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1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Dmytro Bushuyev Crisis of the Consumer Society: Searching for a New Ideology
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The paper “Crisis of the consumer society: searching for a new ideology” studies the ideology of the consumer society and its main tendencies such as values substitution, human self-isolation and loneliness and the dehumanization of the world. Based on the analysis of contemporary mass art and advertisements the author traces the growing gap between the real life of people and the dominating consumerist model of society. The author evaluates different radical movements (nationalist, racial, religious) as people’s attempt to discover their identity, to find genuine feelings and experiences in the consumerist society. This results in the increase of xenophobia and intolerance in the intertwined and fragile modern world. The paper also states the possible solution to this problem – ajoint effort of the philosophers of the world to create a new, nonconsumerism ideology that would be able to overcome the existing detachment among people
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Marina F. Bykova Fichte’s Conception of the Self in Jena Projects of the Wissenschaftslehre
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief sketch of Fichte’s account of the self and discuss it as significant contribution to the modern theory of the selfhood. This discussion focuses on thinkers’ Jena projects of Wissenshaftslehre, including the 1794/95 Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre and Wissensftslehre novo methodo (1796/1797). For Fichte, the Jena period is a time of profound search for the ground and structure of his philosophical system. He finds such ground in a uniquely formulated conception of the self. Furthermore, beginning with the self as a direct intuition and ending with the self as a necessary idea, Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre become an immense description of the development of the selfhood. Providing a conceptual outline of the main points of Fichte’s account of the self, the paper shows it as a unique philosophical result that is key to the emergence of post-Kantian German idealism.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Tao Delin On a Prerequisite Problem of Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy
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Is it possible to sinicize Marxist Philosophy? This is a prerequisite for Marxism localization. Some people answer “no”, because their main arguments are like this: so far, the Marxist Philosophy understood by Chinese is not the real Marxist Philosophy, and it is impossible for Chinese to understand Marxist Philosophy;even though Chinese have understood Marxist Philosophy, they could not sinicize Marxist Philosophy. Thus this paper shall discuss this point. Although Marxist Philosophy has originated from the Western Europe, its visual threshold involves the total human history and overall situation of the world, but not just the WesternEurope. Therefore, it is not a regional theory, but an international theory. Its fundamental principles are not just the generalization of the Western Europe conditions, but the generalization of developing process of the world history. Besides, Chinese distinctiveness does not deny the universality of these fundamental principles. That Chinese Marxists adapt Marxist Philosophy to conditions in China is not to cancel the universality of these fundamental principles by Chinese distinctiveness, but to make detailed analysis on Chinese special conditions taking these fundamental principles as guide; of course it shall include absorbing and drawing upon fruits of all active and reasonable elements in Chinese traditional culture and then arriving at a new conclusion.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Simon Glynn From the Delusion to the Dissolution of the Ego
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Certainly many in “Western” philosophy and psychology have conceived of the human subject in the Cartesian or neo-Cartesian tradition, as a self subsisting, self identical, monadic consciousness or Ego, which is to say as an essentially unchanging, substantial subject, initially isolated or separate from the world and others. On the other hand Buddhist, Taoist, Hindu and other “non-Western” traditions, adopting a more holistic approach, have argued that such a reified,atomistic and hypostatized conception of the self is illusory. However, suggesting that from at least since the time of Hume, and later, in Hegel, there has been an alternative “Western” view of consciousness, self-consciousness and identity, the development of which can be traced through the Phenomenology, Existentialism and Poststructuralism of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Derrida and others, the paper attempts to show how this evolving view may now contribute to a sophisticated and nuanced understanding and confirmation of the wisdom of “non-Western” conceptions.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Anke Haarmann Hybrid Identities: Japanese Concepts of the Self
