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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Peter Boltuc Subjective, Objective and “Realistic” Moral Responsibility
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As a common saying goes “Hell is paved with good intentions”, though Kant would disagree. In real world we may be morally responsible for more than one’s intentions. Moral agents need to navigate between Scylla of “objective” and Charybdis of “subjective” theories of moral responsibility; the resultant theory shall be called a theory of realistic obligation. It takes into account both subjective intentions and objective results of moral action. Since human beings are both intentional entities and physical objects, neglect of either objective or subjective factors leads to implausible consequences. In practical domains, such as business ethics, moral value needs to be assigned in part to our subjective intentions and in part to objective results of our actions. This allows for moral condemnation of inefficiency and balancing acts of efficiency versus deontic constraints.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Ana Caras, Antonio Sandu The Need for Ethical Committees for the Ethical Evaluation of Social Services
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Within this article, we propose to treat the importance of establishing committees of ethics (of research) in social work organizations. We refer here to the ethical analysis of individualized service plans and intervention strategies that case managers apply to beneficiaries, the central ethical problem being represented by the analysis of conditions of ethical acceptability of social intervention. The ethical evaluation of services should consider the principles of beneficence, autonomy, non-maleficence and justice, as treated by Beauchamp and Childress (2001), as a variant of the principles stipulated in the Belmont report (1979). The paper has argumentative character, the central premise being that intervention in social work is a form of action research and thus it should be based on the same rules of research on human subjects. The second premise is that social intervention changes the quality of life of the beneficiary, and this change requires ethical evaluation in order to analyze the conditions in which ethics is perceived and accepted as defining part of the social intervention. Customizations will refer to informed consent as a tool of implementing autonomy of the beneficiary.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Georgios Chrysafis Ethics and Morals of Leadership in Aristotle’s Work
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The objective of my paper, which stands as a very short introduction of a wider research work of mine, is to trace the ethical and moral preconditions for leadership as they may emerge through Aristotle’s works and his view on virtue ethics. I suggest the understanding of leadership not only under its conventional concepts, but as the power of an individual to wield control and management within its own administrative circumstances. The pursuit of the moral preconditions drives us to respective arguments about the individual who is under the management of leadership. My intention is not to reply to the question whether a form of leadership could or should be virtuous, moral or ethical, but to point down the complexity of morality in the case of leadership and in the sense that we accept for a degree of morality to exist in a milieu of leadership. Under this, emerges the question about the degree of morality in each circumstance of leadership. A person who plays the role of a leader either is virtuous or not and he should be ethical within his milieu of action: however, it is under question the feasibility of virtue in leadership or the degree of it (the kind of virtue desirable at any circumstance). The present work, traces the moral issues in an aspect of business ethics, without assuming that they were a major theoretical objective by Aristotle. However, I am of the opinion, that his work may offer us a wide spectrum of problematic for the field of the kind.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Moises Del Pino Pena You or Me - To Sacrifice Oneself to Sacrifice Others: Towards a Philosophical Approach to Neomanagement: New Paradigm of Anti-egotistical Organizational Leadership, Conspiracy Scenarios and Toxic Workplace
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A theoretical reflection about organizational philosophy of Neomanagement, which becomes the new paradigm of “anti-organizational leadership”, is characterized as a sacrificial system business, whose protagonist is the Neomanager, perpetrator and executor of mobbing hostile actions. Organizational paradigms reveal the occupational settings where staff is annihilated by established toxic work environments and unethical conduct in the company, with serious consequences for the working class and the company. Overview also reveals the need to raise public policies and launch a series of institutional measures in organizations based on the ethic of solidarity, so that they can fulfill its mission founded on high moral values and prevent and control this new disease emerging at the work place, causing the decay of the world of work.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Nur Yeliz Gülcan Application of Aristotelian Virtue Ethics to Business Ethics
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In the history of philosophy ethics has an important place. Many ethical areas appeared under the name of Applied Ethics. Applied ethics examines the particular ethical issues of private and public life. Business ethics is one of the important branches of applied ethics. The subjects of business ethics are some ethical principles and moral problems that arise in a business environment. Therefore, business ethics can be described as an appeal to philosophical considerations in facing the ethical problems that confront business. Business ethics is related to people’s action in business arena. Business ethics is a philosophical study that includes both descriptive and normative standards and tells how people should act in business life. In this study, I will try to show the philosophical basis of business ethics. I believe that business ethics is a philosophical discipline. My aim is to show the relation between business ethics and virtue ethics; especially the application of Aristotelian virtue ethics to business ethics. In doing this, I use Aristotle’s virtues as the framework for business ethics.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Alexander Nikitin Confronting Models of Regulation for Private Military Companies: Ethical Self-Regulation or External Legally Binding Control from the United Nations
