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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Silvana Ballnat Hermeneutical Amendment to the Contemporary Philosophy of Language: Gadamer’s, Taylor’s and McDowell’s Contributions to the World Disclosure as Dimension of Language
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This paper argues that philosophical hermeneutics provides an indispensible contribution to the understanding of language particularly with its idea of world disclosing dimension of language. This tradition entails the heritage of Hamann-Herder-Humboldt theories of language, while also reaching out to Dilthey’s hermeneutical and Heidegger’s existential phenomenological philosophy. It became most recognizable profile in Gadamer’s work, which was prominently continued in the works of Taylor and McDowell. The notion of world disclosure can be regarded as a complement to the firmly established designative and communicative dimensions of language. It is this notion that marked the philosophical hermeneutics as ‘unattractive’, since this assertion was seen as idealistic and relativistic. In this paper, I challenge this prevailing view and explain that precisely this notion supports a correct and non-instrumental view of language. I insist that language should not be considered as a tool, which can be put aside, but becomes constitutive of all human cognitive capacities allowing for human being to be able to have a world. To have a world means to have a language and living as human being means living in a world.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Maria Dimitrova The Language of Dialectics
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The purpose of this paper is to challenge dialectics. The dialectical language, where the word is reduced to an expression of thoughts, is in the focus of consideration. The dialectical method transforms the conversation among collocutors into teleology and determinism. Dialectics entitles somebody to speak on behalf of the universal reason. It is the logic “of power for the sake of the power itself”. But in fact, the word originates as an appeal to the Other and only then Logos appears.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Vassilis Ganiatsas On the Hermeneutics of the Not-yet-in-the-creation of Artworks
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This paper intents to explore a seemingly paradoxical issue pertaining to artistic creation, i.e., the phenomenon of artists engaging with their intended to be an artwork, while in the process of its making as if it already existed in place. Although this situation resembles a hermeneutic experience, as described by Hans-Georg Gadamer, it nevertheless lacks the main premises of philosophical hermeneutics, which is the very existence of the authentic object of interpretation in full presence. So, is it still possible to discuss the creation process of artworks in hermeneutical terms, without betraying the foundations of this philosophical standpoint? When Gadamer speaks of dialogue in interpretation, can such a dialogue be established with an artwork to be, an artwork that has not yet been finalized? It will be argued that the ontological status of an artwork, while in its creation process, is actually shifted from an object to a subject from a passive recipient of the artist’s intentions and decisions to a co-constituting agent towards its actual fulfillment as an autonomous entity. Husserl’s constitution theory of intentional objects and Gilbert Simondon’s individuation theory of ontogenesis are revisited and their possible integration with hermeneutics reconsidered towards extending the hermeneutics of the artworks back to their creation process.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Choong-Su Han The Relation between Philosophizing and Living in Aristotle and Heidegger
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The present paper undertakes a comparison between Heidegger’s and Aristotle’s understandings in view of the relation between philosophizing and living. First, a relevance of the contemplative life for philosophy in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is considered. After such a consideration Heidegger’s understanding of the relation between philosophizing and living is illustrated, which substantially differs from Aristotle’s. This illustration is based on Heidegger’s lecture ‘The fundamental concepts of metaphysics’ (‘Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik’). The present paper concludes with a reflection on the importance of reintegrating philosophizing into living for the modern society.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Māris Kūlis Community, Conversation and Search for Truth
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The question about truth, experience and sharing of truth can be addressed from the viewpoint of a shared sense of community. The search for truth is related to the sensus communis and the conscience – con scientia – that is formed in the community. The sensus communis is not only a general faculty in all men, but also the sense that founds community. Thereby the knowledge is true only in front of the other. Truth reveals itself in conversation. By conversation it means that there are both someone who asks questions and someone who answers them, and that they change their roles. In order to understand each other, they have to share a common field of experience. The approach to the concept of truth as a representation of things loses its place and gives way to the understanding of truth as something where meaning as sense and truth as open and exposed concept appears in the foreground. Phenomenology reveals that community correlates and imposes a set of senses to the consciousness and conscience of the individual. This lets phenomenologists focus on life, culture and language. The truth transforms from meaning into sense. It becomes a dynamic determination of a human being.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Jing-Jong Luh The New Way of Inquiry and Way of Life: Polegomena of Systemic Hermeneutics