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Looking at contemporary Japanese images of the self and how Japanese scholars have conceptualised the notion of the subjectivity three remarkable concepts of “the self” can be identified and distinguished from another: the Inner Self, the Political Self, the Social Self. In my paper I will discuss these concepts by high lightening their hybridity, plurality and their emphasis on the identity as an effect of self-realization. I shall argue that the investigation in the Japaneseunderstanding of the self is particularly fruitful for a global understanding of subjectivity, because Japanese selfhood does not represent the “otherness” of the western thought but is actually crisscrossed by western and eastern ideas. What can be marked as the Inner Self combines ideas of the Buddhist “Non-Self” (anatman) and the European Idealistic Ego (Ich). Embedded in practises of meditation the Inner Self in the Japanese understanding is realized through the activity of finding and loosing oneself. The Political Self can be perceived as an amalgamation of the Asian art of the regime of the group and the western thought of Liberalism and personal identity. Somewhat discovered in Japan as a possibility of the self in the 19th century the Political Self comes into existence througheducational practise. Furthermore the Social Self brings together Chinese Confucian ethics and ancient Japanese Shintoism. Understood as a particle in the flow of social relations the Social Self is realized in Japan within the rituals of everyday live and physical hence tactical education in the childhood of a person. The Japanese concepts of the self exemplify on the level of their formal configuration the qualities of what can be called a plural anthropology.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Zinaida Ivanova Ethnic and National Identity in the Context of Mass Migration
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7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Michael Jungert In Memory We Trust?: Philosophical Remarks on the Relation between Memory, Self and Truthfulness
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The common sense regards memory as fairly exact, reliable and trustworthy in the majority of cases. However, latest scientific findings in the fields of psychology and biology seem to object this point of view. According to them, memory appears as a highly constructive and often deceptive phenomenon. These assumptionslead to various philosophical problems. The talk will address some of them. At first the question will be raised which conclusions can be reasonably drawn from empirical findings brought by memory research. Based on this analysis the relation between memory and truth will be examined more closely. Therefore I will ask which concept of truth respectively accuracy could be compatible with a constructive and dynamic character of memory and whether these insights will give rise to a change of our self-concept or the idea of man in general. This requires an inquiry of the relationship between self-concept and (autobiographical) memory that can be illustrated by the case-study of traumatical disorders, a field which so far is stunningly unnoted by philosophy. As a result of these findings some main features and further problems of the anthropological dimension of memory will be outlined.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Igor’ Valer’evich Kochubey To See General Acceleration of Culture’s Living as Fatally Dead-End Appearance
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The author pays attention to the contemporary culture’s two challenges: 1) differentiation; 2) general acceleration. Extrapolation → inevitable impotence of an individual to understand Other/himself. The author’s concept “strictio intervallorum constantiae” expresses the catastrophic accelerated tightening of the temporal distance from the past which has already become obsolete in the essential life relations, indistinct, strange… Two revolutions in time’s feeling: 1) christianization → time’s linearity; 2) strictio intervallorum constantiae → the new experience of time. An extrapolation of the contemporary principial trend of an informationdinamics leads to inevitable impotence of an individual to understand neither Other, neither himself!
