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aufklärung, erziehung, kunst und religion in fichtes bildtheorie
21. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Eduardo Ralickas La Doctrine de la science à l’usage des artistes
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This paper addresses some of the figurative properties of Fichte’s philosophical discourse. In many texts from the so-called Spätphilosophie the WL is depicted as an »image of knowing«. In keeping with this idea, the author examines how figure and discourse are inextricably bound up in the space of Fichtean philosophy. The 1794 lectures Concerning the Difference Between the Sprit and the Letter Within Philosophy are particularly telling in this respect, for they foreground metaphor as the necessary vehicle for philosophical expression. Thus, Fichtean philosophy, understood both as discourse (in the sense of pragmatic linguistics) and as »material image«, openly embraces figural modes of knowing, for knowing itself is fundamentally an imagistic activity. In the final analysis, Fichte’s discourse does not separate concept and figure, philosophy and metaphor; instead, it opens up philosophy to the space of the figural – a space from which it ultimately stems and which constitutes the medium of the Wissenschaftslehre as such. In closing, the author reconsiders one of Fichte’s most striking metaphors, i.e., philosophy as Eucharist, in order to shed new light on a famous portrait of Fichte from 1812. He argues that the latter sustains in painterly form a meditation on the place of the figurative in philosophical discourse.Cet article est consacré à la question de la figurabilité du discours philosophique chez Fichte. La WL, on le sait grâce aux textes de la Spätphilosophie, incarne ce que Fichte appelle en 1812 l’»image du savoir«. Cet énoncé constitue le point de départ de notre réflexion sur les liens entre figure et discours dans la philosophie fichtéenne. À la lumière de quelques énoncés métaphilosophiques incontournables pour l’intelligence de la WL nous envisageons, dans un premier temps, le rôle de la métaphore dans l’enseignement fichtéen. Nous démontrons que la philosophie fichtéenne, entendue comme discours (au sens de la linguistique pragmatique) et comme »image matérielle«, doit épouser les traits d’une figure afin qu’on puisse la transmettre à autrui. Ainsi, loin de séparer concept et figure, philosophie et image, le dispositif fichtéen ouvre au contraire l’espace de la philosophie sur l’espace figural dont il est issu et qui en constitue le véritable médium. Dans un deuxième temps, en revenant sur une des métaphores les plus prégnantes dans le discours de Fichte, à savoir la philosophie comme Eucharistie, nous proposons l’analyse d’un célèbre portrait de Fichte qui n’a pas encore reçu l’attention philosophique qui lui revient et qui constitue, selon notre hypothèse, une réflexion inédite sur la figurabilité du discours en philosophie.
22. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Jürgen Stahl Zeit der Bilder und Bilder der Zeit – Fichtes Religionskritik in ideologiekritischer Perspektive
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In the framework of his religion and social criticism, Fichte expounds noteworthy approaches to ideological criticism. When it apparently comes to the belief in the autonomous content of consciousness, he calls into question the truth of it (revelation, miracle), he deciphers the social practices which are connected with it in their function as the rules in terms of social caste. Thereby, based on a subject producing law and order, he works against any duality of a divine and an earthly world. For him there exists only the earthly world in which man has to prove himself. The different forms of consciousness connected with it are understood as moments of reason which come into themselves, as “material for the imagining of one’s life of convenience”. They are manifested in a process of awareness of the imagination which constructs the world. However, they are not unfamiliar, passive reflections streaming into the subject, but are formed through an effect resulting from inseparable interweaving of these actions in malleable images. While Fichte tries to give reasons for social-emancipatorial hopes in faith or knowledge of transcendental reason, they become evidence of a dimension looking beyond the religious form; in the process of forming an image, the subjectivity passes beyond it’s inward nature, bringing knowledge and life into communion.Fichte entfaltet im Rahmen seiner Religions- und Sozialkritik bemerkenswerte ideologiekritische Ansätze. Wo es um scheinbar autonome Bewusstseinsinhalte im Glauben geht, stellt er deren Wahrheit in Frage (Offenbarung, Wunder), dechiffriert er die sich damit verbindenden sozialen Praktiken in ihrer Funktion im ständischen Herrschaftsgefüge. Dabei setzt er auf ein Gesetz und Ordnung hervorbringendes Subjekt, damit jeglicher Verdoppelung in eine himmlische und eine irdische Welt entgegen arbeitend. Für ihn gibt es einzig die irdische Welt, in der sich der Mensch bewähren muss. Die sich damit verbindenden unterschiedlichen Bewusstseinsformen werden als Momente einer zu sich kommenden Vernunft, als »Materialien zum Bilde des Einen Vernunftlebens« gefasst. Es manifestiert sich damit ein Bewusstwerden der die Welt konstituierenden Bilder. Diese sind jedoch keine dem Subjekt fremde, passiv auf ihn einströmende Ab-Bilder, sondern als in dessen Wirken formierte, folglich in dessen Tun untrennbar verwobene, bildbare Bilder. Indem Fichte im Religiösen sozial-emanzipatorische Hoffnungen rational zu begründen sucht, tritt im Glauben an bzw. Wissen um die transzendentale Vernunft eine Dimension hervor, die uber die Religionsform hinaus weist: Im Vorgang des Bildens überschreitet die Subjektivität ihre Innerlichkeit, bringt sie Wissen und Leben zur Einheit.
23. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Elena Alessiato Fichte im Wilhelminischen Reich: Idealisiertes Bild, patriotische Vorbildhaftigkeit und nationale Bildung
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In Germany at the turn of the 20th century the interest in Fichte’s philosophy was growing remarkably.This phenomenon has to be considered as a part of a broader “German movement”, i. e. a collective cultural trend aiming at pinpointing what had been properly “German” in the last two centuries. This need became even more acute by the outbreak of the Great War.In that context Fichte’s work was used as a benchmark for creating and elaborating on the myth of “the German character.” Many intellectuals of that time interpreted Fichte’s personality and thought as representing ideas, ethical values, spiritual positions, cultural attitudes and political stances which accounted for the specificity of “Germanness”. Since these ideas and values were believed to be particular to the German culture, Fichte was celebrated all across the nation as an exemplary German.Harkening back to contemporary sources the following paper aims to illustrate how Fichte’s image was moulded in order to meet needs and issues emerging from the War and its philosophical-ideological interpretations. At the same time it suggests that the “Fichte case” from the beginning of the 20th century can be interpreted as a paradigmatic example of how philosophical and cultural issues can be ideologically (mis-) interpreted and used to give support to a particular political view.Die Jahrzehnte um die Jahrhundertwende erlebten im wilhelminischen Deutschland eine starke Zunahme des Interesses an der Philosophie Fichtes.Die kollektive Begeisterung für Fichte lässt sich auf der Folie einer ‚deutschen Bewegung‘ betrachten, deren Ziel die Suche nach dem eigentumlichen ‚Deutschen‘ in den letzten zwei Jahrhunderten war. Diese Suche intensivierte sich noch mit dem Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkrieges.In diesem Zusammenhang wurde Fichtes Denken zu einem Bezugspunkt fur die Ausarbeitung des Mythos von der Besonderheit des deutschen Wesens. Viele Intellektuelle zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts und während der Kriegszeit wollten Fichte als Vorbild einer Persönlichkeit sehen, die edle Ideale, anspruchsvolle Vorstellungen, deutschen Geist und starken Willen vertrat gegenüber einer geistlosen, ethisch verdorbenen Welt, gegen ein intellektualisiertes Leben und die ‘zivilisierte Un-Kultur’ der modernen Menschheit.Im Bezug auf die Verflechtung von philosophischen Begriffen, idealisierter Kriegsvergeistigung, patriotischem Glauben und Willen nach nationaler Bildung setzt sich das Paper zum Ziel die Vorbildhaftigkeit, die Fichte damals zugeschrieben wurde, zur Darstellung zu bringen und quellenmäßig zu analysieren. Der ‚Fall Fichte‘ wird aber zugleich als historisch kontextualisiertes Erlebnisbeispiel des Ineinanderfließens von kulturellen Überhöhungen und politischen Anforderungen betrachtet: ein exemplarischer Fall vom ideologischen (Miss-) Verständnis des Geistigen.
