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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Carlos Alberto Baena López New Trends in Latin American Political Philosophy: Miraism for the Absolute Renovation (Colombia)
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Miraism for the Absolute Renovation is a political philosophy based on Christian values, which started in Colombia in the year 2000 hand in hand with a political movement called MIRA. Outside the very traditional Latin American scheme ‘left-center-right’, this system of ideas has promoted the idea of solidary and purposeful independence, which materializes in the absence of electoral alliances, the decision-making inside a structure of deliberative democracy, and the defense of projects in favor to women, childhood, ethnicity and vulnerable communities. In this paper, we explain Miraism’s axiological origin, the way this philosophy started in the Colombian context, and some relevant characteristics of its performance.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Nohra Angelica Barrero Zabaleta Reflections on the ‘Loss’ of Reading and the Disappearance of the Book
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This document aims to describe how the studies and statistics on the low literacy rates among students are basically determining quantitative aspects, but have abandoned that original principle; that reading is simply a way to become more human self-knowledge, of understanding and changing realities, which should be emphasized in the literacy practices. The product of this research will be used to improve the practices of these subjects in college, and may be useful as a reference in institutions providing such training. For this study we identified the results of reading practices made in college and in other Latin American countries as well. The idea of developing the subject stems from studies conducted by the Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Colombia, as well as those obtained through surveys and statistics compiled by various Colombians and Mexicans. In this paper, research was a non-experimental, but more descriptive and formative. It has a look of what was studied in this field, the methodology used to do, some results, and analysis.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Andres Bobenrieth The Unreachable Task of Academic Philosophy in Latin America
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Philosophy in Latin America is not to be identified with Latin-American philosophy, because the former can be understood in a much wider sense: it has to do with the philosophical work that is actually done in Latin America, independently of whether it is related or not to “Latin American issues”. There has been a huge discussion about the sense, meaning, identity, purpose, projection etc. of philosophy in Latin America, but, here, I want to concentrate on the task that the greater part of academic philosophy in Latin America has imposed itself in the last 40 or 60 years. My contention is that it is a task that cannot be achieved, not now and not in the near future, due to its inherent structure. The case of Latin America is not too different from what happens in other areas of the world, where philosophical work has very close connections to the philosophical work done in the leading places in North America and Northern and Central Europe in a never-ending process of “catching up”. As a general term we could use “peripheral philosophy”, and I think it is important to reflect on these phenomena from a global perspective about contemporary philosophy. So, it has to be a meta-philosophical reflection, and not only from a specific “tradition”. My conclusion will be that philosophy is not “globalized”, quite the opposite, yet we can globalize our reflection upon philosophy.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Júlio Canhada Two Interpreters of the History of Philosophy in Brazil
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This paper analyzes two interpreters of the history of philosophy in Brazil. Sílvio Romero in the second half of the 19th century publishes Philosophy in Brazil, the first text exclusively dedicated to this subject. Inspired by Auguste Comte’s positivism, the author judges all the philosophers who preceded him as incapable of developing the new sciences and, hence, as still bound to what he calls “old metaphysics”. João Cruz Costa in the middle of the 1940s refused his predecessor’s idealism and proposed to them as the philosophical object par excellence the inheritance of the Brazilian colonial past, as it was closer to what he called national “reality”. Both authors exemplify sufficiently well the legitimacy conferred on the historiographical discourse in Brazil, and also contribute to the lack of authorization given to the place of speech proper to the philosopher.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Caribay Delgado Medina Simón Rodríguez: Education as an Emancipating and Participative Agent for the Latin-American Context
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Simón Rodríguez (1769-1854) is one of the most important thinkers of the Enlightenment period in Venezuela. Tutor of Simón Bolívar, and considered by him “the Socrates of Caracas”, Rodríguez inspires the educational ideas of the current Venezuelan political process. His influence is noticeable in the articles 102 and 103 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and in different public educational projects. His ideas also extended to philosophical and political fields, and were very influenced by the thinkers of the French Enlightenment, especially by Rousseau. Moreover, Rodríguez proposes an original pedagogical model highly connected to political and public issues, and related to the historical context and needs of Latin-America. This pedagogical model considers the child as a valuable, inquiring individual that must be prepared to fully participate in a democratic, productive and inclusive process.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
María Beatriz Delpech Philosophy in Spanish: An Identity Project
