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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Niadi-Corina Cernica Consolation of Philosophy: Philosophy at the Beginning of the Middle Ages
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My paper examines the status of philosophy at the beginning of Middle Ages. I did this analysis by commenting the work of Boethius Consolation of philosophy. While his contemporaries analyze new philosophical themes (the themes of Christian philosophy), Boethius (author of some theological treatises) returns to the ancient themes of philosophy in his last work, as mentioned above. This return occurs in distinct biographical circumstances, because he was the victim of several accusations - among them the accusation of sacrilege, which was supported by the fact that Boethius was a well-known philosopher. As a result, Boethius wrote a treatise to defend philosophy. The outcome is a philosophy about good and about the supremacy of good, about evil, and suffering, which are the consequences of ignorance. The philosophical knowledge is the way to goodness and happiness of a philosopher who suffers, because of the wickedness and injustice while in prison, and waiting for the death sentence. Consolation of philosophy shows the prejudices and the suspicions of the contemporaries of Boethius, regarding philosophy, that lead to the closing of the schools of philosophy; the last one, the School from Athens, was closed five years after the writing of this treatise and the death of Boethius.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Jason Mark Costanzo Being, Goodness and the Relation of Desirability
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Within the following paper I attempt to offer a preliminary analysis and a sketch of the foundations of the scholastic notion of the convertibility of Being and the good from the perspective of its roots within Aristotle and, in particular, in relation to the view expressed within the first book of the Nichomachean Ethics (see, i.1), that the good is that of which all things desire. The paper thus initiates with a brief examination of the scholastic notion of the relation of convertibility, and in particular, that expressed by Aquinas. There the relation is clearly recognized to find its roots within Aristotle’s notion of the good as above stated. Following analysis of this statement, I turn to consideration of the structure of desire. There three senses are identified, the third of which is found to correspond to Aristotle’s expression. From this, being and the good are shown to be reciprocally expressed.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Patricia Grosse Eating God: Augustine’s Concupiscent Table
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In his biography on Augustine, Possidius writes: “His table was frugal and sparing, though indeed with the herbs and lentils he also had meats at times for the sake of his guests or for some of the weaker brethren”.1 Given the importance of friendship in Augustine’s life, it is not surprising that he ate meat for the sake of others and not for his own pleasures. However, Augustine spends much time in Book X of his Confessions obsessing over his delight in everyday activities, including eating2. Indeed, Augustine examines the relationship between desire and the object of desire throughout the Confessions, his ultimate focus being on the nature of our concupiscent hearts. In this paper, I will explore Augustine’s seemingly unhealthy relationship with food by discussing the place of food in his eschatology, his account of concupiscence and will, and his theory of interiority as given in the Confessions. Ultimately, for Augustine, there is a beauty to eating that is found in its relationship to the sensual experience of God.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Rodrigo Guerizoli Criteria for Unity and Hylomorphism in John Duns Scotus: The Layers of a Scholastic Dispute
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My aim in this paper is to reconstruct a certain path of problems which arise, one after another, from an important range of discussions, which unfolded from the middle of the 13th century to the middle of the 14th century among authors writing in Latin, defenders of a hylomorphic description of the constitution of material entities. I will follow in particular John Duns Scotus’ texts on the dispute. Thereby we will find out how it is that in the background of a question apparently concerned solely with the description of the physical world lies a quite deep metaphysical quarrel.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Catherine Kavanagh The Medieval Concept of Creation: Causality or Emanation?: The Case of Johannes Scottus Eriugena
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The philosophy of Johannes Scottus Eriugena is normally identified with late antique/early medieval Platonism, which has a very distinctively emanationist cosmological model. The concept of causality, on the other hand, is generally identified with Aristotelianism, which was not at all common in the early medieval West, due, amongst other things, to the lack of most of Aristotle’s texts. However, causality is an important concept for Eriugena: it is the link via “creation”, which allows the creature to know the otherwise utterly transcendent God. This particular sense of causality as a structure of creation, distinct alike from specifically Aristotelian causality and Platonic emanation is something Eriugena inherited from Maximus the Confessor, who also uses it as a structure of participation. This paper examines the background to Eriugena’s use of causality, before examining particular structures of causality, i.e., God as the First and Final cause, the primordial causes as formal and efficient cause, and how they help Eriugena balance a very strong negative theology with a very strong model of participation, and concluding.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Seung-Kee Lee The Active and Passive Mind in Augustine