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24. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Jelscha Schmid »Es ist so, weil ich es so mache.« Fichtes Methode der Konstruktion
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In this paper I develop an account of Fichte’s conception of philosophical construction. Following the latter’s definition of philosophy as the ‘science of science’, philosophy is to be understood as a normative theory of what should qualify as science. In order to ground scientific knowledge-production as such, philosophy itself has to acquire a scientific method, through the application of which the constitution of scientific knowledge is secured. In systematic continuity to Kant’s account of geometrical construction, Fichte develops a philosophical method that exploits the special epistemic conditions of performativity. Construction is then defined as an experimental, self-reflexive performance that exemplifies consciousness. Throughout its acts of exemplification this reflexive kind of self-observation yields a particular type of experience, which ultimately satisfies the Science of Knowledge’s demand for certainty, that is intellectual intuition.Der vorliegende Aufsatz zeichnet Fichtes Verständnis der philosophischen Methode der Konstruktion nach. Folgend aus seiner Bestimmung der Philosophie als ‘Wissenschaft der Wissenschaft’ ergibt sich als deren Gegenstand das Wesen des Wissens selbst; Wissenschaftslehre als normative Wissenschaftstheorie bestimmt, was als wissenschaftlicher Bezug auf Welt gelten darf und stellt diesen zugleich sicher. Philosophie als Wissenschaft thematisiert also gerade die Natur jenes ausgezeichneten epistemischen Bezugs. Seine Sicherstellung erfolgt über eine Ausweisung der Wissenschaftlichkeit des philosophischen Verfahrens selbst, der Konstruktion. In systematischer Kontinuität zu Kants Beschreibung der geometrischen Konstruktion entwickelt Fichte eine philosophische Methode, welche sich die speziellen epistemischen Bedingungen des Selbst-Handelns zunutze macht. Konstruktion wird schließlich als experimenteller, selbstreflexiver Vollzug der Exemplifikation von Bewusstsein bestimmt. Dieses reflektierende Selbstbeobachten im Akt der Exemplifikation wiederum führt zu einer spezifischen Form von Erfahrung, welche ihrerseits der Wissenschaftslehre die geforderte Gewissheit verleiht: der intellektuellen Anschauung.
25. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Harald Munster Bedeutung als Problem: Fichtes Beitrag zur Begründung einer Philosophie der Sprache
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This essay presents the fundamental problem of the meaningfulness of language, which is explained by the structure of linguistic signs itself and afterwards solved by Fichte’s theorem of pure will from the “Doctrine of Science nova methodo”. In this respect, Fichte’s philosophy can make an essential contribution to the foundation of a philosophy of language.Der vorliegende Aufsatz nimmt seinen Ausgang vom grundsätzlichen Problem der Bedeutungsfähigkeit der Sprache. Dieses wird auf die Struktur sprachlicher Zeichen selbst zurückgefuhrt, um es anschließend mithilfe von Johann Gottlieb Fichtes Theorem des reinen Willens aus der „Wissenschaftslehre nova methodo“ aufzulösen. Auf diese Weise kann Fichtes Philosophie einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Begründung einer Philosophie der Sprache leisten.
26. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Marco Dozzi The Problem of the Unconscious in Fichte’s Later Jena Wissenschaftslehre
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This essay argues for the applicability and importance of the notion of the unconscious (in the limited sense of any form of mental activity of which one is not or cannot be aware) in Fichte’s Jena period, with a focus on the ,second’ Wissenschaftslehre (1796–99). The essay begins by arguing for the existence of a fundamental tension in Fichte’s philosophy: namely, between a ,transcendence’ principle – that the conditions for consciousness cannot themselves be present within experience, since they ground that experience – and an ,immanence’ principle that there is no genuine reality outside of consciousness. It is shown that this tension is particularly evident if one observes some of the conflicting ways in which Fichte employs the notions of ,intellektuelle Anschauung’ and ,unmittelbares Bewusstsein.’ Fichte seems to violate the immanence principle especially insofar as he characterizes the conditions of the possibility of consciousness as a series of ,actions,’ which, qua actions, must be ,real’ in some sense: insofar as they are both real and not present to consciousness, it is argued, they must be unconscious. Although Fichte does not wholly embrace the notion of unconscious mental activity due to his adherence to the immanence principle, his conception of the ,two series’ of the Wissenschaftslehre as well as some of his uses of the notion of ,unmittelbares Bewusstsein’ in particular allow the recognition that Fichte has a rich but inchoate conception of the unconscious.