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Code of Conduct for Private military and security companies (PMSCs) based upon principles of ethical self-regulation of this branch of industry has been elaborated and adopted recently by above 30 countries (initiative has been led by Switzerland and the USA). Alternatively, group of above 60 other countries (mainly from Non-aligned movement) elaborated draft of the new UN Convention on external rigid legally-binding regulation of the private military industries on behalf of the international community. Paper analyses and compares basic principles of both “ethical” and “legalist” models of regulation. Author, who was as the UN expert involved into elaboration of Convention, suggests in the paper new ways to combine mechanisms of social-ethical nature with binding mechanisms of international law aiming to reach a compromise and establish effective international oversight of the international community over such a dangerous branch of international businesses as private military and security companies.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Odumayak Okpo The Ethics of Profit and the Profit of Ethics in Business
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This paper is an attempt to examine the most basic conflict in business that is ethics pitted against profit. Profit making is indisputably one of the reasons business enterprises are in business. Many business enterprises are in business basically to maximize profit. It is a known fact that profit is what keeps any business enterprise in business. But, when the only drive of a business enterprise is to make profit without regards to ethics, it may accelerate the attainment of its aim in the short run, but the business enterprise may lose in the long run. The aim of this paper is to show that ethics in business leads to profits and to be successful in the long run, a business enterprise needs to be driven by strong ethical values.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Ioanna Patsioti-Tsacpounidis The Stoic Wise Man (“sophos”) as a Form of Moral Leadership
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This paper examines the main views of Stoic ethics, with emphasis on the Stoic wise man (“σοφός”), with a view to establishing a model of moral leadership in the corporate world. We wish to show that the Stoic moral framework can serve as a basis of moral leadership that goes over and above that of transformational leadership and establishes a humanistic approach to the leader-follower relationship. Through the appropriation of reason, it creates an empowering environment that puts emphasis on the human dignity in an attempt to better serve the practical requirements of every organization. To this effect, we examine certain extracts from the Stoic philosophical tradition and identify those elements that would best fit the above approach. Our interest focuses on the Stoic wise man who possesses the moral makeup for a form of leadership that could be proved to be effective, since it is human dignity-oriented. Towards the end, some comparison is also drawn between the Stoic “σοφός” and the Aristotelian “φρόνιμος” in order to establish their approach to leadership and its significance for corporate governance and self-actualization.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff Business Ethics as a Method of Philosophical Inquiry in Business and Economic Life
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This paper presents a concept of business ethics as a method of philosophical inquiry in business and economic. The proposes a concept of business ethics as developed in the book Responsibility, Ethics and Legitimacy of Corporations (by Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, 2009) where business ethics is defined as a fundamental philosophical concept of corporations in a globalized world. It is argued that business ethics should be conceived as a holistic concept that integrates different ethical theories in “Republican business ethics”, based on the idea of “the good life for and with the other in just institutions” with duty, care and concern for state, community and civil society. Business ethics is in this sense not only limited to national corporate citizenship, but it also includes an international dimension based on global responsibility in cosmopolitan business ethics.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 5
Kumar Neeraj Sachdev Virtue-based Compatibility of Business and Profession
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It is widely believed that ethical obligation in business is owed to stockholders, who are the investors but in the practice of a profession such an ethical obligation is owed to clients or community. The apparent conflict in the nature of ethical obligation is clear but it is also true that both business and profession cannot be separated as for instance engineering and journalism are businesses or today even many educational institutions and medical facilities are businesses. It appears to be ethically important then to examine the conflict in the nature of ethical obligation as such and to elucidate the nature of conflict resolution in the light of virtue-based view of business. In this regard, an analysis of virtue-based approach to business and profession begins with the nature and practical applications of virtue ethics and goes on to propose and examine certain ethical reasons based on virtue-based analysis of real-life cases to spell out the revised view of business for compatibility of business and profession.