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This paper emerges from the compared reading of two Spanish speaking philosophers, Reyes Mate and Enrique Dussel who, each in its own manner, believe that philosophy in Spanish is a non-achieved project, but one to be achieved. This involves not only thinking about the aim that is intended but also about its roots and origin. For both of them, thinking in Spanish requires an overcoming of a way of doing philosophy that, one way or the other, has neglected the project itself. “No one is the price of History.”1 With this phrase, Reyes Mate, a well-known Spanish Philosopher, summarizes the objective of his book entitled La herencia del olvido. I intend to take a look at the Hispanosphere and its Academia and its identity issues, trying the set a new perspective from which we may understand our present and interpret our past.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Juan Carlos García Cruz Philosophical Traditions in Mexico: The Epistemological Pluralism as Understanding of Knowledge in Multicultural Societies
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This paper discusses the characterization of a pluralistic theory about science developed by the Mexican philosopher Leon Olivé. This theory allows explaining the diversity of philosophical positions about science and knowledge. In this aspect, pluralism lies on the basis of the recognition of otherness and difference, which enables it to be the foundation of a multicultural society with a diversity of knowledge (traditional and local knowledge) and cosmovisions in a country like Mexico. At this point, epistemological pluralism as a philosophical position cannot take place without any limit or halt construction insulation or extreme skepticism, which may fall if excessive relativism holds. Therefore, the possibility of dialogic interaction represents, in this sense, the brake to extreme relativism, for the exchange of cultures, and different forms of knowledge lay a wealth of construction and reconstruction fruitful criticism of an independent reality, yet dependent on our conceptual schema.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Osiris González The Concept of Human Being in Aztec Culture
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Which was the sense of human life to Aztec wise men? Which were their ideas about good and evil? What kind of moral topics were developed inside the Aztec culture before the contact with the Spaniards, Christianity and European culture? What kind of speeches, reflections and proverbs were used to communicate moral values? These questions are only a little example of a variety of philosophical topics that could help us understand the building of the world vision developed by ancient Mexicans. My task at this time is to show some moral issues from the Mexican culture or the Aztecs, but seeing it as a genealogical point of view. With these ideas in mind, I will analyze briefly some topics like: moral tradition, the concept of human being, evil and good.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
María Cristina Lozano Our Identity: A Pending Task
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This paper proposes to look into certain issues that have made us what we are. If, as Paul Ricoeur states, “to acknowledge that our being is in debt to who have made us be what we are, is to feel responsible for them”, we should revise our debts and be grateful for our gifts. Most of Latin American people have celebrated two thousand years of Independence from the power of the European conqueror. This event (World Congress of Philosophy held in Athens 2013) invited us to take over a pending task: to face the problematic issue of our identity, and urges us to give up the conqueror’s speech that we still have within ourselves. This commemoration, which celebrates the end of our situation as a colony, compels us to acknowledge and abandon our colonized peoples’ speech. Perhaps, this is our time to face the origin of our Latin American being, of our common history, of our common sorrow and fate.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Diego Morollón Del Río A Different Philosophy: The Tojolabal Thought
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In this article, we will make an attempt to think outside the capitalist system. And we will do that through the tojolabal thinking, a community in the South of Mexico that has a different philosophical view. The argument is that these languages of these communities have different roots, thus, an ideological position that tends not to think in the same way as Western philosophy. We will compare the language of the tojolabals with the Indo-European languages as well as their political and economic organization. The text’s sources are the philosophers Enrique Dussel and Carlos Lenkersdorf.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Guillermo Carlos Recanati “Our Other Philosophy” for Latin American Liberation Heritage and Construction
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Our hypothesis is that, without neglecting the inherited conceptual baggage, Latin American philosophy has tried, from its origins, to build its own way of thinking, always motivated by the reality of oppression and in search of liberation. This new philosophy, and its numerous variants, has been being developed throughout Latin American history until today. Reference will be made to Bartolomé de las Casas’ postulates, who we consider to be the first antecedent of the philosophy for the Latin American liberation. We carry on with the comparative analysis of Hegelian’s statements on the native Americans as people without history and, thus, not contributing to the universal unfolding of the Spirit, with the beliefs of those people expressing the “other ideas” across the ocean. While Hegel exalted bourgeoisie in Europe, they strived for bringing dignity back to those who had been deprived of it. Bearing in mind that the beliefs of our history heroes are part of the received heritage, we then analyze the attempts to build a Latin American philosophy which, in spite of the various points of view on history itself, preserves a common denominator: the desire of emancipation as well as a deep sense of identity.
