. As an example, we will consider a new approach which would differ from the multiple theological interpretations of the Kazantzakis’ texts based on the influence of Bergson, by giving priority to the inner richness of the experience in the novel as a formal totality, from which it will be possible to complete the Bergsonian philosophical ideas rather than to come back to them.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Katarzyna Eliasz Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s Philosophical Investigations on the Notion of Freedom
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Pure philosophical ideas can be detached from reality and, because of that, lose their practical dimension. Literature, as Berdyaev and Bakhtin claimed, can be a way of presenting and testing those abstractions in reality created by the author. In his novels, Fyodor Dostoyevsky considered various problems and categories of philosophical type. One of them was a notion of freedom, analyzed by Russian author in two aspects: social and individual. The social aspect is really alike to the one present in ideas offered by philosophical anthropologists like Arnold Gehlen and Helmuth Plessner. In this view, freedom is being fulfilled through the world of institutions that, while constricting some of humans’ behavior, disburdens the man from too many decisions. Being free from that burden, man can fully develop his human potential. The second kind of freedom is the individual one, rooted in Russian authors’ religious world-view. Particular individual needs to make right choice between good and evil sanctify and become God-human. Those two categories of freedom interrelate creating complex vision of Dostoyevsky’s idea of freedom.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Angelos Evangelou Competing for a Glimpse of Madness: Philosophy vs. Literature
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Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida’s debate on madness was among other things revolving around the question about which of the two can better enact the dissonance that madness is: philosophy or literature? In this paper, I will briefly expose Foucault’s preference to literature, because of its ability to echo the silence of madness, and I will explain why Derrida’s faith in philosophy – in terms of its ability to ethically talk about madness – is legitimate. I will not attempt to dispute Foucault’s argument or challenge the profound tradition or connection between literary expression and madness, be this literary production about madness or most importantly literary production by ‘mad’ authors. What I will attempt to do, however, contra Foucault, is to express confidence in the ability of philosophy to engage in a similar tradition or connection. I will focus on what I call autobiographical philosophy – the philosophy in which both logos and bios are incorporated – and attempt to argue that it too provides philosophically legitimate space where what Derrida calls ‘the fiction of language’ can be enacted. The putting of the self in the work, opens up the body too to the risk of madness.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Alex Gordon The Post-Romantic Predicament: ‘Second nature’-between Unmediated Vision and Illegibility
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Taking as its point of departure the thesis of Roland Barthes that ‘culture recurs as an edge: in no matter what form’, this paper considers the post-romantic predicament of poetry summed up thus: that there is no unmediated vision only linguistically-mediated (stylized, symbolized-allegorized) poiesis. Against the radical innocence of ‘Why can’t everything be simple again/Like the first words of the first song as they occurred’ (Ashberry) is posed the radical modernist assertion of the ‘Illegibility of this world/All things twice over’ (Celan). This cultural edge is then viewed from a position in the domain of modernist philosophy, that of Ernest Cassirer, who argued that there is no culture in-itself as such independent of its symbolic encoding. Contrariwise to Cassirer the alternative view is posited – that of Stanley Burnshaw in his The seamless web – that poetry is actually born of a striving against the very restraining nature of culture; it is the result of a need to free the human organism from the burden of cultural constraint. Another cultural edge with this view is the constitution of a mediated second nature, which virtually re-experiences a primary nature through the projection of a third world via the poetic process. The paper will end considering of Paul de Man’s argument in The post-Romantic predicament that the problem of Romanticism – as historical movement and lived project turned on the complexity of poetic consciousness experienced as difficulty.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Kiunnei Lekhanova The Philosophy of Death in the Yakut Literature as the ‘Eternal’ Question of Human Existence
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The philosophy of death in the Yakut literature as the ‘eternal’ question of human existence. In the 20th century the theme of death became one of the leading in literature. This is largely determined by the consciousness of the century, which took apocalyptic features. Decadent mood has already ruled the world at the turn of the 19-20th centuries. Everybody was waiting for some unusual events that resulted in fear. The society couldn’t explain changes in policy, economy and arising new world picture rationally. People in the 20th century, based upon the existing cultural ideas, need to re-decide the most important ideological and existential problems of human existence; they need to live, knowing about death. Writers of all the times tried to resolve “eternal” questions of life and death. National and universal are beginning in close unity in many works of the Yakut literature. Universal beginning is expressed by the national original form. The best works of the Yakut literature also express the universal problems and important questions of existence.