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rethinking phenomenology with edith stein
1. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Antonio Calcagno Introduction: Edith Stein’s Rethinking of Phenomenology
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2. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Angela Ales Bello, Antonio Calcagno The Meaning of Life between Time and Eternity
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This paper explores the question of the meaning of life, not only from the perspective of its temporal unfolding from birth to death but also from the perspective of its own particular meaning and its final cause, to use Aristotelian categories. In order to discuss this argument I refer myself to Edith Stein to show how crucial moments of her own life give rise to important and de􀏔ining philosophical positions that touch upon questions of personal identity, social and communal relations, and a relationship with God.
3. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Anna Maria Pezzella, Antonio Calcagno Phenomenology and Psychology: Edith Stein’s Contribution to the Investigation of the Psyche
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Edith Stein came to phenomenology after beginning her university studies in psychology. She struggled with the inability of psychology to justify and delineate its founding principles. She found in Edmund Husserl, though his sustained criticisms of psychologism, the possibility of a phenomenological ground for psychology. This article demonstrates how Stein, drawing from but also distancing herself from Husserl, justifies the possibility of a phenomenological psychology framed within a personalist structure of subjectivity and sociality.
4. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Daniele De Santis “Streichen Wir das Bewußtsein, so Streichen Wir die Welt.”: Edith Stein on Husserl’s Transcendental Idealism: Critical Remarks
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This paper presents a systematic discussion of Edith Stein’s critical understanding of Husserl’s transcendental-phenomenological idealism. After a brief explanation of the way in which, according to Stein, Husserl’s idealism should be framed, this paper offers an evaluation of her criticism with a special focus on her Introduction to Philosophy lectures of 1920. I argue that if, ultimately, Stein’s rejection of Husserl’s idealism in the text in question is deemed unsuccessful, we must examine the premises on which her own per-spective on the eidetics of nature is based.
5. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Sarah Borden Sharkey Is Edith Stein’s Finite and Eternal Being a Kind of “Phenomenological Metaphysics”?
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One striking feature of Finite and Eternal Being is Edith Stein’s exceedingly rare use of the term “metaphysics.” She uses the term “formal ontology” numerous times, but the term “metaphysics” only appears a handful of times in the body of the text, and even those references are themselves a bit surprising. This could be explained in several ways, some of which may be quite innocent and have nothing to do with whether she understands her project as metaphysical. In the following, however, I would like to explore a differing explanation and argue that (at least, in part) her reason for avoiding describing her work as metaphysical is connected with the type of philosophical critique she wants to make of traditional metaphysics. I will not argue that Finite and Eternal Being should ultimately be read as a phenomenological analysis of being rather than any sort of metaphysical treatise, but I will argue that Stein has explicitly phenomenological reasons for being cautious about using the term “metaphysics.”
6. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Nicoletta Ghigi, Antonio Calcagno Authentic Freedom and Happiness: An Interpretation of the Ethics of Edith Stein
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This article seeks to advance a way of being in the world of the hu-man person that encompasses both the truest sense of freedom of choice and its result, namely, happiness. Starting from the proposal of a relational ethics in Stein I intend to show how, in the authentic relationship through Einfühlung, it is possible to arrive at the “revelation” of what is deeper in ourselves, i.e., the personal core that characterizes us as unique and unrepeatable entities. The growth and development of our personalities occurs coherently with who we are. But the “choice” to adhere to the authenticity of a deep self is a choice of freedom that also leads one to harmony, to the acceptance of one’s finitude and weaknesses, and thus to living well with who one “really” is. This result coincides with being happy.
regular articles/articles variés
7. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Kyle Novak We Still Do Not Know What a Body Can Do: The Replacement of Ontology with Ethology in Deleuze’s Spinoza
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Throughout much of his career, Deleuze repeats a problem he attributes to Spinoza: “we do not even know what a body can do.” The problem is closely associated with Deleuze’s parallelist reading of Spinoza and what he calls ethology. In this article, I argue that Deleuze takes ethology to be a new model for philosophy which he intends to replace ontology. I ground my claim in Deleuze’s sugges-tion that Spinoza offers philosophers the means of “thinking with AND” rather than “thinking for IS.” The argument is developed through Deleuze’s monographs and collaborations on Spinoza and alongside his meta-philosophical critique of the Image of Thought.
8. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Thibault Tranchant Cosmologie et création ex nihilo chez Cornelius Castoriadis: De la critique de la dialectique à la pensée complexe?