articles in spanish
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Cristóbal Arteta Ripoll Pedagogía liberadora en el pensamiento filosófico de Bolívar
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El pensamiento del Libertador ha dado para todo tipo de reflexión y ha servido como punto de partida para ser reivindicado por unos y otros, desde la sociología, la política, la ideología y muy especialmente desde la filosofía. Son muy pocas las interpretaciones que sean hecho desde la perspectiva pedagógica. Este escrito tiene justamente la intención de mostrar los aportes de Simón Bolívar desde este enfoque teórico. Es un recorrido histórico por la filosofía política liberadora de un hombre genial hecho historia. Para ello he utilizado, apenas, algunos documentos de una gran significación histórica, con la finalidad de mostrar la importancia de la pedagogía como formadora de líderes y forjadora de valores para la dignificación del ser humano, la optimización de los niveles y contenidos de conciencia, la perseverancia en la lucha como condición de vida y la posibilidad siempre presente de que el triunfo se transforme en derrota y la derrota en victoria.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Eduardo Bermúdez Barrera, René J. Campis Carillio, Jorge Sanjuán Julio Enrique Blanco y la fenomenología de Husserl
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Julio Enrique Blanco, filósofo colombiano que desarrolló su trabajo en la primera mitad del siglo XX, se ocupa de la fenomenología de Husserl como parte de su propio tratamiento de la historia de la filosofía en su “Curso de historia comparativa de los principales sistemas de la filosofía”. Su crítica a Husserl constituye un caso que permite poner en perspectiva las interpretaciones tradicionales de la historia de la filosofía en Colombia y confrontar con el contexto en Latinoamérica. Este artículo intenta explicar cómo el tratamiento que Blanco da a Husserl y la fenomenología iba en consonancia con sus propios intereses en filosofía, así como también con los desarrollos de otras tradiciones filosóficas en Latinoamérica en su contemporaneidad.
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Maria Elizabeth de los Rios Uriarte Marieli La influencia de Ignacio Ellacuría en el pensamiento crítico Latinoamericano
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Latinoamérica constituye un nuevo territorio a partir del cual generar categorías de pensamiento de lo propiamente americano en contraposición con la influencia de la filosofía europea; así, con esta inquietud surge la Filosofía de la liberación que intenta crear un pensamiento basado en las estructuras dinámicas de la realidad latinoamericana. Ignacio Ellacuría, jesuita vasco, rector de la Universidad de Centroamérica José Simeón Cañas en El Salvador (UCA), consciente de la realidad y de la miseria en que los países latinoamericanos vivían y luchaban por niveles de vida más dignos y más humanos retoma la metodología propia de la Escuela de Frankfurt en su vertiente de crítica social para denunciar activamente las injusticias cometidas por los modelos económicos y políticos representados por las dictaduras militares. El concepto de liberación es abordado, en Ellacuría, desde una plataforma intelectualmente sólida que toma, como eje central, el plano biológico de tal manera que, antes que ser una categoría teológica, el jesuita la entiende como una necesidad biológica y ontológica a todas las especies; así lo novedoso de su pensamiento consiste en entender que los procesos de liberación de las especies y, en términos generales, de los pueblos, no se gestan abruptamente sino paulatinamente pues devienen procesos históricos que determinan el desarrollo biológico y, posteriormente, social. Es por lo anterior que, a partir de una línea que se desprende de la primera generación de la Escuela de Frankfurt y que desemboca en Ignacio Ellacuría se puede trazar un pensamiento crítico desde y para la realidad latinoamericana.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Claudia Eugenia Galindo The Post-colonial Theory in Latin America: A Philosophical Review
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In this paper I would like to explore the Edward Said “Orientalism” and the Homi Bhabha “The location of culture” in order to try an plausible explanation to the Latin American phenomena. I consider that the political events that have been developed in recent years in the continent could be explained not only like power relations or institutional forces, they must consider the cultural aspects that are involved in them. Democratic changes and social events are linked with the cultural aspects that are present in a different way than in the past. Migration and global affairs have transformed the idea of identity, citizenship, collective action, and could be seen as the elements that have contributed to a novel idea of politics.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Maria Gutiérrez Flores El humanismo ecológico Andino
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El mundo de hoy se debate entre la conservación y la destrucción, en este contexto surge la necesidad de identificar e incorporar a nuestra forma de vida principios no destructivos, que garanticen la protección y conservación de la naturaleza y la especie humana a través de la relación armónica entre los seres humanos y la naturaleza. El Humanismo ecológico andino tiene como sustento ontológico el pacha (mundo, naturaleza, espacio, tiempo, principio y fundamento de todo cuanto existe en constante interrelación) y su fundamento axiológico es el allín kawsay (vivir bien, en armonía entre los seres humanos y la naturaleza). Este humanismo ecológico concibe que en el centro del mundo está en la naturaleza (el pacha) juntamente con el hombre en una interrelación armónica de reciprocidad regidos por los principios de la causalidad, la imputación y el allin kausay (el vivir bien). Es una concepción milenaria que tiene como fin el bienestar del hombre y la naturaleza en una convivencia armónica. Esto es el humanismo ecológico andino.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Patrick Johansson Filosofía y cognición en la cultura náhuatl prehispánica
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A diferencia del conocimiento de corte occidental heredado de la mayéutica helénica, el saber indígena prehispánico, necesariamente objetivante como cualquier cognición humana, buscaba sin embargo una aprehensión sensible del objeto por conocer. Buscaba “comulgar” afectivamente con dicho objeto para lograr su aprehensión plena. Consideramos, en nuestra ponencia, los mecanismos cognitivos del saber indígena y su relación con lo que podríamos llamar filosofía.