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A program of systemic hermeneutics shall investigate the universal ground-presuppositions, the basic elements, activities and structure, the systematical models and paradigms of hermeneutics, and then its applications in the intercultural philosophy for contemporary world. We shall start from the etymology of hermeneuein to explore the original relation between thinking and language, which can reach the test-understanding as the primary hermeneutic experience. This can be described in late Heidegger’s idea of truth as “Geschehen”, which could be represented in the “crossing”-dialectic of Hegel’s speculative logic. This ground-presupposition is able to disclose further, such as “person in context” and “text as medium or synthesis of spiritual and material dimensions. These avail to inquire the hermeneutic basic elements, like author-text-reader, the basic activities as understanding, interpretation, application, and the context of all these could be also performed with Hegel’s “relation”- dialectic. The understanding of classical text is especially the paradigm-model, because of its intellectual character of spiritual dialog. This event can also be signified through the Hegel’s “idea”-dialectic. Finally the practical methodic application-model for the intercultural philosophy would construe from this systemic hermeneutics as meta-theory.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Despina Neztekidou H.-G. Gadamer’s Hermeneutics: Between Truth and Method
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Hans Georg Gadamer in his influential work Truth and Method attempts to represent hermeneutics as the dialogue between discourse on the truth and discourse on the method by which we grasp the truth, in order to indicate that intersubjective communication is the only true reality of human experience. Although Gadamer notices that the method has been already torn apart from the truth, since it has followed the path of instrumental knowledge, he still tries to bring them in discussion so as to consecrate what he declares as “the dialogue that we are”. This paper focuses on the third part of Truth and Method specifically emphasizing the two basic elements of Gadamer’s universal hermeneutics: (a) the linguistically of the hermeneutical phenomenon and (b) the impact of the historically effected consciousness on hermeneutical experience. In the first part I discuss about the three situations of a hermeneutical experience, that is conversation, translation and text interpretation. In the second part I point to the argument that hermeneutical consciousness is indissolubly linked with historical consciousness to conclude that “fusion of horizons” leads us to a common world of understanding.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Yury Shaev Perceptive and Symbolic Components of Sense
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Nowadays many types of ontology are losing their meaningfulness. On the one hand, this can be connected with the increasing keenness on various methodological syntheses with primary reference to transdisciplinarity. On the other hand, dissemination of hermeneutical and semiotic researches, their various modifications and alteration of many segments of humanitarian knowledge create conditions for constructing of new types of ontology, which will take into account all complication, meaningfulness and polymodal character of sign existence. An example can serve as a collision of methodological and ontological positions between ‘hermeneutics of sense’ (different versions and modifications of philosophical hermeneutics) and ‘aesthetics of presence’ (W. Welsh, М. Seel, H.U. Gumbrecht representatives of the so-called “newest aesthetics”).
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Rui Silva Hermeneutics and Epistemological Contextualism
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The paper analyzes the hermeneutic reflection of Heidegger and Gadamer in the light of contemporary versions of epistemological contextualism, and the departing from a distinction between attributor contextualism and inferential or issue contextualism. According to attributor contextualism, the truth-conditions of knowledge-ascriptions depend on the attributor’s context and its epistemic standards, which can be more or less demanding. In contrast to this position, inferential or issue contextualism claims that epistemic standards depend on the inferential structure of the subject’s context, and there is not a linear hierarchy of contexts ranging from low to high-standards contexts. This latter form of contextualism is congenial to hermeneutics and is discussed on the basis of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy and the work of Michael Williams. In order to illustrate the contextualist implications of hermeneutics, the paper focuses on the following points: the hermeneutic circle; Heidegger’s phenomenology of everydayness; the Gadamerian analysis of the epistemological role of prejudice and tradition; and the account of understanding as a fusion of horizons.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Maja Soboleva “Hermeneutical Logics” and “Analytical Hermeneutics” as a New Turn in Philosophical Hermeneutics
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The question standing in the backgrounds of this paper is what kind of hermeneutics can emerge on basis of philosophy of life. To answer it, the theories of German philosophers Georg Misch (1878-1965) and Josef Koenig (1893-1994) have been analyzed. The first developed hermeneutical logics, which is based on identification the notions ‘life’ and ‘articulation’ (Ausdruck)). Three aspects –life as logical category, life as hermeneutical category, and the discoursive forms of self-representation of life- extracted from Misch’s theory seem to be relevant for further development of hermeneutics. Koenig carries forward this research program, but focuses on the linguistic structures of human perception experience and drafts a kind of analytical hermeneutics. The remarkable part of both conceptions is that they pose it logical heterogenity of theoretical and practical discourses. These differences are relevant for rethinking of such epistemological phenomenon, such as ‘meaning’, ‘concept’, ‘truth’ and ‘knowledge’. According to these positions, hermeneutics can be a homogenous theory of interpretation or understanding, but on the contrary the different logical areas of hermeneutics must be constituted. Thus, hermeneutics can be interpreted as an alternative to the traditional, i.e., epistemological approach, to the theory of knowledge, on the one hand, and to analytical philosophy of language on the other.