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articles in english
1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Ronel Alberti da Rosa I Hear Dead People: Or How the Teoria degli Affetti Contributed to the Humanistic Representation of Dead and Living Characters in the Early Italian Opera
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The opera Orfeo, una favola in musica (1607) from Claudio Monteverdi, marked a rupture with the metaphysical aesthetics from Renaissance. Thanks to the theoretical achievements from Galilei and Caccini, the early Italian opera included innovative elements such as a “certain noble negligence” by singing – as an expression of truth in music – and the acceptance of dissonance as a strengthening element of both pathetic and human. In its beginning the musical drama used to depict spirits and dead people in order to distinguish two realms of the cosmos: that from the living ones and that from the passed away. As a result the new characterizations proved to be largely more convincing than the previous attempts of dramatizing afterlife, mostly sacred music with episodes of lives of saints or the Christian Passion. This paper aims to examine the theoretical and aesthetical premises that enabled a shift in the form to depict musically the death in the beginning 17th century. The core query is why it was necessary to change from a metaphysical aes­thetical paradigm to another one, which was denoted by the rhetorical and the pathetical as well. I hope to demonstrate that the defeat of melody by the rhetoric in the struggle for the key role in the singing theater inaugurated a musical new era marked by an aestheticization of death and of dying.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Tiziana Andina An Ontology for the Works of Art
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“What is art?” All in all it sounds like a fairly trivial question: art is so ingrained in our world that intuitively we believe everyone is able to answer it. If we look at this question closely, however, we realize that things are not so simple. Among the first who tried to clarify the issue was Plato, one of the most ardent Western philosophers for definitions. In the 10th book of the Republic he drew a long lasting distinction: the objects that make up our universe are divided among the most perfect ones, the ideas, after which everything is shaped, the less perfect ones, the material things, which are modeled after the ideas, and at the bottom of the hierarchy there are the works of art, which are more flawed, imperfect, useless and even dangerous than material things in general. It has been written that the history of philosophy is ‘nothing but a series of footnotes to Plato’. As far as the philosophy of art is concerned that is certainly true until the 20th century, when - at least since Modernism - the elegant Platonic thesis began to show signs of aging and it was no longer able to provide a good answer to the question with which we began. The talk develops the idea that the works of art are a kind of higher order objects; in particular, they are semantics vehicles, namely objects that carry meanings, which are the product of human representations.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Adil Asadov Manifestation of Realized and Unrealized Essence: Beauty and Ugliness
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The world becomes beautiful when it is built in accordance with its essence. A human becomes fascinating when he leads a life arisen from his human essence. Human beauty is the result of realization of the essence and the direct expression of a true life, of leading a real life. Life becomes truly real and meaningful only, when it is a process of realization of the essence. The only architect of human beauty is a real and, thus, happy life. A man becomes happy when he elevates his reality to the ideals created by the true human desires. Happiness is a self-confirmation expressed by the realization of the ideals. Life becomes happy when it is perceived with joy as it is true and real. As happiness is a sense of perceiving life with joy, feeling of life’s beauty, while beauty is materialization, an objective expression and an embodiment of a life that is happy and perceived with joy as well. A happy man, as if he doesn’t walk, but dances, doesn’t speak, but recites a poem, doesn’t live in this ordinary and banal world, but instead he lives in a celestial fairytale world. The aesthetics of behavior is much more the result of making life true and real than memorizing a behavioral etiquette.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Rachel Aumiller Hegel on the Crucifixion as Comedy
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The process of bringing an exhausted order to the grave to make space for the life of new societal practice and belief is represented in ancient Greek drama by the death of the gods who ‘’die’’ once in tragedy and once again in comedy. Hegel reads the second and final death of the gods in ancient comedy as enacting a kind of societal action through which a community reclaims its creative agency by destroying the social and political orders that structured a tragic stage of history. Although Hegel highlights this creative action as going beyond aesthetic representation, he sees ancient comedy as achieving a superficial sense of freedom from tragedy, because the community sees itself as separate from its creation, which is destructible. For this reason Hegel moves beyond ancient comedy and locates comic resolution not in the representation of the death of the old gods on the ancient stage, but in the narrative of the death of Christ. This paper explores how Hegel’s reading of the incarnation and crucifixion of Christ mirrors the ancient tragedy and comedy. I argue that comedy, for Hegel, is realized through the story of the crucifixion, in which the comic community identifies with that which must be destroyed for the reconciliation of its society.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Luz María Barreiro Güemes The Aesthetics Uptaking: A Privileged Path to The Knowledge of Reality in the Ancient Mexicans: An Experience Called La Barranca
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The Nahuatl Philosophy: Flower and Song. The wise nahuas understood that the inner experience of man is the search for the answers to the meaning of life and the hereafter: the search for the truth that they identified as a flower and a song. In the afterlife there is a new flower and song: the absolute truth, the foundation of the identity of what exists: they called it Ometeótl. Looking for a new way of knowing, capable of bringing man to a safe and sound knowledge with a foundation in the same idea that I know from my inner and deep experience. Saying truthful and beautiful words, making poetry, flowers and songs. An experience called La Barranca.1 By reflecting the student finds in itself the principles of reality. The arts, especially word, songs and theater are means to penetrate the knowledge and reach flowers and songs to the truth. La Barranca is an educational center in the indigenous area of Mezquitán in the state of Jalisco, Mexico (with the participation of 320 children).