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Marcelo Méndez Medina Técnicas precolombinas para formar el rostro y corazón: Los Huehuetlahtolli
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La palabra como formadora y transformadora del ethos tanto individual como colectivo, en el contexto de las culturas precolombinas juega un papel fundamental. Entre las técnicas que desarrollaron dichas culturas para constituir su ethos, su rostro y corazón, su carácter, su personalidad, se encuentran los huehuetlahtolli, “discursos de los viejos” o “antigua palabra”. El objetivo de la “antigua palabra” consistía en conservar la instrucción ética y moral, la forma de vida que habían de seguir hombres y mujeres, mientras estuvieran en tlaltipac, la tierra, para formarse un rostro sabio y un corazón firme, esto es, una personalidad concreta y acabada. En breve, los huehuetlahtolli tenían una finalidad político-educativa que consistía en la composición moral del individuo y en la enseñanza de la mejor manera de comportarse en la vida. De ahí la importancia de investigar en esta ponencia la función que desempañaba la palabra noble y cultivada, en la que están expresados los huehuetlahtolli, en la constitución ética de los seres humanos durante la antigüedad amerindia.
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
Marisa Muñoz Imaginarios de la psiquis, del cuerpo y de la afección
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Pensar los conceptos de “psiquis”, “cuerpo” y “afección” desde las propias experiencias es una cuestión que el intelectual argentino, Macedonio Fernández (1874-1952), abordó en varias instancias de su obra. En este sentido, hasta podríamos permitirnos hablar de un momento de larga duración en torno a estas problemáticas en su obra, en la que pueden señalarse núcleos de orden teórico-experimentales. El dualismo que asoma en sus formulaciones es batallado por Macedonio, quien no sigue un derrotero lineal para plantear la inmortalidad, la anulación del yo, la muerte-ocultación en el amor-pasión, el exhorcismo de los cuerpos y su revocación. Todas estas inflexiones con sello biográfico están montadas en un eje de meditación sostenido a lo largo de su vida.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 35
David Pessoa de Lira El rescate de los estudios sobre el Hermetismo filosófico-religioso en Brasil
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Este artículo presenta una breve incursión etimológica de las palabras herméticas y hermetismo y sus significados; así como un enfoque especial en los escritos de Hermetismo Filosófico-religioso o Teofilosófico en Brasil. El Hermetismo Filosófico-Religioso es un fenómeno típico de los Escritos Herméticos, cuyo objetivo no está muy relacionado con la astrología ola magia y mucho menos o casi nada con la alquimia. Más bien, estosescritos, discuten asuntos teológicos, filosóficos o religiosos. Se trata de unaeusebeia filosófica o una filosofía piadosa que incluye en su bagaje la teología,la cosmología, la antropología, la ética, la soteriología, la demonología, latanatología y la escatología, que asume la doctrina de la progresión del almaa través de los mundos materiales y espirituales, mientras que el HermetismoMágico-Astrológico, niega que el ser humano pueda superar su propio destinoestablecido por la heimarmenē o el destino. En Brasil, es de estudios recientessobre los escritos de filosófico-religiosa herméticos, una tarea asumida por laEscola Superior de Teologia (EST), está aceptando la investigación doctoralsobre “La crátera: un análisis del Corpus Hermeticum IV. 3-6a”, en 2010.El rescate de los estudios de hermetismo filosófico-religioso en la academiahoy, afirma la relevancia de los estudios del Norte de África, toda vez que lainfluencia egipcia en los escritos herméticos ha sido establecida.