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The distinction between active and passive mind has been discussed by recent Augustine scholars, mainly in connection to the question whether - and if so to what extent - the Augustinian mind could be said to be active given the doctrine of divine illumination. The doctrine has prompted some to emphasize the mainly passive nature of the human mind in attaining knowledge, while others have argued that the doctrine should not be so construed as to downplay the role the human mind plays in cognition. Of the latter, some have emphasized the role of the act of judgment, others the mind’s act of discovering within itself the standards of “eternal reasons”, and still others the role of the “created” as well as the “uncreated” light. While framing the discussion of the active and passive mind in this way, does help us clarify Augustine’s epistemological views, and at the same time fails to bring out the specific conception of the “active” mind that Augustine himself had and wished to emphasize. I explain what this conception is, then show that the distinction is put in use in his philosophy with a view that recent commentators have not emphasized in their interpretation of this distinction, as regards the role of the mind’s activity as a condition for non-empirical as well as empirical cognition.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Iryna Lystopad Platonism in Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy: (On the Work: De unitate [Dei] et pluralitate creaturarum of Achard of St-Victor)
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This paper examines the influence of Platonism on the work of a twelfth-century philosopher, Achard of Saint-Victor. The development of the Plato’s doctrines, in particularly the theory of ideas, is scrutinized across the works of Latin authors that most influenced the reception of Platonic doctrine in the XIIth century (Seneca, Augustine, Erigena, and Boethius). Secondly, these are compared with the doctrine of Achard of Saint-Victor, which allows us to see the origin of some of key philosophical concepts in Achard’s writings such as eternal reasons, first form, idea and idos. The paper supplements previous research on XII century Platonism by Marie-Dominique, Chenu, John Marenbon, and Stephen Gersh.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Kurban Shadmanov Succession and Correlation of Ancient Greek: IX-XII Centuries Central Asian and XIV-XVI Centuries European Weltanschauung
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The paper deals with issues concerning IX-XII centuries Central Asian scholars’ contribution to succession and correlation of Weltanschauung (philosophical world outlook) in the Middle Ages and Renaissance Europe in the light of the ancient Greek philosophical heritage. It is stated that each epoch had its own peculiar viewpoint, dependent on the level of knowledge and character of civilization and historical experience of the nation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss contribution ways of IX-XII centuries Central Asian philosophy to further development of Medieval and Renaissance Weltanschauung in Europe. The paper also tries to ground that both Central Asian and European philosophical complexes were inspired mostly and primarily by ancient Greek philosophy as part and parcel of the history of world philosophy. An attempt is made to show that the Middle Ages and Renaissance philosophy of Europe was inspired, first of all, greatly by rational philosophical ideas of Al-Farabi and Avicenna. In this article the author conveys his understanding on this complex phenomenon.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Cristina Marta Simeone St. Augustine and the Search for Truth
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With the aim of strengthening the deep desire and the hope to find the truth, St. Augustine writes against the Academics, based on the Ciceronian formulation of the academic doctrine. Advocate of the probabilism of Carneades, Cicero confronted the opposite arguments to reach the probable, to find the closest to the truth. The probability is the real guide of life. According to St. Augustine, academics altered the concept of classical philosophy. The wise academic is an irrational and contradictory creature. He who does not admit anything as certain, nothing does, since without certainty no action is possible. The academics dissociated theory from practice, threatening the whole moral order. Neither have sense to hide behind the verisimilitude, approach the true or establish approximations to the truth as rules of action. How can man, who does not know the face of the truth, dare to talk about of the resemblance to this truth? But, since his conversion, his skepticism had been overcome. St. Augustine did not longer believe, as Cicero, that the truth was submerged in a deep hole, and man could not find it. In discussing the academic question, St. Augustine wanted to satisfy a personal desire: reach the truth.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 21
Taki Suto The Concept of felicitas in Anonymous of Worcester, Questions on Ethics
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In this paper, I discuss an anonymous Quaestiones super librum Ethicorum in the manuscripts of Worcester Cathedral Library (Q. 13) and the notion of felicitas (happiness) in this work. The question (commentary) has characteristics similar to those once called “Averroists’ commentaries”, i.e., the commentaries on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics written by Parisian masters of arts in the late 13th century. There are, however, elements peculiar to the Worcester commentary and others that resemble to aspects of the work written by John of Tytynsale, a contemporary Oxford master of arts. Like some of those Parisian commentaries, the Worcester text describes felicitas as “a conjunction with the first cause” (coniunctio primi principii). The anonymous author claims that the knowledge of divine essence obtained through this conjunction is non-demonstrative.