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Asokananda Prosad Judging the Superiority
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10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Jan Gerrit Strala Rethinking Individuality: The Self in the Philosophy of Nishida Kitarô and William James
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Kitaro Nishida, a famous Japanese Philosopher and the founder of the Kyoto-School, for the first time in history transformed Zen-Buddhism, which here means especially a Japanese school of Buddhism and whose characteristics consists in its methodological meditation, into a philosophical theory of our existence. On the other hand he transformed western philosophy into a very original form of thought, which at the same time contains oriental elements. As Nishida did the bilateral transformation between western and eastern philosophies, he developed a new perspective on the inquiry concerning the individuality of our personal existence and the relation between Self and the other. In his first Work, “An Inquiry into the good” Nishida examines the characteristics of pure experience, which is not understood from the outside, indirectly, and it is not a passive and static experience like for example in ordinary empiricism. It must be understood as active and creative experience which is experienced from within. In reading Thinkers as Ernst Mach and William James he came to realize that there must be a prereflective, pre-individual, unitary pure experience. This pure experience as ultimate reality on which the individual is based, is systematically self developing and Self-unfolding. In Nishidas understanding the pure experience is the common basis for, and is realized prior, to the distinction between subject and object, the Self and the Other, the Knower and the known. I try to explain how Nishidas approach overcomes this subjectivistic perspective and discuss in which way this standpoint offers a new understanding of the Self and the Other. Abe Masao, Ives Christopher: Translation of “An Inquiry into the Good”, Yale University Press, New Haven and London 1990. S. xviii.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
William L. Wang A New Analysis on Metaphysics and Ontology
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By means of comparison between Lao Tzu’s theory of Tao in ancient China and the concept of metaphysics originated from ancient Greece, the author redefined the concept of “form” and therefore, elaborated the ultimate meaning of metaphysics from its Chinese translation. According to the author’s re-interpretation of Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu had resolved the ontological questions in a different way with that of ancient Greek philosophers, and he had answered the question of “One and Many”. In the past, people had mixed the fact that there are actually two different ones in this question, and hence, metaphysics and ontology had been remained in a confused state. By giving an example in natural science, the author had illustrated clearly what is Tao or natural metaphysics,and then extended the idea to moral metaphysics. As a conclusion, the author suggests that it is better to use a new term to replace the imperfectly defined “metaphysics”, for example, metaformology. Both Metaphysics and Ontology are basic concepts of philosophy. However, in the long history of philosophy, both of them have not yet been adequately defined and therefore, caused controversies. Different philosophers referred to them in many different ways, and this can be easily seen in almost every philosophical dictionary. What is the way to settle it down? This is the purpose of this paper.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Desheng Zong Three Forms of Psychological Discontinuity
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Contemporary philosophers writing on the issue of personal identity agree that, whatever is disputable about fission cases, there is little doubt that, if there could be fission, there would be psychological continuity between the original person and her offshoot (if the branching is one-one), or between the original personand her offshoots (if the branching is one-many). The belief is one with a long history dating back to John Locke; it has, over time, acquired the status of self-evident truth. This paper is not an attempt to refute this deeply rooted belief, though I think the near universal acceptance of it is rather unfortunate. My main goal in what follows is to make an initial case for three forms of psychological discontinuity that I believe would exist between the fission ancestor and the offshoots. If I am right about the existence of the three forms of psychological discontinuity, contemporary Lockeans on the issue of personal identity will need to rethink their position, or so I will argue in the last section of the paper.
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13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Víctor Gómez Pin Anthropological Weight and Physical Irreality of Euclidian Geometry
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Il est tout à fait possible de soutenir que l’espace de Newton manque d’objectivité physique (ce qui est un corollaire de la théorie einsténienne) et néanmoins prendre tout à fait au sérieux la thèse de l’espace euclidien comme condition de possibilité de l’expérience. Condition de possibilité de l’émergence d’un sujet qui configure son monde en remettant tout point de son environnement à une métrique. Cette métrique ne serait autre que celle qui donne sens à la géométrie que l’on a appris à l´école, c’est à dire, la métrique euclidienne. Tout en manquant de réalité physique, tout en n`étant pas fertile à l’heure de rendre compte de la forme de l’univers, la métrique euclidienne serait la seule modalité sous laquelle il y aurait pour l’homme une prise sur le monde. Qu’on l’appelle ou pas transcendantale, la reconnaissance de la métrique euclidienne comme condition de possibilité de l’expérience nous rapprocherait de Kant sans pour autant répudier Einstein ou Poincaré.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Fidel Gutiérrez Vivanco La Identidad, la Diferencia y la Integración de la Humanidad
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The problem of identities and cultural differences constitute one of the global problems of our time. Identity and the differences in human beings are expressed in each individual, in each society and in humanity itself as a species. The differences of individual identities are solved by the integration of the latter inside society. The differences of the social or cultural identities are solved by humanity's integration. Is humanity's integration possible? If it was possible, what are the ontologic foundations for such an integration?, why is humanity integration necessary? To understand the problem of the integration and confront mans imminent self-destruction as species becomes necessary not only to return to the study of nature and the essence human beings but, also of other entities of the universe.
