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1. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Julia A. Fulmore, Anthony L. Fulmore Sr. Examining Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Motivators of Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior
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The present study evaluated the relationship between job satisfaction and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB), directly as well as indirectly, through organizational commitment. Multidimensional constructs were utilized for job satisfaction and organizational commitment to provide a granular understanding of how these constructs can motivate employees to engage in UPB, which can threaten organizations' success and diminish the public's confidence in organizations. In order to test these relationships, a diverse sample of 617 participants was recruited through the online survey distribution platform Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk®) to test the theoretical model using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that identification, affiliation, and exchange commitment served as intervening variables between growth satisfaction and UPB, while no significant indirect effect of internal work motivation on UPB was found. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
2. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Franklin Ibáñez A Necessary Ethics Definition for Conflicts of Interest
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The paper examines Villarán’s definition of conflicts of interest to improve it. Some clarifications are necessary but also some amendments. The basic difference consists of first distinguishing between interest and moral grounds, and, second, by emphasizing the voluntary nature of the commitment of the person facing a conflict of interest. Such a commitment arises within a work-related or professional context. It must be explicit with regard to individuals, public institutions, private organizations, whether for profit or nonprofit, or professional associations. To support this concept, a method is used that is similar to the recent tradition of the English-speaking world expressed by Rawls, instead of the search for universal or essentialist concepts of the Platonic tradition. The result is not a true definition of conflicts of interest, but a necessary one given our historical-social context.
3. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Javier Pinto-Garay, Germán Scalzo, Ignacio Ferrero Autonomy and Subordination: Virtuous Work in Light of Aristotelian Practical Knowledge in Organizational Theory
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This paper aims to integrate the concept of autonomous and subordinated work into Aristotelian organizational theory by enhancing the epistemological framework of neo-Aristotelianism and by adding a Thomistic interpretation of organizational practical knowledge. We sustain that, in order to advance our understanding of the firm in terms of excellence and the common good, the concept of practical knowledge applied to organizational theory requires reflection on the nature of work in modern organizations. For this, we will explain (i) how an organization that aims for excellence is most appropriately defined as a community of autonomous work, (ii) how practical knowledge in organizations must be defined considering work as deliberative production and, finally, (iii) how productivity in organizations is best described when work is envisioned in terms of autonomy and subordination.
4. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
John Paul Rollert The Gift Outright?: Philanthropic Aspirations and the Ethics of Giving
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What does it mean to aspire to philanthropy? How might this shape popular views about charitable purpose? By one-on-one interviews and a review of the ethics of giving in the American experience, I take a long look at how views on philanthropic giving have changed over time and how this has helped to shape, and re-shape, the ethics of giving.
5. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Nandita Roy Applying Kant’s Ethics to Video Game Business Models: Which Ones Pass Muster?
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This article expands on existing models of analyzing business ethics of monetization in video games using the concept of categorical imperatives, as posited by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. A model is advanced to analyze and evaluate the business logics of video game monetization using a Kantian framework, which falls in the deontological category of normative ethics. Using two categorical imperatives, existing models of game monetization are divided into ethical or unethical, and presented using the case example of Star Wars: Battlefront II (2017). This analysis aims to provide video game developers and businesses with ethical guidelines for game monetization which may also be profitable for them in the long term. Within the framework of video game monetization, a deontological analysis is relevant due to the fact that the game developer is engaged in a continuous role of making the game more playable/payable. This article applies Kantian business ethics to the context of a new sector, that of video game businesses, and thereby presents a broader ethical perspective to video game developers, which will help them monetize games in an ethical manner which is also profitable in the long run.
6. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 40 > Issue: 1
Notes on Contributors
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7. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
David Bevan, Kenneth E. Goodpaster The Business Ethics Pioneers Project: An Introduction and a First Sample
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8. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Thomas Hemphill, Scott Johnson Premium-Priced, Branded Generic Pharmaceuticals in Emerging Economies: A Socially Responsible Consumer Pricing Strategy?
