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Displaying: 21-40 of 40 documents


book reviews
21. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 3
Mary Evelyn Tucker Earth’s Insights: A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback
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22. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 3
Michael Welsh In the Nature of Things: Language, Politics, and the Environment
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23. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 3
Paul A. Trout Living within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos
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news and notes
24. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
NEWS AND NOTES
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features
25. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Judith N. Scoville Value Theory and Ecology in Environmental Ethics: A Comparison of Rolston and Niebuhr
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The objective of Holmes Rolston, III’s writings has been the development of an “ecologically formed” environmental ethics based both on environmental values and ecological description. I show how recasting Rolston’s value theory in terms of H. Richard Niebuhr’s relational value theory can clarify and strengthen this project. Niebuhr developed a theory of value in which value is found in relationships and value systems are constructed in relation to centers of value. Niebuhr’s contextual method, with which Rolston’s methodology has substantial affinity, is particularly open to the use of such sciences as ecology. I conclude that this recasting of Rolston’s important work in terms of relational value and contextual method can clarify the use of ecology in ethics (including the is/ought dichotomy) and can contribute to ethical reflection on such difficult problems as the spotted owl controversy.
26. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Brian K. Steverson Contextualism and Norton’s Convergence Hypothesis
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Toward Unity among Environmentalists is Bryan Norton’s most developed effort to surmount the frequently intractable debate between anthropocentrists and nonanthropocentrists. Norton argues that the basic axiological differences between the two positions have become irrelevant at the level of policy formation. His thesis is that the two camps converge when dealing with practical goals and aims for environmental management. I argue that Norton’s approach falls significantly short of establishing such a convergence because of the overall methodological framework for policy formation that he defends. The key problem with that framework is that it fails to provide for the degree of species protection most suitable to the nonanthropocentrist position.
27. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Deborah Slicer Is There an Ecofeminism–Deep Ecology “Debate”?
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I discuss six problems with Warwick Fox’s “The Deep Ecology–Ecofeminism Debate and Its Parallels” and conclude that until Fox and some other deep ecologists take the time to study feminism and ecofeminist analyses, only disputes—not genuine debate—will occur between these two parties. An understanding of the six issues that I discuss is a precondition for such a debate.
discussion papers
28. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Leslie Paul Thiele Nature and Freedom: A Heideggerian Critique of Biocentric and Sociocentric Environmentalism
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A reformulation of our understanding of freedom is required if we are adequately to confront the environmental crisis. Engaging the debate between biocentric ecologists and sociocentric ecologists, I argue that the biocentric effort to ascribe rights (negative liberty) to nature is misbegotten. In turn, I suggest that the sociocentric effort to seek ecological realignment through the extension of human reason (positive liberty) is equally problematic. Martin Heidegger, who rejects both “negative” and “positive” notions of liberty, offers an understanding of human freedom that constitutes an ecologically attuned alternative.
29. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
James P. Sterba From Biocentric Individualism to Biocentric Pluralism
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Drawing on and inspired by Paul Taylor’s Respect for Nature, I develop a view which I call “biocentric pluralism,” which, I claim, avoids the major criticisms that have been directed at Taylor’s account. In addition, I show that biocentric pluralism has certain advantages over biocentric utilitarianism (VanDeVeer) and concentric circle theories (Wenz and Callicott).
30. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Wim J. van der Steen The Demise of Monism and Pluralism in Environmental Ethics
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Peter Wenz has recently distinguished various forms of moral pluralism in an effort to dissolve the controversy over monism and pluralism. I argue that the distinctions are not really helpful once the methodology and the substance of science are brought to bear on ethics. Theories in ethics and science alike are subject to context-dependent methodological trade-offs. Hence, the category of theories should be heterogeneous. Monism and pluralism are at cross-purposes since they endorse different unanalyzed notions of theory. Awareness of heterogeneity among theories is helpful in dismissing the controversy.