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L’un des gestes distinctifs de Cornelius Castoriadis fut de rapporter l’histoire de la philosophie à un concept de création « ex nihilo », qu’il définissait comme surgissement immotivé et irréductible de nouvelles déterminations formelles de l’être dans le temps. Cet article s’intéresse à la signification d’un tel parti pris pour l’instruction de la question cosmologique, entendue comme enquête sur les principes et le devenir de la totalité de l’être. L’auteur montre dans un premier temps comment Castoriadis a justifié sa position ontologique à partir d’une réflexion sur l’histoire de la science. Il la rapporte ensuite à deux voies possibles afin de résoudre la question cosmologique : la dialectique et la complexité. Il est soutenu que l’intention de Castoriadis ne fut pas de produire une cosmologie comme telle, mais de rapporter la pratique scientifique à la création et d’expliciter les conditions de possibilité de son intellection.
9. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
Ioannis Trisokkas Phenomenology as Metaphysics: On Heidegger’s Interpretation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit
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The article reflects on Heidegger’s “metaphysical” interpretation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. This interpretation is driven by two theses Heidegger holds: (1) that the Phenomenology is a necessary part of Hegel’s “system of science” and (2) that the Phenomenology is metaphysics. These two theses contrast with Houlgate’s “epistemological” interpretation, which claims that the Phenomenology is not a necessary part of Hegel’s system of science and that it is not metaphysics. The article shows that while Heidegger has an argument that establishes, contra Houlgate, his second thesis, this very argument has consequences that undermine his first.
rethinking phenomenology with edith stein
10. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 2
List of Book Reviews/Liste des comptes rendus
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the everywhere and the nowhere of phenomenological ethics
11. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Donald A. Landes Introduction: The Everywhere and the Nowhere of Phenomenological Ethics
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As a descriptive philosophy, it might seem that the ethical nowhere has its place in phenomenology. And yet, phenomenology is every-where shot through with normative concerns. This section includes articles from the 2018 conference Toward a Phenomenological Ethics, where two themes emerged regarding the elusive place of the ethical in phenomenology: first, research demonstrates that early phenomenology was indeed oriented by the ethical; second, Critical Phenomenology examines ethical questions in terms of intersubjectivity and oppression. In this introduction, I suggest that the place of the ethical in phenomenology implies a certain paradoxical logic of expression, and I consider the relationship between expression and encroachment. This points to a double responsibility for the cultivation of our own virtual and the virtual that we collectively sustain. I conclude with a brief re􀏔lection on how these ideas might help us to rethink our responsibilities in the age of COVID-19.
12. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Laurent Perreau L’éthique ultime de Husserl. De l’auto-méditation à l’autoresponsabilité
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Les écrits du dernier Husserl développent une théorie du monde de la vie qui s’expose dans la Krisis de 1936 et dans les nombreux textes inédits qui lui font cortège. Si cette théorie du monde de la vie ne se présente pas, à première vue, comme une éthique ou une théorie de l’éthique (à la différence des cours prononcés par Husserl sur l’éthique et la théorie des valeurs), elle demeure marquée par une préoccupation éthique qui scelle l’unité des analyses husserliennes. Dans cet article, on cherchera à préciser les contours et la portée de cette ultime éthique husserlienne, en revenant en particulier sur le motif de l’auto-méditation (Selbstbesinnung) que Hus-serl érige en principe de la responsabilité individuelle et sociale.
13. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Rawb Leon-Carlyle Love and the Shadow of Sacrifice: Husserl at the Limits of Relational Ethics
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In this article, I foreground the role of relationality in Husserl’s later reflections on ethics and self-constitution, with a particular interest in Husserl’s account of sacrifice. I exposit how Husserl’s account of self-constitution and the conflict of absolute values between competing vocations offers a solution to Brentano’s rendering of the obligation to “choose the best among the ends attainable.” I explore the numerous instances in which Husserl uses the parent-child relation to illustrate the absolute value of our relation to an individual and how this absolute value triumphs over other seemingly rational maxims. Although problematic in several ways, Husserl’s account of motherhood grounds his notion of self-constitution in particular relations with others, rather than in a general category of nation or humanity. I conclude by considering how his emphasis on phenomenological constitution and his approach to value and sacrifice may inform future projects in phenomenological relational ethics.
14. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Marie-Hélène Desmeules Quelle(s) phénoménologie(s) pour l’éthique?: Réactualisation éthique des descriptions des actes sociaux non-objectivants
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L’apport de la phénoménologie allemande à l’éthique a souvent été réduit aux intentionnalités et aux vécus axiologiques et affectifs, tels qu’ils furent décrits par Husserl. Or, cet apport est limité du fait que Husserl définissait d’abord l’intentionnalité comme un rapport à un objet dont nous sommes conscients. Dans ce qui suit, nous proposons d’emprunter une autre voie pour penser l’apport de la phénoménologie à l’éthique, en étudiant la phénoménologie des actes sociaux que les phénoménologues munichois développèrent en réponse à la phénoménologie husserlienne. Cette phénoménologie des actes sociaux permet de considérer, de juger et de critiquer, d’un point de vue éthique, les façons dont nous entrons en relation intentionnelle non pas avec des objets éthiques, mais avec autrui. Notre propos suivra principalement les idées développées par Reinach, Pfänder, Daubert et Scheler, et prendra pour fil directeur les actes d’adresser un impératif et une invitation à autrui.
15. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Ellie Anderson Phenomenology and the Ethics of Love
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Phenomenologists have long viewed love as a central form of inter-subjective engagement. I show here that it is also of concern to phenomenological ethics. After establishing the relation of phenomenology to ethics, I show that both classical and existential phenomenology view love as an act of valuing the loved one. I argue that a second act of valuing is latent in phenomenology: valuing the relationship. These values are evident in the phenomenological distinction between true love, which generates a “perspective in difference,” and false love, which seeks union with the beloved manifesting in devotion and/or jealousy. Because culturally dominant heteronormative scripts incline individuals toward false love, lovers should create their own pacts for ethical relationships. I consider consensually non-monogamous relationships as an example.
16. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Marie-Anne Casselot Sur l’épuisement subjectif comme problème féministe
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Dans cet article, je soutiens que l’épuisement subjectif fragilise l’individualité dans l’exécution des actes intentionnels de douter, se soucier, planifier et finalement se protéger. Ces quatre actes intentionnels sont intersubjectifs puisqu’ils sont orientés vers autrui et illustrent une relationnalité imposée (un « exister-pour-autrui » se déclinant au détriment d’un « exister-pour-soi »). L’épuisement subjectif est relatif aux individus et il affecte la subjectivité parce qu’il empêche l’individu d’entreprendre des projets existentiels individuels. Cette relationnalité imposée et toujours orientée vers autrui affaiblit l’intentionnalité d’une personne et fragilise son individualité. Une description phénoménologique révèle ces actes invisibles et non quantifiables, et comment ils influencent les intentions et les actions d’un sujet. Finalement, je soutiens que l’épuisement subjectif est un phénomène négatif impliquant des risques éthiques, épistémiques, existentiels et émotionnels pour les sujets subalternes. Ainsi, ces quatre actes intentionnels, vécus dans un contexte social inégalitaire, renforcent l'épuisement subjectif et l’imposent aux sujets subalternes.
regular articles/articles variés
17. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Alex J. Feldman The Real Effects of Rationality: Foucault’s Position in The Impossible Prison
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Two critical reviews of Discipline and Punish inspired an exchange between Foucault and some prominent historians in 1978. In the texts from this exchange, Foucault addresses their criticism that, by focusing on unrealized plans and programs, such as Bentham’s Panopticon, his book lacks a sense of historical reality. Foucault replies, first, that the true aim of his book is to explore the emergence of a new type of penal rationality, not to insist that the Panopticon itself has been realized. Second, he holds that types of rationality can produce distinctive sorts of effects, regardless of whether the plans and programs to which they are attached are ever fully achieved. This paper seeks to clarify Foucault’s underlying account in these responses of rationality and its efficacy. It also takes up and develops Foucault’s suggestive distinction between two different types of effects: “effects in the real” and “reality effects.”
18. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Norman Ajari Les damnés du nomos de la terre. Carl Schmitt face à Lénine et le scandale de l’internationalisme
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Cet article retrace les références au léninisme qui traversent la philosophie politique de Carl Schmitt. S’il mobilise plusieurs penseurs marxistes, Lénine est à la fois celui pour lequel il témoigne le plus d’intérêt et celui qu’il condamne le plus radicalement. Admiré pour sa notion de dictature du prolétariat, craint pour sa conception de l’ennemi, c’est finalement son internationalisme radical et sa potentielle adoption par les peuples colonisés qui constituent le scandale de la pensée de Lénine. Ce faisant, la critique de Schmitt révélera une nouvelle signification existentielle du concept marxiste d’internationalisme.
19. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
Kimberly Matheson Points, Plasticity, and the Logic of Contraction in Alain Badiou and Catherine Malabou
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This article presents Catherine Malabou and Alain Badiou as theorists of contraction (a kind of reduction or tightening that accompanies every process of transformation) and its related operations of self-reflexivity and infinite iteration. Trading on these commonalities, the article hopes to draw out Malabou’s and Badiou’s respective formalist commitments. On Badiou’s side, it sharpens the question of what is at stake in something as regulated as a “procedure”; on Malabou’s, it recognizes formal stakes to plasticity that often go unrecognized because of her penchant for biology. The article then concludes with a broad comparison of these two thinkers in terms of their accounts of potential and imagines the critiques each might leverage against the other. Where Malabou might well regard Badiou to be too tightly constraining the shape of the future, Badiou is likely to find in Malabou one more instance of a naïve democratic materialism.
20. Symposium: Volume > 25 > Issue: 1
List of Book Reviews/Liste des comptes rendus
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