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Is it socially responsible to price at a premium, company branded generic pharmaceuticals in emerging economies? Building toward an answer to this question, the study first describes the role of the branded generic sector in the economic success of the global pharmaceutical industry. Second, the concept of “shared value,” i.e., the link between competitive advantage (and its theoretical antecedents found in corporate reputation and signaling theory) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), is introduced and applied to the global pharmaceutical industry’s position on marketing generic pharmaceuticals. Third, an empirical evaluation ascertains whether there is sufficient shared value for this company branded generics pricing strategy to be considered “socially responsible.” Fourth, after concluding there is sufficient shared value, a discussion section offers a public/private (corporate and industry self-regulation) framework that will help ensure that safe and effective pharmaceuticals are sold to consumers in developing economies. Lastly, a summary and conclusion section completes the article.
9. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Wenling Lu, Benjamin Yeo Time-Varying Relations between Seven Dimensions of CSR and Firm Risk
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This study examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR), a central ethical concern, and firm total risk, a central business concern, using a large US dataset spanning 1991 to 2015. It includes considerations for the recent financial crisis to establish whether firm engagement in specific CSR dimensions decrease (i.e., the risk reduction hypothesis) or increase (i.e., the resource constraint hypothesis) firm risk. The findings demonstrate the impact of CSR engagement is different, depending on the specific CSR dimension in question, and the relationship between each of the seven CSR dimensions and total risk is time varying. Our empirical evidence suggests that firms should prioritize different CSR dimensions as an integral part of their CSR strategies and strategic management and change the priority in different market conditions.
10. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Marianne Thejls Ziegler Moral Integrity: Challenges of Defining a Shapeless Concept
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This article outlines different attempts to define integrity, and argues, with reference to the theory of moral particularism, that definitions acquire universal applicability at the expense of their informative value. The article then proceeds to more delimitating definitions that emphasise the social aspect, and argues that their ideas of the concept, like courage, require certain situations in order to unfold. Since not every person is challenged to act with integrity, the delimitation requires a distinction between manifest integrity and dormant integrity, or dormant lack of integrity. Persons of influence, like politicians and managers, on the other hand, are challenged on a regular basis because their position requires communication of values in a public space, against which the public can evaluate their actions. A delimitating definition therefore ties the question of integrity to people in leading positions.
book review
11. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Ashley Whitaker Professional Ethics: A Trust-Based Approach, by Terrence M. Kelly
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12. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 3
Notes on Contributors
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13. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Ryan Atkins, Cam Caldwell Supply Chain Responsibility and Sustainability: The Role of The Individual in Building a Business Case for Ethical Decisions
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Decisions made by supply chain managers have a far-reaching impact on the economic, environmental, and social performance of entire supply chains, even though many activities in the supply chain occur beyond the direct control of those managers. Some firms establish a line of moral disengagement, beyond which they distance themselves from the impact of the activities of the supply chain. This research addresses the question of why some managers choose to take responsibility for the sustainability of their supply chain, while others do not. We argue that the ethical predisposition and moral complexity of the individual employee moderates the interpretation of the drivers of sustainability, increasing or decreasing their ability to build a business case for supply chain responsibility. We also argue that ethical predisposition moderates the likelihood of a business case being enacted. We then discuss theoretical and managerial implications resulting from this finding.
14. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Lina Wei, Michael Davis China’s Unwritten Code of Engineering Ethics
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Since 2004, Nanyan Cao and some other scholars have implicitly or explicitly claimed that engineering ethics in China is importantly different from engineering ethics in the United States. The evidence for that claim relies on examination of official documents or certain large features of Chinese society (for example, millennia of Taoism, Confucianism, or Buddhism). Though neither is an uncommon approach to studying engineering ethics in China, neither actually studies engineering practice in China. This article does—or at least gets much closer. The authors have asked almost two hundred (Mainland) Chinese engineers about what they do and why they do it. The responses suggest that Chinese engineers, or at least those surveyed, think about engineering ethics much as American engineers do. The responses also suggest that much more empirical work needs to be done before we can claim to understand either the similarities or differences between engineering ethics in China and engineering ethics in “the West.”
15. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Gil Hersch You Can Bluff but You Should Not Spoof
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Spoofing is the act of placing orders to buy or sell a financial contract without the intention to have those orders fulfilled in order to create the impression that there is a large demand for that contract at that price. In this article, I deny the view that spoofing in financial markets should be viewed as morally permissible analogously to the way bluffing is permissible in poker. I argue for the pro tanto moral impermissibility of spoofing and make the case that spoofing is disanalogous from bluffing in at least one important regard—speculative trading serves an important economic role, whereas poker does not.
16. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Roberta Sferrazzo Towards an Agape-Based Organization: Does It Make Sense to Apply Civil Economy to Business Ethics?
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In the last decade, scholars have rediscovered the Italian tradition of Civil Economy and the different vision of the market it offers, one that is anchored on reciprocal assistance in market exchange relationships. So far, scholars are discussing Civil Economy especially in the fields of the history of economic though and in economics and philosophy. Nevertheless, this article proposes looking also at business ethics and organizational studies through the lens of Civil Economy, especially considering the notion of virtue provided by civil economists. In particular, it sets forth an organizational model that derives from Civil Economy, i.e. the agape-based organization.
17. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Spyridon Stelios Professional Engineers: Interconnecting Personal Virtues with Human Good
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Professional ethics refer to the rights and obligations of practitioners within any profession or sector. Engineering ethics can be discussed based on the nature of the engineer profession and its implications for professional morality. This paper takes the virtue ethics lens to discuss engineering ethics and argues that, since human and social good derives from professional virtues, protecting the public interest is a professional virtue of engineers. Further, since the protection of the public interest redounds to human and social good, then engineers are bound by the nature of their professional role to achieve these two interconnected aims, namely, protecting the public interest and promoting human good. The importance of virtues is eminent in the way an engineer improves her professional conduct and this has an impact on the social environment and on human good in general. Given an engineer’s concern with the broad public needs of people, the engineer’s function counts as a morally good role, and therefore can be described as one that can lead to human flourishing.
18. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 2
Notes on Contributors
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19. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Simona Giorgi, Richard P. Nielsen Social Situational Business Ethics Framing for Engaging with Ethics Issues
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This article considers the problem of how employees and observers of business ethics behaviors often do not know how to safely and effectively engage with business ethics issues and cases. The ameliorative method of social situational business ethics framing was analyzed. Key parts of the related literature from philosophy, sociology, organizational studies, and business ethics are reviewed. A literature gap between general framing theory and business ethics was identified with respect to the need for social situational framing in business ethics at the micro individual, meso organizational, and macro institutional levels. Theoretical propositions for bridging the literature gap and a wide variety of business ethics engagement case examples are developed as illustrations of and support for the propositions. Practical social situational business ethics framing implications for safe and effective business ethics engagement are considered.
20. Business and Professional Ethics Journal: Volume > 39 > Issue: 1
Plamena Pehlivanova The Significance of Rationality in Reforming Ethics within Contemporary Professional Work: The Case Study of Audit
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In the wake of judgement failures currently characterising professional audit practice, the article will argue that this case illustrates a larger problem associated with the technocratic deformity of practices within modern institutions. I will refer to the case of ethics, where human judgement has been offloaded to the performative practice of complying with codes and reduced to executing procedures. Getting to grips with what the issue is requires us to recognise the distinctive ethical nature of human rationality that cannot be replaced by machines. However, this distinctiveness is not sufficiently brought out in the current climate of work, where the conditions have instead reduced the capacities to engage in ethical judgment and to cultivate morality. Instead, the cognitive capacity to evaluate the ends of actions and the dispositions to act in that light are central to fostering morality. By drawing on the Aristotelian and sociocultural traditions, I point to the complexity and significance of rationality, and offer a way to rethink professional education practices that could reorient individuals’ thinking and cultivate ethical responsivity.