book reviews
31. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 2
Harold Glasser Caring for Creation: An Ecumenical Approach to the Environmental Crisis
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news and notes
32. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
NEWS AND NOTES
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features
33. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
L. M. Benton Selling the Natural or Selling Out?
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In the twenty years since the first Earth Day, the environmental movement has become increasingly “commercialized.” In this paper, I examine why many environmental organizations now offer an array of products through catalogs and magazines, or manage stores and outlets. In part one, I explore some of the economic and political influences during the 1970s and 1980s that resulted in increased organizational sophistication and an increased production of environmental products. The part two, I explore the “commercialization” of environmentalism from two angles. First, in terms of a deconstructionist critique of the system of commodities and image, I demonstrate that when environmental organizations partake in this consumer culture, they actually reproduce precisely the values and institutions that they criticize. Second, from a “constructionist” perspective, I argue that environmental products can re-enchant or reconnect people with nature, and thus can help change cultural attitudes about human-naturerelationships. I conclude that environmental products are contradictory because environmental merchandise is juxtaposed uneasily between environmental ideological rhetoric and material ambition. Environmental organizations must recognize this ambiguity before they can deal with the problem effectively.
34. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Gus Di Zerega Individuality, Human and Natural Communities, and the Foundations of Environmental Ethics
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An ecologically informed view of ethics focuses upon individuals considered in relation to the communities within which they live. Such a view holds that ethics is rooted in the fundamental relationships characterizing particular types of communities. From this perspective, the different communities of the polity, family, and ecosystem superficially appear to have very different ethical systems. In fact, however, all are characterized by respect for community members. Respect is the fundamental ethical insight. This view suggests a way of harmonizing modern society’s relationship with the natural world and of bringing ethical theory into closer harmony with humankind’s most timeless insights.
35. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
William C. French Against Biospherical Egalitarianism
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Arne Naess and Paul Taylor are two of the most forceful proponents of the principle of species equality. Problematically, both, when adjudicating conflict of interest cases, resort to employing explicit or implicit species-ranking arguments. I examine how Lawrence Johnson’s critical, species-ranking approach helpfully avoids the normative inconsistencies of “biospherical egalitarianism.” Many assume species-ranking schemes are rooted in arrogant, ontological claims about human, primate, or mammalian superiority. Species-ranking, I believe, is best viewed as a justified articulation of moral priorities in response to individuals’ or entities’ relative ranges of vulnerability and need, rooted in their relative ranges of capacities and interests.
discussion papers
36. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Deane Curtin Making Peace with the Earth: Indigenous Agriculture and the Green Revolution
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Since its inception in the years following World War II, the green revolution has been defended, not just as a technical program designed to alleviate world hunger, but on moral grounds as a program to achieve world peace. In this paper, I dispute the moral claim to a politics of peace, arguing instead that the green revolution is warist in its treatment of the environment and indigenous communities, and that the agricultural practices that the green revolution was designed to supplant—principally indigenous women’s agriculture—are forms of ecological peacemaking, akin to pacifism. I argue, as well, that the warist intentions of the green revolution are characteristic of a form of domination called developmentalism. A complete understanding of domination necessitates linking developmentalism with other forms of domination such as racism, sexism, and naturism.
37. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Catriona Sandilands From Natural Identity to Radical Democracy
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Environmentalism is traversed by a dilemma between a movement toward identity politics and the impossibility of a speaking natural subject; this dilemma calls into question both the relevance of identity politics for ecological struggle and dominant classical constructions of the subject itself. Using Lacanianinspired insights on subjectivity, and the works of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe on radical democracy, I investigate the alternative versions of the subject implicit in ecological discourses and suggest that it is through these alternatives that environmentalism can forge necessary alliances with other movements oriented toward human liberation. In particular, the very impossibility of a natural speaking subject suggests that the ecological project of redefining humanity’s relationships to nonhuman nature(s) is always contingent on reorienting human subjectivity itself; this fact highlights the centrality of political coalition between ecological and other social movements.
38. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
Daniel P. Thero Rawls and Environmental Ethics
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The original position contractarian model of ethical reasoning put forth by John Rawls has been examined as a basis for an environmental ethic on three previous occasions in this journal and in Peter Wenz’s Environmental Justice. In this article, I critically examine each of these treatments, analyzing the proposals offered and identifying their shortcomings. I find a total of seven different proposals in this literature for modifying Rawls’ theory to augment its adequacy or as a ground environmental ethics. The diverse difficulties that arise in attempting to apply Rawls suggest the conclusion that Rawlsian ethics may not be a suitable foundation for an adequate long-term environmental ethics.
book reviews
39. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
John F. Disinger Education and the Environment: Learning to Live with Limits
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40. Environmental Ethics: Volume > 17 > Issue: 1
James Hatley The Middle Voice of Ecological Conscience
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