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15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Зинаида Иванова Этническая и национальная идентичность в контексте массовой миграции
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Доклад посвящен проблеме формирования и проявления этнической и национальной идентичности в условиях усиливающейся массовой миграции в современном мире. Отмечается, что идентичность не только мигрантов, но и коренного населения формируется в результате наложения разнообразных культурных влияний, зачастую не совпадающих друг с другом. В зависимости от того, какие культуры воздействуют на человека, и как их воспринимает индивид, складываются разные формы идентичности: бикультурная, «разбитая», маргинальная. Особое психологическое состояние современной личности – кризис идентичностей. Автор различает понятия «этническая» и «национальная»идентичность, имея в виду идентичности двух общностей разного порядка. Этническая идентичность практически не подвержена изменениям, так как коренится в глубинных структурах психики, хотя и приобретается в результате социализации личности. Национальная идентичность связана сотождествлением с нацией – этатистским образованием, состоящим, как правило, из множества этносов. Она также достаточно устойчива, но при определенных условиях может измениться. Вывод автора: некоторые формы идентичности личности эпохи глобализации обладают определеннойгибкостью, подвижностью и изменчивостью.
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Manzura N. Kabulova Проблема человека в западной и восточной цивилизации
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In given clause features of mentality of western and east person are considered. The author comes to opinion that there is a significant difference of outlooks of the people living in the East and the West. The author writes, that features of mentality of the West and the East were affected with features of labour activity, themaintenance of religious and philosophical forms of public consciousness. In the end of clause the author comes to conclusion, that despite of differention of mentality of the East and the West, they are necessary each other as they supplement and rich each other.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
С.А. Нижников Преобразование метафизики в творчестве И. Канта и возможность веры
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The subject of author’s reflection is transformation of metaphysics in creativity of I. Kant and an opportunity of faith on the basis of new existential ontology. It begins from opportunity developing of new metaphysics in the works of Kant and then – Heidegger. There is a problem in understanding of metaphysics inKant’s art. From author’s point of view Kant tried to create a new type of ontology as a real metaphysics that doesn’t destroy the faith if one understands it non-metaphysically. Even more – Kant’s and Heidegger’s new ontology can produce and have already produced a new type of faith understanding. This transcendental and aprioristic faith is the inner essence of different faiths, which objected in religions. Nowadays this faith must be opened and rethought,because it can helps to solve global spiritual problems of mankind. Only real (ontological) and humanistic knowledge can spiritually unite persons and peoples.
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 18
Р.В. Псху Становление суфийского языка в творчестве ан-Ниффари (X в.)
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One of most vivid examples of deep penetration of the Koran in Sufi consciousness which result became original mystical language is The Book of Spiritual Stayings of Muhammad al-Niffari (d. 977), an obscure figure in the history of Islamic Mysticism. As the main intermediaries-obstacles between the God and the person аl-Niffari considers three stages: 1) letter (harf), or Koran, 2) knowledge (ilm), 3) gnosis (ma’rifah). All three, in opinion al-Niffari, represent the veils hiding the God from Sufi. The language of this Book is paradoxical and such paradoxicality shows the abnormal condition of Sufi consciousness and impossibility of expressing his mutual relation with God. Al-Niffari tries to demonstrate that any attempt of verbal expression of Supreme Essence is doomed to failure. The mostcharacteristic of Niffari’s doctrines is the doctrine of waqfah. Waqfah is regarded as the spirit of ma’rifah: whereas ma’rifah sees God and itself also, waqfah sees only God and it is God’s presence. Ma’rifah is the limit of the utterable, but waqfah is beyond the utterable. The Book of Spiritual Stayings may be regarded as an unique interpretation experience of Koran overcoming it as obstacle on the way toward to God. Owing to it the principle of unity of Deity is preserved in its purity.