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articles
1. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Robert Kirkman Getting a Feel for Systems: Designing a Problem-Based Course in Environmental Ethics
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In response to the challenges of teaching a course in environmental ethics to engineering majors at a technological university, I have developed an approach that emphasizes the role of moral imagination in conjunction with systems imagination in responding to problems that arise in shared environments. The course is set out on a model of problem-based learning, conceived as a cognitive apprenticeship: by working together to understand and consider responses to problems that are of interest to them, with guidance and tools provided by the instructor, students develop their capacity to notice, respond to and think about systems and values with greater sophistication. After setting out the rationale and the design of the course, I note the challenge that remains: developing a systematic assessment of the course, which would involve detecting and tracking subtle changes in student cognition.
2. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Renee Mazurek The Effectiveness of using Movies to Teach Ethics and Professionalism in an Online Course
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Higher education continues to see a shift toward online course delivery. Many professional graduate programs offer online courses when content does not necessarily require face-to-face contact. The use of movies to teach ethics and professionalism to medical students is not a new pedagogical approach. At a university in the United States, a shift in a tracked physical therapy curriculum triggered a course in ethics and professionalism to be delivered earlier in the program, leaving students without prior clinical experience before starting the course. The instructor revised this online course using movies to provide context for the topics covered making them relatable to physical therapy practice. This article describes student reactions to the implementation of movies into this course. Students valued the addition of the movies as they provided context using relevant health care situations, ultimately helping them relate the concepts to the physical therapy profession.
3. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Qin Zhu, Sandy Woodson Educating Self-Reflective Engineers: Ethics Autobiography as a Tool for Moral Pedagogy in Engineering
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Some engineering educators recognize the necessity and challenges of teaching students moral sensitivity. As recently pointed out by some scholars, along with moral sensitivity, promoting “self-knowledge” is significantly lacking in engineering curricula. We suggest that the “ethics autobiography” employed in some health and psychological science programs can serve as a useful tool for helping engineering students develop moral sensitivity and self-reflective competencies. First, this paper briefly discusses some unique potential strengths of introducing ethics autobiography as a tool for moral pedagogy to engineering education. Second, this paper provides five specific examples on how to implement ethics autobiography in the classroom. Among the five examples, two are directly related to engineering education and the other three can easily be adapted to meet the needs of engineering education. Finally, this paper concludes with some discussion of the implications of ethics autobiography for engineering ethics education reform and the limitations and ethical considerations of using autobiography in moral pedagogy.
4. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Lisa Kretz, Kristen Fowler, Kendra Mehling, Gail Vignola, Jill Griffin Global Citizenship Education and Scholars for Syria: A Case Study
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This article gives a broad sense of existing debate about Global Citizenship Education (GCE) to help situate and contextualize a novel case study. Scholars for Syria originated at a small university in southern Indiana. This grassroots response to the turmoil in Syria bridges the gap between a seemingly distant crisis and a midwestern city in the United States. The unique pedagogical and curricular dimensions of the case study work as a helpful framing device for facilitating exploration of debates about the shape of GCE, as well as providing new ways in which to imagine GCE curriculum, pedagogy, and embedding ethics into wider university initiatives.
5. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Phyllis Brown Whitehead, Mark G. Swope, Kimberly Ferren Carter Impact of a Team-based, Interprofessional Clinical Ethics Immersion on Moral Resilience
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Noting that issues raised during clinical bioethics consults at a southeastern US hospital involve the application of basic ethical principles, the Clinical Bioethics Consultation Service developed and piloted an interprofessional ethics immersion. The goal of this 4-week immersion was to improve teamwork and collaboration, support resolution of basic ethical dilemmas, and develop on-site ethics scholars who apply basic ethical principles to challenging clinical situations. The impact of the immersion on ethical environment, team communication, and confidence in resolving of basic ethical dilemmas for interprofessional clinical teams was examined using follow-up interviews with seven of the eight participants from two ethics immersion offerings. Findings support that an interprofessional ethics immersion training is a valuable strategy to improve ethics knowledge and resolve common patient care dilemmas. The unique aspects of this ethics immersion, team-based and interprofessional, are important considerations for ongoing development of clinicians to address the daily challenges encountered in healthcare.
6. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Matthew Gaudet The Two Types of Grades and Why They Matter to Ethics Education
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In-course marks and final grades each have their own nature and purpose and conflating the two does a disservice to both. Final grades represent a fixed and final statement about how a student did in the course in the end. They are a communication between the professor and anyone who will pick up that student’s transcript someday. In-course marks, by contrast, are a communication between the professor and student alone, and ought to be representative of an ongoing conversation about how the student is currently doing in the course. They are subject to change with each lecture, assessment, and conversation, and should embody that dynamism and potential for progress. Building upon the pedagogical concepts of differentiated learning, growth mindset, and backward course design, this paper will examine the advantages of differentiating between the two types of grades and present three grading models that incorporate the distinction.
7. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Chong Un Choe-Smith Service Learning in Philosophical Ethics
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Ethics training is becoming increasingly common in pre-professional contexts to address ethical misconduct in business, medicine, science, and other disciplines. These courses are often taught by philosophers. The question is whether such ethics training, which involves philosophical reflection, is effective in cultivating ethical behavior. This paper takes a closer look at the goals of teaching ethics and how our current methods are ineffective in achieving the affective and active goals of teaching ethics. This paper then suggests how experiential learning and, specifically, service learning may be one way forward in achieving these goals. While some pre-professional programs have implemented service learning, the ethics courses offered by philosophers also may be improved by giving students more opportunities to engage their communities through service learning.
8. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Nisigandha Bhuyan, Arunima Chakraborty Overcoming the Fact-Value Dichotomy: Rethinking Business Ethics as a Mediating Discourse
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This paper argues that business ethics would enhance its relevance if it is ceases to be a moralizing discourse and instead becomes a mediating discourse between conflicting and multiple interests. Yet business ethics can be relevant as a mediating discourse only if it acknowledges the “embedded” nature of market. To clarify this point, the paper draws from Freeman’s theory of narrative cores, Rehg’s Problem-based Approach and De George’s vision of business ethics as an interdisciplinary field composed of descriptive, managerial and normative components. Finally, we argue for the relevance of the case study, whose juxtaposition of “bi-polar” or irreconcilable dichotomies makes it a vital pedagogical tool for our proposed reconfiguration of business ethics as an interdisciplinary, mediating field of enquiry.
9. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Tuomas Manninen Reflections on Teaching Philosophy of Censorship
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This paper describes a newly-developed course titled Philosophy of Censorship. Developed out of materials covered in an applied ethics course, this course seeks to improve the students’ understanding about the rights to free expression, and the ways in which these rights are—sometimes necessarily—curtailed in the contemporary society. In studying J. S. Mill’s prominent argument for freedom of thought and expression, the course analyzes the argument for its strength and applicability, when it comes to frequently challenged forms of expression, such as pornography and hate speech. Moreover, the course looks into alternative arguments that aim to safeguard individuals’ right to free speech, including non-consequentialist arguments. The course also strives to keep current with contemporary discussions of freedom of expression and censorship.
10. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Rodrigo Ferreira, Moshe Y. Vardi Computer Ethics and Care: An Activity for Practicing “Deep” Attention
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Following increasing public concern over the ethical and social implications of contemporary technology, computer science departments around the world have recently increased their efforts to incorporate ethics into their educational curriculum. For our redesigned undergraduate course on Computer Ethics at Rice University, in addition to teaching variety of fundamental ethical theories and approaches to technology, we also sought to emphasize the role of “social” technologies in mediating moral relations and to encourage students to consider moral decision-making, rather than as an abstract rational process, as matter of affective care. To help us achieve this educational objective and inspired by the work of artist Jenny Odell, we designed an activity for students to practice focusing “deep” attention both on themselves and others. In this article, we describe in detail our rationale for this activity, report on lessons learned, and discuss potential applications for this activity in regard to the ongoing online teaching environment following the Covid-19 pandemic.
11. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Mimmi Norgren Hansson, Niclas Lindström What can Moral Psychology Contribute to the Understanding of an Ethics of Care?
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The recent development within moral psychology has contributed to change the understanding of how people in general make moral judgements. The results suggest that moral judgements typically involve two cognitive processes, rapid emotional responses and slow acts of rational thinking, where the significance of the latter traditionally has been overemphasized. It is possible to argue that the division in moral psychology has a counterpart in an ethics of care which distinguishes between intuitive acts of natural care and deliberate choices of ethical care. The purpose of this paper is thus to discuss if and how the recent development within moral psychology can be used to understand an ethics of care as a moral pedagogical model. We will argue that the findings in moral psychology can contribute to the interpretation and application of an ethics of care which can benefit the understanding of both theories in an educational context.
