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Displaying: 1-12 of 12 documents

1. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Robert R. Clewis How to Move Forward: Points of Convergence between Analytic and Continental Philosophy
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My aim is both theoretical and practical. By characterizing what I call points of convergence between analytic and continental philosophy, I offer suggestions about how to bridge the gap. I do not attempt to retrace the moment at which the divide occurred nor offer historical explanations of the rift, but instead discuss points of convergence, with reference to Kant. I summarize this discussion in two tables. I give theoretical and practical suggestions for moving forward. I conclude with some comments on the need for dialogue and reflect on the historicity of philosophy. I compare the current situation to that of ancient Greece and Rome, when there was also a plurality of schools. By comparison, philosophers today specialize more, making it difficult to converse with philosophers from other schools or even to other sub-disciplines within their own school. Moreover, there is an enormous quantity of philosophical texts to read, and contemporary philosophers are not very tied to the idea of philosophy as the love of wisdom. The paper’s topic opens up the deeper queries, “How does philosophy differfrom scientific and other disciplines” and “What is philosophy?” It includes a bibliography of the recent, growing literature on the divide.
2. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Prof. Ph.D. Teodor Dima Francis Bacon, initiator of modern heuristic method
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The goal of this study is to provide arguments for the idea that Francis Bacon initiated the first modern theoretical programme of a heuristic methodologist strategy. This strategy has been developed by modern science in order to investigate nature and formulate general enunciations on nomicity, causality, connection and spatio-temporality.Francis Bacon uses amplifying induction, induction by simple enumeration and especially induction by elimination. He thus initiates a new manner of thinking about the knowledge achieved in experience, of its reasonable interpretation and systematization.
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3. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Marin Aiftinca Philosophy in the context of culture’s autonomous values
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If culture is the whole of spirituality (of nation or mankind), philosophy is part of this whole together with the other spiritual values. Philosophy frees itself from thiswhole and, at times, rises over it by concepts. In this way philosophy is itself conscious of culture. Consequently philosophy is autonomous in the system of cultural values with which it has biunivocal relations.Arising out of the signs of one culture (national or regional), philosophy, in its aspirations towards knowledge and truth, expresses the universal. Under the negativist pressure of the present which is prevalent through the utilitarian, philosophy cannot abandon its finality. It remains to catch its time in thoughts, as Hegel has argued.
4. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Mircea Dumitru On Toleration, Charity, and Epistemic Fallibilism
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In this paper I examine some presuppositions of toleration and pluralism. I explore two models, viz. a deontological and a consequentialist model, respectively, which could support the view that rational agents should act in a tolerant way. Against the background which is offered by the first model I give two arguments in favor of the view that people are better off and more rational if they act in a tolerant way. The first argument draws upon a principle of charity which one usually makes use of in philosophy of mind and philosophy of language but which could work equally well with regard to this foundational issue in ethics and philosophyof action. The second argument is built upon the epistemic principle of fallibilism and it is meant to show that from this vantage point acting in a tolerant way is the rational thing to do.
5. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Ivelina Ivanova The Phenomenological Ontology of Martin Heidegger as a Foundation for Redefining the Concept of Interpretative Approaches in the Theory of History
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The paper examines the perspectives of an exchange between the phenomenological ontology of Martin Heidegger and a theory of history in the context of the problem of interpretative approaches in historical writing. The hypothesis is that the analyses offered by Heidegger in Being and Time and Ontology: The Hermeneutics of Facticity provide the foundation for mapping out new perspectives in the concept of interpretative approaches. The concept of interpretativeapproaches came to be actively used in academic texts relatively recently, since the 1980’s, and has often been employed quite unreflectively. But its wide currency, its heterogeneous and unreflective usage turned the concept of interpretative approaches into a theoretical problem. This paper will present a possible answer to that problem by examining the conceptual foundations of a redefined concept of interpretative approaches, drawn from the lectures read by Heidegger in the summer semester of 1923, more precisely §§16–28, 21–26, and the relevant discussion in Being and Time, starting with §12 and focusing on Part I,Chapter 5 (mainly §§32 and 33).
6. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Tea Logar Grounding Ethical Norms in Heidegger’s Mitsein
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While Heidegger didn’t seem much interested in ethical norms in his Being and Time, more recently Frederick A. Olafson has argued that Heidegger’s conception of Mitsein yields some fundamental insights for a grounding of morality. Olafson proposes an account in which truth as a partnership among people can establish a link between Mitsein and primary moral notions, such as responsibility and trust. My concern with Olafson’s account is twofold: first, I am not convinced that Mitsein really grounds people’s mutual commonality to the point he wants it to take – the point that seems to suggest that we conceive of ourselvesalmost as interchangeable with any other member of our “world”, at least to the extent to which we value our own experiences and interests over those of others. My second worry has to do with the fact that Mitsein, even if it indeed does ground ethical constraints for those who share a “world”, gives us no grounds to extend these same constraints to those outside it, and a lack of commitment to establishing moral duties that can be universalized seems to be a serious weakness in any moral theory – even in one that does not attempt to produce moral rules as objective and absolute.
7. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Tsena Zhelyazkova Ontological Reflections on the New: On Individuality Once Again
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The present paper is divided into two parts. The first one inquires into the ontological notion of what it is for something to be new in a strict sense, which opens a discussion on the difference between applying and creating ontologization. I am trying to show that the second case has a greater explanatory value. Such a differentiation between two ways of elaborating ontology allows for a demarcation between definitions created by categorization and an inquiry that seeks to understand the individual nature of what is investigated.The second part concerns the problem of how individuality is to be defined. I start with a few classical topoi on the subject, and then continue with some comments on Alberto Toscano’s idea of the individual as an anomaly. My main thesis, as opposed to his position, is that although individuation processes cannot be thought in one overall pattern, there is nevertheless nothing monstrous about individuals in general.
8. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Chris Osegenwune Understanding Plato’s theory of justice and creating social order
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Plato’s theory of justice is central in philosophical discourse. The canon of this theory is that every individual has an innate ability that can be harnessed to contribute to national development. Plato is of the view that grounding human ability in departmental excellence will promote a division of labour and enhance productivity, efficiency and effectiveness.Plato’s defense of justice is an attempt to correct the position of the sophists that injustice is preferred to justice. The Republic (Ideal state), one of his greatest dialogues, demonstrates the necessity of adopting a universal notion of justice as an instrument of social and moral regulation.Justice means one man, one job based on ones capacity and capability. Criticisms have trailed this theory as the forerunner of authoritarianism and despotism. The strongest criticism sees Plato’s paradigm as the enemy of the open society as a result of the strict division of society into dominant classes.
9. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Mihai D. Vasile The neopositivist trend in the Finnish school of philosophy
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Ars cogitandi is not the monopoly of a school, a people or an age, but it has crossed over the centuries and cardinal points, from the Platonic Academy of Athens to the Finnish University set up at Turku in 1640 and set down for good and for all at Helsingfors (the ancient name for Helsinki) in the year 1828. Ars cogitandi asphilosophy got here as a distinct brilliance following the classical Anglo-Saxon tradition of empiricism, represented at that time by Edward Westermarck (1862–1939), who was professor of practical philosophy in Helsinki and professor of sociology at London School of Economics from 1907 until 19301. The Finnish School of Philosophy acquired its decisive acknowledgement by Eino Kaila, great scholar and chief of the school, who brought over to Finland the modern logic and the philosophy of the Vienna Circle.
10. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Ana Kubuirc, Zorica Kuburic Empirical Reality of Philosophy in Schools, Between East and West – Case of Serbia and Croatia
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Reports on the empirical reality of educational systems in other countries can be useful. In this article, data on how philosophy has been taught in Serbia and Croatia are presented andcompared. Because this educational development was partially common for both countries, it is interesting to see differences today. The Croatian initiative has been greater, both then and now. The question is: What is the essential difference?
11. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Arvin Vos On the Status of Theoretical Objects in Science according to Cognitive Existentialism
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12. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Pro and con discussion regarding the tenets of the hermeneutic philosophy of science
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