Cover of Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie
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referate / discours / lectures
101. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Henryk Skolimowski The Ecological Weltanschauung
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The ascent of man was not the ascent of the physical man, not even the ascent of the scientific man, but the ascent of the spiritual man. The creation of Science was a part of the spiritual quest. We have falsified our entire intellectual history, indeed our evolutionary history, by viewing it through the materialist prism: be it empiricism, which insists on reducing all elements of our knowledge to our sensory experience and all the stuff of the universe to its physical basis; or be it economism, which insists on the primacy of the economic modes of life over all other modes.
102. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
S. N. Smirnov Social and Gnosiological Aspects of the Analysis of the Scientific and Technological Revolution /STR/
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The problem of hamessing the modern STR requires philosophical investigation of various levels at which the STR occures. The report deals with the philosophical Problems corresponding to two major levels: the STR in Science-technology System and System of interaction between the STR as a specific scientific-technical process with different processes of modern social life. These problems include social determination of the STR; description of the STR as a special scientific-technical process; scientific revolution as a specific form of scientific change; technological revolution as a peculiar form of technical change; etc.
103. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
I. N. Smirnov, V. A. Choukov Idée de l'evolution dans la Système des représentations théoriques biologiques
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La question, liée au role de l'idée évolutionniste dans le système des représentations théoriques biologique est examinée. L'élaboration de ce problème est définie par la compréhension conceptuelle de l'essence de la vie, par l'objet de la theorie de l'évolution et de la biologie theorique, par les principes philosophiques initiaux. La thèse, selon laquelle, toute théorie biologique doit partir de la notion du monde organique en tant que résultat d’une longue évolution de la vie, est citée; la nécessité de joindre les attitudes historique et théorique dans l'etude des régularités de la nature vivante est montrée.
104. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
V. Sokolov Subject Psychological, Subject Philosophical and Subject Gnoseological
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By the term "subject" an exponent of activity which on the human level becomes a bearer of consciousness and then self-consciousness is unremined. The notions of "suvject" and "object" are maximum generalizations, expressive man's cognitive attitude towards the world. Human consciousness does not merely reflect the world, but creates it too. Reflexion is a necessary precondition of creativity. Both structurally and evolutionary it connects human consciousness with prehistory of his. This regularity is being considered through the three mai senses of the term “subject" as formulated in the title.
105. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
John Somerville Scientific-technological Progress and the New Problem of Preventing the Annihilation of the Human World
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There is increasing danger of annihilating the human race through use of the weapons produced by scientific-technological progress. We can now fully document the fact that a major nuclear power made a deliberate political-military decision in 1962 which it consciously expected would result in ending the whole human world. Subsequently it announced it would not hesitate to be the first to use nuclear weapons if it or its allies were attacked with conventional weapons. The ethical issues involved, and the preventive Steps that could be taken by philosophy, Science and religion are examined.
106. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Manfred Sommer Intentionalität und Narrativität bei Husserl
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Intentionalität als einigendes und kontinuitätsstiftendes Prinzip des Bewußtseins kann die ihr zugemutete Leistung nur vollbringen, wenn sie eine narrative Komponente enthalt. Dem Bewußtsein sind Anfang und Ende des Prozesses, der es selbst ist, nicht zuganglich. Dies wird kompensiert durch die paradigmatische narrative Opposition von Leere und Fülle, die sich syntagmatisch als Prozeß vom leeren Vermeinen zur erfüllten Anschauung entfaltet. Die Umkehrung dieser Opposition erweist jedoch Nähe und Distanz als gleichermaßen und durch einander intendiert und so Intentionalität als Integral von Aneignung und Flucht.
107. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Jan Such Aspects of the Problem of Spatio-temporal Infinity of the World
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Eight problems can be distinquished as far as the question of spatio-temporal infinity of the world is concerned: four problems of cosmological infinity and four Problems of microcosmic infinity. Four problems of cosmological boundlessnes of the Universe correspond to the former four. In the paper I intend to demonstrate how all above problems can be linked/ into six pairs and to justify the thesis that the problem of eternity of the world is identical to the problem of genetic boundlessnes of the Universe. The possibility of solving abovementioned problems is discussed, especially with respect to the problem of eternity.
108. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Peter M. Schuller A Philosophical Approach to the Science of Wealth
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Only a social dynamic which has survival vaiue can be called wealthy. The Law of Diminishing Returns requires that increased labor skill is necessary for simple social reproduction. But this depletes historically-defined resources faster. Therefore such a dynamic is insufficient for indefinite survival. Wealth is therefore to be understood as a dynamic in which laboring skill level increases at a rate which at least tends to increase its rate of increase.
109. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
G.M. Tawrisjan Unmittelbarkeit der Sinnlichkeit und Rationalität der Erkenntnis: Zur Kritik des französischen Existentialismus
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Die "Unentfremdbarkeit" der Beziehung des Menschen zur Umwelt verknüpfen die Existentialisten mit seiner Interpretation der Sinnesdaten. Vordergründig ist bei ihnen die Empfindung, die Wahrnehmung, das Verhältnis des Subjekts zum eigenen Korper. Die Beziehung des sozialen Individuums zu sich selbst spiegelt wider, inwieweit die gegebene Gesellschaft fähig ist, sich zum Menschen wie zu einem konkreten Individuum zu verhalten.
110. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Elfriede Walesca Tielsch The Actual Power of the Scientifically Justified Norms
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The period of enlightenment, in an enormous world-wide experiment once more tried to only "deduce" norms, by simply teaching Science. Empirical antiquity, in contrast to this Platonic-Aristotelean concept, already realised, that only special mental faculties, as fore-sight or possibility-choice, adequately transform scientific knowledge into corresponding norms of behavior, and consequently instituted separate teaching-processes for the induction of scientific laws or "convictions". Even such scientifically justified values, however, can never compete with the fascination and power of the "ready-made" mere customs, moral commandments, religions or ideologies of all times.
111. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Alexandre Tsvetkov Idee sur l'univers et la symmétrie
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Cet exposé est une tentative d'examiner l'evolution des idées sur l'Univers issues des connaissances obtenues sur la symétrie. A la suite de l'analyse se révèlent quelques fonctions conceptuelles, gnoséologiques, euristiques de la symétrie. II y est émis une hypothèse sur la possibilité de décrire l'évolution de la matière sur la base des conceptions de symétrie reflétant la symétrie de la nature.
112. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
A. D. Ursul Man and the Universe: the Concept of Anthropogeocosmism
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Alternative world views which make an absolute of space exploration either as a positive or negative phenomenon (astronautical optimism versus cosmophobia) are considered. The concept of "anthropogeocosmism", a transition from the traditional "anthropogeocentrism" to "anthropocosmism", is opposed to these doctrines. "Anthropocosmism" reflects the emergence of the Man - Earth - Universe System in a scientific world view, Sponsoring accelerating scientific-technical and social progress on Earth, and optimizing the terrestrial and cosmic activities for the benefit of man.
113. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Nermi Uygur Logische Vieldimensionalität der wissenschaftlichen Begründbarkeit der moralischen Normen
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Aus logischer Sicht läßt sich grundsätzlich eine dreidimensionale Begründbarkeit der moralischen Normen durch die Wissenschaften feststellen: (1) eine strenge Verbindung der Identität oder Deduktion; (2) eine Verbindungsabwesenheit; (3) eine begrenzte Verbindung. Die letzte Begründungsrelation erweist sich logisch wie realiter als erfolgreich. Sie ist unter anderem nicht abstrakt, starr und einseitig, sondern vielmehr konkret, elastisch und gegenseitig; sie führt zu einem Netz beweglicher und offener Verbindungen; sie ist immer neu zu diskutieren und in kritischen Situationen auszubessern.
114. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
María Teresa Ventura Capilla Le problème de l'objectivité dans la Norme Morale
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Le philosophe, devant la réalité de la norme morale, doit s'égaler à ce quelle même lui montre: sa vrai entité.Si bien que le problème de la connaissance objective de la norme morale se complique par l'identification ent re sujet et objet, celui-ci n'implique pas l'inexistance d'une norme morale universelle. Le premier fondament de la veracité de la norme morale, est, comme c'est de même pour toute autre réalité, l'etre nécessaire. Cette affirmation implique une posture téocentrique devant la réalité.La norme morale est la concordance de la conduite humaine avec des exigences de sa nature. Charue homme peut se perfectionner suivant la norme universelle de conduite, mais se singularisant dans la maniére libre de le faire.
115. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Lajos Vereczkei Philosophy and Natural Sciences as Basic Conditions for the Study of the Mind
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The author attempts to form his thesis in exploring the dojective mechanisms of the functions of the mind. He Claims that two preconditions are necessary to achieve this aim: one is to possess an adequate philosophical concept, the other is to keep Controlling and concretizing this on the basis of new data yielded by the results of multidisciplinary research in natural Sciences. He first explains the main points of the marxian concept about the human consciousness, then deals with so me data of modern neurophysiological and behavioral Sciences about classical and instrumental conditioning, reinforcement, motivation and arousal reaction.
116. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
P. I. Visir Les notions scientifiques comme formes de generalisation
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L'article analyse en bref la nature et les fonctions d'un groupe particulier de notions, nommées "notions scientifiques générales". Cituées sur une position intermédiaire ent re les catégories philosophiques et les notions des scieces speciales, les notions scientifiques générales constituent, selon l'auteur, un des canaux qui réalisent la liaison ent re la conception du monde et la science, ent re la philosophie et la recherche concrète. Dans ce rôle, elles exercent toute une série de fonctions, dont l'auteur détache celles généralisatrice et methodologique.
117. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Jan H. Vogeler Produktionsverhältnisse oder Interaktionen
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Die wissenschaftliche Soziologie deckt in den Produktionsverhältnissen die ökonomische Basis der jeweiligen Gesellschaft, ihres politischen, ideologischen Überbaues auf. Die von J. Habermas vorgeschlagene "Rekonstruktion des Historischen Materialismus", die auf einer Ersetzung der Kategorie Produktionsverhältnisse durch den Begriff "Interaktion" aufbaut, bedeutet einen Rückfall zu vorwissenschaftlichen Konzeptionen der bürgerlichen Soziologie.
118. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
D. A. Volcogonov Scientific and Technological Progress and Problems of War and Peace
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Scientific and technological progress, its social consequences establish the material and, to some extent, spiritual prerequisits for eliminating wars from life of society. Whatever the difference in their world outlook, representatives of various schools of philosophy can make a positive contributfon to the solution of the main problem of today, the problem of war and peace.
119. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Yuk Wong The Impact of Modern Science on Traditional Chinese Ethics
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Early Confucians thought that man, co-creator of the universe organized a trio or triad with Heaven and Earth. Astronomy tends to reduce human importance. Mencius the second Confucian sage characterized man with inherent, transcendental moral reason in absolute contrast with animal devoid of autonomous conscience with categorical imperative. But Darwin stressed the continuity between man and animal. Dependence on transcendental affection is regarded as stupid; religious piety, overwhelmed by rationalized filial devotion. Psychoanalysis resolves generation-struggles, medicine justifies birth-control and humanitarian killing.
120. Der 16. Weltkongress für Philosophie: Volume > 3
Andrew N. Woznicki Contemporary Humanism and Technological Crisis
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In the consciousness of the contemporary man there is an ambiguous attitude towards technology, which leads either to ecstatic fascination with his unlimited possibilities, or to a deep traumatic uncertainty as to the future existence of man. The hope of mastering the world by technological means turned to despair, as man became aware of his inability to control the technological progress. Man can overcome his tragic Situation only through the spiritual rebirth of all mankind. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate and analyze the tragic vision of today's man as portrayed by Contemporary writers and thinkers.