book review
12. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Alan A. Preti Markets, Ethics, and Business Ethics
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13. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
John Bevery Moral Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction
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14. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Stephen Scales The Ethics of Pandemics
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15. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1/2
Jessica Roisen Making Education Fit for Democracy
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2018 presidential address
16. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Deborah S. Mower Reflections on . . . Shifting the Educational Narrative
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I describe four different approaches to ethics education that are commonly implemented in Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC) programs: the Case-based, Internalist, Supplementation, and Responsibilist. This typology is useful to categorize the range of institutional practices. As our Society moves into its next twenty years, I consider what we have learned about ethics education and whether we should promote a particular approach. I use a literary resource to shift our perspective and a philosophical resource to introduce a new structure. Using insights from these resources, I offer two proposals. First, I develop a theoretical proposal for an integrated model of ethics education that I call the Comprehensive Ethics Education (CEE) model. Second, I offer two pedagogical proposals for use in quantitative courses and degree programs as well as institution-wide EAC programs.
articles
17. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Michael D. Baumtrog, Hilary Martin, Zahra Vahedi, Sahar Ahadi Is There a Case for Gamification in Business Ethics Education? An Empirical Study
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This study compares two uniquely developed tools for engaging undergraduate business ethics students in case discussions: paper-based (static) cases and interactive digital games. The cases we developed address borderline instances of sexual harassment and racism in the workplace and were used to facilitate students’ affective appreciation of the content of course lectures and readings. The purpose of the study was to assess the relative effectiveness of these two tools as teaching aids in increasing affective learning. Pre- and post-test surveys thus focused on affective learning outcomes. These included change in student perceptions of the importance of the topics, feelings of agency, perceptions of improved self-reliance, and confidence. Results showed that digital cases are at least as effective as static cases in terms of their affective learning efficacy, and that digital serious games spur students to reflect on themselves and others more effectively than static cases.
18. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Esteban Arroyo, James J. Hoffman Hasbro’s Monopoly: The Use of a Board Game to Create a Discussion of Business Ethics
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While many may see the board game “Monopoly” as nothing more than a means of entertainment, it carries with it the potential to be used as an instrument for teaching ethical principles of business. This article makes a case that Monopoly be used to teach business ethics by providing the opportunity for a rich discussion regarding the dangers of concentrated wealth, collusion, and having an end goal that forces you into bankrupting your opponents and becoming the most cutthroat capitalist on the board. Victory is achieved only by the self-serving actions of the individual; attempts at prosperity, generosity, and unity serve only to place the ethically minded player at a disadvantage. The article first provides an overview of the business principles on which Monopoly is based, and then discusses the disconnects between business ethics and winning at Monopoly, and how these disconnects can be used as a teaching tool.
19. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
Susan LeFrancois A Strategy for Meaningful Ethics Curriculum
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Recently, there has been a focus on ethics education in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) and business programs. Scholars, industry representatives, and accreditation bodies have identified ethics education as an element that requires renewed strategies to create better prepared professionals. In this paper, the author argues the importance of educating future technology and business professionals in constructive confrontation, conflict resolution, and creative problem solving. In addition, students need to be provided tools to become self-aware so they can be more assertive in their everyday lives which will lead to more confident decision-making. Ethics curriculum in all fields should provide discussion regarding the normalcy and essential nature of confrontation. Without knowledge and practice of strategy when confrontation is needed, students will be less likely to act when faced with questionable situations in their professional lives. Finally, educational techniques for use in the classroom, such as assignments that promote practice in confrontation and peer mediation, are presented and explained.
20. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 19 > Issue: 2
G. Fletcher Linder, Allison J. Ames, William J. Hawk, Lori K. Pyle, Keston H. Fulcher Teaching Ethical Reasoning: Program Design and Initial Outcomes of Ethical Reasoning in Action, a University-wide Ethical Reasoning Program
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This article presents evidence supporting the claim that ethical reasoning is a skill that can be taught and assessed. We propose a working definition of ethical reasoning as 1) the ability to identify, analyze, and weigh moral aspects of a particular situation, and 2) to make decisions that are informed and warranted by the moral investigation. The evidence consists of a description of an ethical reasoning education program—Ethical Reasoning in Action (ERiA)—designed to increase ethical reasoning skills in a variety of situations and areas of life. ERiA is housed at a public, major comprehensive U.S. university—James Madison University—and assessment of the program focuses on interventions delivered prior to and during orientation for incoming first-year students. Findings indicate that the interventions measurably enhance the ability of undergraduate students to reason ethically. ERiA’s competency-targeted program and positive student learning outcomes offers a promising model for higher education ethics programs seeking to connect classroom learning in ethics to decision-making in everyday life.