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Zsolt Bátori Is Conceptual Art an Art Form?
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In this paper, I consider the account of conceptual art that regards such works as being unique and singular pieces of artworks that belong to a specific art form. I argue that the art form theory of conceptual art is mistaken for it fails to provide a sufficient explanation of the role of the specific contents (ideas) of what this theory considers to be unique and singular works of the art form (conceptual art). After the explication and criticism of the art form theory of conceptual art I will suggest a different account. The single artwork theory of conceptual art I propose denies that conceptual art is an art form; instead, it considers conceptual art to be one single work of art with numerous token executions (performances) of the work as a type. The advantage of my proposal over the art form theory will be that both contents of specific execution tokens and the relation of these tokens to the unique and singular work as a type will be adequately explained without the disadvantages of the art form theory of conceptual art.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Georgios Chantzis An Unexpected Sequel to Neopragmatism: From Richard Rorty’s Aesthetic Textualism to Richard Shusterman’s Somaesthetics
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What is the quarrel in full swing within American pragmatism? How do contemporary neopragmatists read the philosophical tradition which they uphold and under what conditions is it that they envisage its future? Richard Rorty’s renewal of pragmatism toward the end of the 20th century was based on the aesthetization of philosophy. Today his legacy seems to be evolving in an unexpected direction. Richard Shusterman, a potential disciple, proposes the delineation of a new subfield of investigation, somaesthetics. Both philosophers acknowledge and reinforce the philosophic aims of John Dewey. Aims of anti-fundamentalism and perspectivism of formative interaction and faith in meliorism that both espouse personal self-fashioning by means of the person’s aesthetization within a liberal democracy, either through discrete narratives and forceful texts, as Rorty writes or through the somatic understanding of the self and of the other, as Shusterman practices, all the way to the gymnasium. Language and the body do not comprise a new dualism. Rather, they recommend supplementary fields of action, whose forcefulness does not lie in rationalism or in naturalism, but in the allure which something, both a means and an end, manages to exert. One issue of contention is the degree to which the aesthetization of language and the body crosses over from the private to the public sphere of life.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Thiago Nicolau de Araujo Museum to Open Skies: Tombstone Art and Aesthetics of Death
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We realized different ways societies express the feeling about death, but always keeping the idea of preserving the memory of the dead by the image in an attempt to keep alive their identities. Thus, the tomb constructions inside the public and private cemeteries show this concern; to preserve the memory through works of renowned artists, tombs of important personalities, texts and other traces that tell the story of the people buried there, making the space a museum in the open sky. So this paper aims to show how the tombstone art express aesthetics feelings through works of art and symbols expressed on tombstones.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Ludmila Demchenko J. Baudrillard’s “Simulative” Reality Concept as “The Transformed Forms” Expression in the Modern World
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Philosophy transformations in the modern world are fully represented in J. Baudrillard’s “simulative” reality concept based on the cardinal social changes in which new technical and information processes, the global capital are fancifully interwoven, giving rise to the so-called “simulative” vir­tual reality and showing the development dead ends of post-industrial technology, contradictions and development threats of the “virtual” financial capital as the dominant form of contemporary social reality. The reality vision through the prism of simulation phenomenon becomes the determining fact in J. Baudrillard’s philosophy, which in his interpretation means a self-sufficient reality acquisition by signs, images, symbols, which fill the validity, start to absorb, assimilate the existing objective reality. Moreover, there are various forms of visibility not only economic, but also political, social, cultural ideological etc. In J. Baudrillard’s interpretation of “simulative” reality there is content of such a phenomenon identified and labeled by K. Marx as the ‘commodity fetishism’ on the basis of which “the converted forms” of the public reality are formed, in which the money as signs, cost forms replace and absorb real public processes, and derive the real sources of “simulative” reality, while its postmodern version only establishes and describes the contemporary forms of its manifestation. In search of the adequate explanation in J. Baudrillard, he actually identifies the virtual and the objective and the real, verbally allocating the simulacra with the substantive status in the world, and in this sense “simulative” reality in the concept of the given thinker takes the central place and confidently guides the ball, replacing by itself the objective reality by means of the entire sequence of brighter and picturesque, but substantially emasculated effects of the real, the truth and objectivity.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Konstantina Drakopoulou, Konstantinos Avramidis Graffiti: An Art of Identity and its Critical Discourse (1980-1985)
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Graffiti is an art of identity: individual, collective, ethnic and racial. From the disenfranchised poor sprang up the “ghetto youth” in New York in the 1960s. Many members of this marginalized youth attempted by inventing and putting into public circulation a new name, the tag, to assert their subjective presence, to disrupt the planned invisibility, to escape political exclusion and to force their violent daily experiences into public view. Graffiti writers also built inclusive communities, the crews, where they learned the value of both self and community, and developed collective identity based on collaborative work. Additionally, graffiti as a subcultural, vernacular art form was produced, for the most part, by racial and ethnic minorities. Therefore, our concern is to indicate this precise creole process that requires the ability to recognize the point where two cultures, the marginalized and the mainstream, meet. When graffiti entered the mainstream art world in the early 1980s, a critical discourse was informed that established writing as galleried “graffiti art”. The scope of this paper is therefore to examine the principles on which the critique was grounded; whether and to what extent the critical discourse was class and race colored; the numerous contradictions between and within the culture of writing and the culture of galleried art.