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1. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Hussam Al Halbusi, Homoud Alhaidan, T. Ramayah, Salem AlAbri Ethical Leadership and Employees’ Ethical Behavior: Modeling the Contingent Role of Moral Identity
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Ethical scandals, as well as unethical behaviour, are becoming major concerns in recent times. Thus, this study focused on the role of ethical climate and employees’ moral identity. Specifically, this study examined the mediation effect of ethical climate on the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ ethical behaviour. Also, the study investigated the moderating role of employee moral identity on the relationship between ethical climate and employees’ ethical behaviour. Data were collected from 620 full-time employees working at thirty-three Iraqi organisations from five Iraqi provinces. These organisations were from various industry sectors such as manufacturing, retailing, medical, insurance, information technology, legal, finance, and telecommunication sectors. The study found that ethical leadership impacted on the ethical behaviour of employees and the ethical climate also significantly mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ ethical behaviour. The moderating role of moral identity on the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behaviour was found to be insignificant in this context.
2. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Rockwell Clancy, Qin Zhu Why Should Ethical Behaviors Be the Ultimate Goal of Engineering Ethics Education?
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Ethics is crucial to engineering, although disagreement exists concerning the form engineering ethics education should take. In part, this results from disagreements about the goal of this education, which inhibit the development of and progress in cohesive research agendas and practices. In this regard, engineering ethics faces challenges like other professional ethics. To address these issues, this paper argues that the ultimate goal of engineering ethics education should be more long-term ethical behaviors, but that engineering ethics must more fully engage with the fields of empirical moral and cultural psychology to do so. It begins by considering reasons for adopting ethical behaviors as the ultimate goal of ethics education, and moves on to discuss why ethical behaviors have not been adopted as the goal of ethics education. The paper ends by considering responses to these problems, why ethical behaviors should still be adopted as the ultimate goal of ethics education.
3. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Thomas A. Hemphill A Case for Effective Business Association Membership Codes of Ethics and Conduct
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A business association is a collaborative organization founded and funded by businesses or business owners and usually represents companies operating in an industry or across industries. Business associations often institute a code of ethics, code of practice, and/or code of conduct that guide member company policy and behavior. Specifically, the paper will thoroughly define codes of ethics, conduct, and practice; their relationship to each other is delineated and explained; examples of three business associations’ codes of ethics and/or conduct are explored; and the U.S. legal environment—focusing on antitrust considerations that governs their organizational use—evaluated for business association compliance enforcement. Given this exploratory and explanatory research foundation, managerial recommendations are offered in the discussion section to assist business associations, and by extension, their member companies, in effectively utilizing such association governance codes in both association and company planning, policy development, and operational management activities in domestic and global commerce.
4. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Matthew Sinnicks In Defence of Wish Lists: Business Ethics, Professional Ethics, and Ordinary Morality
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Business ethics is often understood as a variety of professional ethics, and thus distinct from ordinary morality in an important way. This article seeks to challenge two ways of defending this claim: first, from the nature of business practice, and second, from the contribution of business. The former argument fails because it undermines our ability to rule out a professional-ethics approach to a number of disreputable practices. The latter argument fails because the contribution of business is extrinsic to business in a way that distinguishes from the established professions. The article ultimately suggests we adopt a more aspirational approach to business ethics, which retains an appeal even in the face of charges of anti-capitalist irrelevance.
5. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Tamas Sneider How Organizations Lose Their Way: Unethical Behavior and Moral Disengagement in Complex Organizational Context
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Unethical behavior in organizations has garnered more and more attention in the last decades but most of the scholarly work has used a static approach relying on methodological individualism and a mechanistic worldview when studying this topic. The process of moral disengagement and organizational culture have been linked to the prevalence of unethical behavior earlier, but this paper uses a complexity-informed systems perspective to explore the dynamic relationship of these concepts and aims to improve our understanding of the often unnoticeable, step-by-step process through which organizational cultures can become conducive to unethical behavior. Organizations are conceptualized as complex adaptive systems in which transformative and stabilizing processes based on feedback loops take place continuously. It is discussed how these processes can lead to a phase transition driving organizations towards a state where unethical behavior is the general norm. The process is illustrated through real-life examples.
6. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 42 > Issue: 1
Notes on Contributors
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7. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Martin Schlag The Future of Work: Human Dignity in an Era of Globalization and Autonomous Technology
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8. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Andrea Roncella, Marta Bertolaso A Generative Paradigm for Human Work: Meritocracy and Value Creation in a Post COVID-19 World
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In this paper we have two main goals. The first is to challenge two key elements of reductionist thinking concerning human work inherited from the Information and Communication Technology revolution that have significantly shaped current concepts of work at both the individual and institutional level: the ‘flexible man’ model and the obsession with the objective function of economic productivity. We show how, combined with the logic of productivity as a means for continuous economic growth, these elements justify the overlapping of value and price. This overlap characterizes current meritocratic paradigms. Our second goal is to show how and why an emerging integrated paradigm is a more suitable model for taking into consideration the specifically human dimensions of work. These dimensions encompass the sphere of caring and are mostly buried in the functionalist-mechanistic system. In this context, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic can work as an exogenous shock useful to boost the rise of this new paradigm of human work.
9. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Kenneth S. Mias The Paradoxes of Work and Human Flourishing in the Age of Autonomous Technology
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In an era where autonomous technologies are progressively taking over more complex tasks and decision-making previously done by humans, the mastering of paradox-based skills and effectively reconciling paradoxical situations in everyday life will become increasingly important. This paper asserts that understanding and living with paradox is not only necessary for the future of work but also for human flourishing. While work is the primary means by which humans flourish in the traditional sense, there are deeper and more holistic understandings of human flourishing which requires the acceptance and learning of paradoxical realities. Those who are steeped in the understanding and reality of paradox in everyday life can also be more open to these deeper and more holistic understandings of human flourishing.
10. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Robert A. Gahl Jr The Challenge of Self-Mastery in the Future of Work
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The acceleration of technological change due to Industry 4.0 causes a need for new features of old virtues. Recent discoveries in neuroscience and in cognitive behavioral therapy complement classical virtue theory, especially that of Aristotle and Aquinas, to offer new scientific appreciation for classical virtues and more effective strategies for their acquisition. Self-mastery requires the ability to maintain focus on the task at hand in accord with one’s commitments by avoiding rumination, intrusive thoughts, and distractions. Mindfulness, positive psychology, and neuroscience complement the recent philosophical study of the virtues of acknowledged dependence (MacIntyre) and offer strategies for embracing stress for personal and community growth through work within teams shaped by shared goals. The freedom to focus in accord with personal commitments can both contribute to and benefit from the shared goals of a team that is shaped by a common hope.
11. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Domènec Melé Humanizing Industry 4.0: Some Criteria Drawn from Catholic Social Teaching
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Industry 4.0, which is at the core of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, posits the challenge of humanizing it. Drawing upon Catholic Social Teaching (CST), this article offers a set of ethical and spiritual criteria for such humanization. The starting point is a positive attitude of CST toward technology, admiring it not only for its usefulness, but also as an expression of human creativity, ingenuity, and beauty. This entails a transcendent sense leading to praise the Creator. At the same time, CST warns that technology involves the risk of fostering a techno-centered worldview and calls for a humanistic-centered worldview. Other ethical criteria regard conducting technological developments with ethical guidelines, minimizing inside effects of technological implementations, managing technology for the common good, and introducing technology into the production process in respect of human dignity and favoring human flourishing.
12. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Kristin Gottron Dignity beyond Measure: Designing Big Data Systems with the Worker in Mind
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The technological developments of the Fourth Industrial Age have set the stage for myriad breakthroughs in the field of data and analytics. However, these innovations have also brought with them new threats to the autonomy and dignity of the human worker. This paper aims to identify some of these new challenges to the integral human development of the worker and to propose principles from the Catholic Social Tradition on the worker that can be practically implemented to address them. By doing so, an ethical framework may be established to preserve the realm of work from dehumanization brought on by an increased focus on algorithmic computation.
13. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Karel Sovak Ushering Human Dignity into the Era of Globalized, Human-less Technology
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As our work is ever evolving from agrarian to more service-oriented tasks, the rise of machine learning is the advent of an intelligence that contrasts with the natural intelligence exhibited by humans. Many see the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) as simply another opportunity for business to exploit. Additionally, as coding becomes the new language of the business world, the challenge of using data and analytics to help foster a new generation of human flourishing lessens with organizations solidifying their protocols for the use of AI. As our work changes, it is vital for business to recognize that being a force for good requires policies, procedures, and programs that will respect and promote human dignity at all levels, even amidst the changes brought by AI initiatives. This person-first philosophy needs to be a critical component of any future strategies business utilizes to uphold the well-being of all stakeholders.
14. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Rev. Dr. Richard Turnbull Work as Enterprise in an Age of Robots
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This paper aims to expound and develop the idea of work as enterprise in response to the challenges of the fourth industrial revolution and to demonstrate that Christian theology provides a conceptual framework which helps locate work within an understanding of purpose and human dignity. This paper defines enterprise, considers the purpose of work, and reflects on themes from the common Christian theological tradition which give meaning to the idea of work as enterprise. Further, this article considers the challenge of technology, the place of the market and ethics, the role of innovation and creativity, questions of freedom and regulation, the central place for the development of skills and education, and the transformational nature of work. In addition, this paper has three policy propositions and some practical advice. Work matters because it is at root an expression of our humanity. Technological advance poses both perils and opportunities. The development of the idea of work as enterprise within a framework of Christian theology places entrepreneurship, creativity, and innovation at the heart of our collective response to the fourth industrial revolution.
15. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Geoffrey C. Friesen Human Flourishing and the Self-Limiting Assumptions of Modern Finance
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Current models in finance make strong, self-limiting assumptions about the nature of human utility, human relationships, human flourishing, and human growth. These assumptions facilitate tractable solutions to financial problems but ignore subjective determinants of human well-being and value creation within the firm. The philosophical and theological traditions of Catholic teaching, as well as evidence on human flourishing from model social science, call us beyond these models. This paper focuses on three specific areas where a “disconnect” exists between Catholic teaching and current finance models, highlights the relevance of Catholic teaching, and sketches a framework for more fully integrating human flourishing into finance models.
16. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Agna Fernandez, C. Joe Arun Enabling Learning to Develop Personal Capability for Human Flourishing: Constructing a Model through Grounded Theory
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The purpose of this qualitative research is to conceptualize the factors that influence human flourishing. Data has been gathered through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with thirty global heads of Human Resources of manufacturing companies in India and South Asia. Data from these interviews are analyzed using grounded theory methodology to categorize concepts and create a conceptual model of the main themes which contribute to human flourishing. This study highlights three such themes: (1) opportunities for advancement; (2) personal capability; and (3) leading people inclusively. This article provides implications for a more complete model for entrepreneurs, policy makers, and HR heads to understand the conditions necessary for human flourishing, filling a literature gap in the study of human flourishing from the perspective of an employer.
17. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Frances Jeanne L. Sarmiento Depicting the Two “Faces” of Labor Contracting and Their Effects in the Philippines
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This study provides an overview of the different forms of labor contracting in the Philippines, as found in the “formal” economy, i.e., the traditional sectors of Agriculture, Industry, and Services, as well as the “informal” or gig economy. It also discusses similarities and differences between the “formal” and “informal” economy, as well as the increasing precarity of labor contracting, regardless of industry sector and the nature of work. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the precariousness and inequality of labor contracting within the immediate future.
18. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Maciej Bazela Technology as a Response to the Challenges of Aging Society and Shrinking Labor Markets: What Can We Learn From the Case of Japan?
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This paper examines how Japan has embraced advanced technologies to address the challenges of an aging society and shrinking labor markets. Using Japan as a case study, this paper explores the relationship between human dignity, the intrinsic value of work, and the fourth industrial revolution. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section describes the scale of aging and shrinking labor markets in Japan, and the measures that the Japanese government has used to tackle these problems. The second section offers a selection of five mini cases that show how advanced technologies are used in different sectors of the Japanese economy. The third section outlines some ethical concerns that go beyond utilitarian benefits of using advanced technologies to address the problem of aging. The perspective of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is adopted as a main advocate of a person-centered social ethics. The fourth section offers an assessment of Japan’s experiment and outlines further research opportunities.
19. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Arnd Küppers Migration, Labor, and Welfare: An Attempt at a Social Ethical Evaluation
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The desire for work, income, and better living conditions is the main cause for international migration. Such labor migration is also called economic migration, although it has many non-economic aspects and side effects as well. This article seeks to examine the reasons for and the consequences of international labor migration in its different dimensions. This will take into consideration the interests of all three groups involved: the migrants and their families, the countries of origin and their peoples, the host countries, and the local populations. The core of the article is a social ethical evaluation of the conflicts of interest revealed in the analysis, considering the values of human dignity and justice. The aim is to explore how to balance different interests through a humane and fair immigration policy and international migration partnership.
20. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 41 > Issue: 3
Notes on Contributors
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