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27. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Gérard Raulet Elena Alessiato: Lo spirito e la maschera. La ricezione politica di Fichte in Germania nel tempo della Prima Guerra Mondiale
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28. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Martin Wilmer Patrick Tschirner: Totalitat und Dialektik: Johann Gottlieb Fichtes späte Wissenschaftslehre oder die lebendige Existenz des Absoluten als sich selbst bildendes Bild
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29. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 48
Laurent Guyot Jacinto Rivera de Rosales Chaćon: Fichte. La liberté est le fondement de la connaissance et de la morale (Apprendre à philosopher)
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30. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Vorwort der Herausgeber
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31. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Beiträgerverzeichnis
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der bildbegriff in der entwicklung des fichteschen denkens
32. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Diogo Ferrer Die Entwicklung der Wissenschaftslehre und die Entstehung der Theorie des Bildes in der ersten Fassung von 1804
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Four points are discussed in this paper. 1: A long lasting issue in the WL. This point tries to show that the WL in its different versions contains a demonstration of incompleteness as a necessary condition of human consciousness and forms of knowledge. The necessary form of the system of human experience is conditioned by the impossibility of a purely conceptual explanation of human knowing. 2.1: From the Grundlage to the Nova methodo. This point explains the main errors in the exposition of the Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre, which led to the conception of the WL Nova methodo. 2.2: From the Nova methodo to the Exposition of 1801/1802. The main changes in the exposition of the WL 1801/1802 are discussed in the light of the new philosophical challenges from 1799 onwards. 2.3: The emergence of the Image theory in the first WL of 1804 is addressed in the last point. In accordance with the point 1 above, it is finally shown that Fichte’s Theory of image is both a transformed critical and transcendental philosophy, and an answer to questions raised in the preceding development of the WL.
33. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Valentin Pluder Du sollst Dir ein Bild von mir machen, um es zu überwinden: Zur Vermittlung von Absolutem Wissen und gewöhnlichem Wissen am Ende der WL 1804-II
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The Wissenschaftslehre 1804-ii does not end with absolute knowledge in the 25th lecture, because this absolute knowledge is as sealed off from the common knowledge as the Absolute itself in the 15th lecture was. As matters stand in the 25th lecture the Wissenschaftslehre can neither meet its own claim to unify all knowledge in one system nor can the genesis of the absolute knowledge, which had to begin with common knowledge, be understood by means of the Wissenschaftslehre itself. The problem in linking absolute knowledge and common knowledge is that, on the one hand, absolute knowledge is hermetically closed. Therefore, nothing and especially not common knowledge can derive or result from it. On the other hand, absolute knowledge is not supposed to depend on anything but the Absolute itself. Therefore, it cannot be understood adequately as a condition for common knowledge. Fichte’s solution to this problem is to differentiate between the genesis of absolute knowledge and absolute knowledge itself. Common knowledge is necessary only for the genesis of absolute knowledge. However, the validity of the common knowledge depends on the pursuit of the absolute knowledge.
34. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Ives Radrizzani De la gestion des fantômes du nihilisme. La réponse de la Destination de l’homme
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The accusation of Nihilism, which Jacobi expressed in his Letter to Fichte, marks a caesura in Fichte’s production. Reputed to be the paradigmatical representantive of a philosophical tradition letting any reality dissolve in a simple game of shadows, Fichte sees himself constrained to clarify the status of the image in his system. This paper aims to examine the strategy to which he has recourse in the Destination of Man, in order to find an answer to the attack.
35. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Christian Klotz Leben – Bild – Besonnenheit: Die Überwindung der idealistischen Erklärungsart in Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre 1810
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Also in the latest versions of the Science of Knowledge Fichte considers explanation of the structure of consciousness a central task of philosophy. In his late explanation of consciousness, the concepts of life and image (or schema) play a central role – two concepts that in Fichte’s account are inseparable and mutually elucidate each other. By interpreting the 1810 Science of Knowledge and Fichte’s introductory lecture The facts of Consciousness from 1810/11, this article aims to show that the pair of concepts “life” and ‘image’ occur on two different theoretical levels in Fichte’s late philosophy: first, in the formulation of a view of consciousness that Fichte characterizes as ‘idealist’ and that he considers to be in continuity with Kant’s transcendental philosophy; and, second, in the exposition of the conception of consciousness as an image of a non-constructible absolute that goes beyond the idealist explanation without, however, denying its validity within its own sphere. The second step, which occupies the major part of the 1810 Science of Knowledge, can be understood as Fichte’s late reply to Jacobi’s critique of the Science of Knowledge as a ‘nihilism’. Its final step is the introduction of the concept of ‘sober- mindedness’, in the sense of a self-interpretation of moral consciousness which goes beyond any constructible content. The concluding part of the article interprets and discusses the conception of sober-mindedness as involving Fichte’s final reply to Jacobi’s criticism.
36. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Manuel Jimenez-Redondo Sein, Existenz und Bild in der Philosophie des späten Fichte
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The late Fichte transforms transcendental philosophy into ontology, without transcendental philosophy ceasing to be transcendental philosophy. The center of his philosophy is no longer the transcendental self, but rather concepts like existence, light, image, from which the transcendental self can be derived. Against dogmatism, for which being is to be considered as an absolute fact, Fichte tries to show that being can be deduced and explained from the light, and that means: from transcendental freedom. Whatever exists is made from the substance of appearance, from the substance of visibility and light, from the material of the image. But the appearance, the image, the light, can only derive their creative power from the fact that they are (in absolute terms) the existence of the Absolute. And precisely at this point, under the idea that only the Absolute is, Fichte has repeatedly to cope with the question of the relation between the being-character of this substance and the being-character of the Absolute. Against his reiterated attempts to proceed this way, the difference between being and existence can not so easily be traced back to the concept of an absolute Being, in whose inner essence lies the fact that nothingness becomes itself an ‘apparent something’ (the world), against the background of which, and by which, the Absolute cannot be, and cannot be understood, except as absolute.
37. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Marco Ivaldo Bilden als transzendentales Prinzip nach der Wissenschaftslehre
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In my contribution i would like to consider a thesis of Reinhard Lauth, according to which Fichte’s Doctrine of Science must be properly characterized as theory of the Bilden (formation), as “Bildenslehre”. In his late Berlin lectures Fichte understands Wissen (knowledge), in its actuality, as “Bild” (image). Knowledge is image and identifies itself as an image. The image as such shows a reflective and relational structure. The image presents an essential self-reflexivity and does not exist in isolation, but is a relationship to something else which Fichte designates as being, life, light, one, God. The basic idea of Fichte is that we have access to reality (to being) only through the image and in it, within a transcendental unity of being and thinking that must be conceived not as a fact (Tatsache), but as an act (Tathandlung). The term and concept Bilden (formation) expresses well the dynamic and active nature characteristic of the image. i try to explain this on the basis of certain passages of the Doctrine of Science of 1804 (second exposition).
38. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Joao Geraldo Martins da Cunha The Concept of the Image in the Berlin Lectures on Transcendental Logic
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In the present paper, i propose, first, to present some aspects of what we may call a type of "phenomenology" of the image contained in the Berlin lectures on transcendental logic – notably, in the second of these courses in Berlin. Second, i would like to return to the problem of the relationship between logic and philosophy, starting from these indications with regard to the "image", and, if possible, outline some parallel with certain theses on the same subject from the Jena years. Finally, in what i consider a novelty concerning these lessons, i would like to conclude my exposition by raising the question of the foundational character of Fichte’s project.
fichtes bildtheoretisches denken und seine vorlaufer
39. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Mario Jorge de Carvalho Bilder-wahrnehmen und Bild-sein: Altgriechische „Vorläufer“ der Idee des Bildseins
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Images are usually understood as something perceived: as something presented to us and different from us. But since Antiquity the concept has also been given a different meaning: it has been used to describe our own being, and indeed so much so that it also stands for our essential nature: we are ourselves an image (we are ourselves but an image); and being an image (being but an image) is what is what really defines us. The experience of being oneself an image (as opposed to just perceiving something else as an image) – or, as one might also say, this basic understanding of oneself as being just an image – plays an important role inter alia in Pre-Platonic thought, in the corpus platonicum, in the Christian idea of the imago Dei (of the notitia Dei as capacitas Dei) and, not least, in Fichte’s late philosophy.This paper focuses on two ancient Greek forerunners of some aspects of Fichte’s understanding of image, namely pre-platonic and platonic views on our own being-just-an-image.
40. Fichte-Studien: Volume > 47
Faustino Fabbianelli Fichte und die analogia entis
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The paper has two aims: firstly, to present Fichte’s transcendental ontology as a theory of the analogia entis. This allows to comprehend in which sense his Doctrine of science is different from Kant’s or Hegel’s thought. Secondly, i aim to outline the twofold nature of Fichte’s analogical ontology, depending on whether the intellectual concept or the concept of love is in the foreground. i distinguish these two approaches and evaluate them both with regard to the relation between the Absolute and his manifestations and to the immanent connections among the creatures.