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21. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mathias Gutmann Uexküll ja kaasaegne bioloogia: Mõned metodoloogilised kaalutlused. Kokkuvõte
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22. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Mathias Gutmann Юкскюлл и современная биология: некоторые методологические соображения. Резюме
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23. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Jui-Pi Chien Schema as both the key to and the puzzle of life: Reflections on the Uexküllian crux
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Jakob von Uexküll’s problematic is manifested in his paradoxical portraiture of form within the plan of nature: the one a sensual schema and the other a transsensual ideal form. At first sight, Uexküll’s belief in the Platonic and the Reformational notions of the immobile becoming of form seems to be a resignation from the heated debates among his contemporary materialists, vitalists, dynamists, and evolutionists. However, in terms of the Kantian subjective teleology, Uexküll’s appropriation of the ancient philosophy reinstates the invisible, static, but repetitive cycle as his regulating principle in the observation of the activity of animals. This regulating principle distinguishes itself from the rule of resemblance established by the appearances and fossil remains of animals, which is linear, incomplete, and digressive. In the light of Michel Foucault, the transition from the visible to the invisible recoups the study of nature from the living beings (les êtres vivants) to the life itself (la vie), from natural philosophy to biology. My study suggests that we recast Uexküll’s sign theory from his observations on the crux that models and triggers an animal to action in its Umwelt. Bracketing Uexküll’s transcendental configuration of form and image, we still find that schema, in itssensual and functional context, evolves from a reflection of the objects to a summary of their features plus an ignorance of their proper names. Uexküll's erasure of proper names (in different languages) that directs our attention to the presentation in its pure form (Gestalt) not only constitutes an important step in epistemology, but also in a life science that meticulously delves into the genotypes.
24. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Jui-Pi Chien Схема как ключ и загадка жизни: размышления над проблемой Юкскюлла. Резюме
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25. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Jui-Pi Chien Skeem kui elu võti ja mõistatus: peegeldusi Uexkülli probleemile. Kokkuvõte
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26. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Cornelius Steckner Symbol formation
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Symbol formation is a term used to unify the view on the interdependencies in the research of the Hamburg University before 1933: the Philosophical Institute (William Stern, Ernst Cassirer), the Psychological Institute (Stern) with its laboratory (Heinz Werner) in cooperation with the later joining Umwelt Institut (Jakob von Uexküll). The term, definitely used by Cassirer and Werner, is associated with the personalistic approach: “Keine Gestalt ohne Gestalter” (Stern), but also covers related terms like “melody of motion” (Uexküll), and “relational content” (Cassirer), discussing the term “empirical scheme” (Kant). All this scientific interest addressed personal forces to structure thresholds in equivalent stimuli. This view on intermodal formation allowed research in common aspects in the environments of animals, of children and adults to meet there the symbol formation of artists (Weimar Bauhaus) and poets like R. M. Rilke, a friend of Uexküll.
27. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Cornelius Steckner Формирование символа. Резюме
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28. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Cornelius Steckner Sümboliloome. Kokkuvõte
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29. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Dario Martinelli The musical circle: The umwelt theory, as applied to zoomusicology
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The purpose of the present article is to illustrate the crucial role played by the Umwelt theory in zoomusicological (and, more generally, zoosemiotic) studies. Too much, in fact too little, has been written on the relationship between non-human animals and music. Most of these writings do not explicitly aim at contributing to the actual problem (a good example being the reflections on birdsong contained in John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding). Some are, so to speak, a little folkloristic, quite a few broach the problem in strictly scientific terms, and very few take a clearly zoomusicological approach. In an attempt to understand all the possible ways in which the problem can be analysed, it turns out that all these contributions — in spite of their reciprocal diversity — have points in common, leading to three main categories of approach: discontinuity, gradualism, and pluralism (or Umwelt theory). The discontinuist attitude is by definition opposed to the intent of a zoomusicological research, which in fact defends the thesis that music is not specific only to humans. On the other hand, one might share the gradualist assumption that musicality departs from a basis common to many animal species (at least, all those provided with vocal apparatuses). However, such a basis cannot be interpreted as monolithic (i.e., as having developed in a unique and indivisible way), carrying, as a result, qualitative differences in music between species. For the above-mentioned reasons, and for others to be illustrated in the present paper, it becomes clear that the approach to zoomusicology must necessarily be pluralistic. The most suitable framework seems to be that postulated by Jakob von Uexküll, and known as the theory ofUmwelt.
30. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Dario Martinelli Музыкальный круг: теория умвельта применительно к зоо-музыкологии. Резюме
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31. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Dario Martinelli Muusikaline ring: Omailma teooria, rakendatuna zoomusikoloogias. Kokkuvõte
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32. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Florian Mildenberger Race and breathing therapy: The career of Lothar Gottlieb Tirala (1886–1974)
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The historiography of life, work and visions of Jakob von Uexküll (1864–1944) has grew up during the last years. But up to now lifes of his important followers in science are still unknown. This article ist devoted to life and work of Lothar Gottlieb Tirala (1886–1974), who studied psychology and medicine in Vienna and started cooperation with Uexküll in 1914. They stayed in contact during the following decades, although Tirala began a career in race hygiene and neo-darwinistic scientific thought. He organised the contact between Uexküll and Houston Stewart Chamberlain and got support from the Wagner-family in 1933 to become professor for race biology in Munich. After his booting out in 1936 because of massive faults in teaching Tirala changed his scientific interests and began to stretch Uexkülls “Reflexlehre” into healing of blood pressure diseases in men. He became a favourite researcher in German natural cure community after 1945. Even today his studies are integrated in efforts to fight hypertonia.
33. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Florian Mildenberger Раса и дыхательная терапия: жизнь Лотара Готтлиба Тиралы (1866–1974). Резюме
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34. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Florian Mildenberger Tõug ja hingamisteraapia: Lothar Gottlieb Tirala (1886–1974) elukäik. Kokkuvõte
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35. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
John Michael Krois Ernst Cassirer’s philosophy of biology
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The first part of this essay outlines Cassirer’s philosophy of biology in the context of philosophy of science in the 20th century, giving an overview of Cassirer’s different writings on the philosophy of biology. The second part outlines his treatment of what he took to be the chief philosophical problem in the philosophy of biology: the conflict between mechanism and vitalism. Cassirer interpreted this conflict as a methodological debate, not a metaphysical problem. In Cassirer’s eyes, each point of view is justified within specifics limits. The third part explicates Cassirer’s critique of Darwinism. Although Cassirer was critical of particular conceptions of Darwinian evolution, he did not reject evolution and, in fact, asserted that the concept of emergence was also of far-reaching importance in other fields besides biology. Part four offers concluding remarks about the importance of the philosophy of biology for Cassirer’s general philosophical orientation and for his conception of the tasks of philosophical theory.
36. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
John Michael Krois Философия биологии Эрнста Кассирера. Резюме
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37. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
John Michael Krois Bioloogia filosoofia Ernst Cassireril. Kokkuvõte
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38. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Andreas Weber Mimesis and Metaphor: The biosemiotic generation of meaning in Cassirer and Uexküll
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In this paper I pursue the influences of Jakob von Uexküll’s biosemiotics on the anthropology of Ernst Cassirer. I propose that Cassirer in his Philosophy of the Symbolic Forms has written a cultural semiotics which in certain core ideas is grounded on biosemiotic presuppositions, some explicit (as the “emotive basic ground” of experience), some more implicit. I try to trace the connecting lines to a biosemiotic approach with the goal of formulating a comprehensive semiotic anthropology which understands man as embodied being and culture as a phenomenon of general semioses.
39. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Andreas Weber Mimees ja metafoor: Biosemiootiline tähendusloome Cassireril ja Uexküllil. Kokkuvõte
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40. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1/2
Andreas Weber Мимезис и метафора: биосемиотическое производство значения у Кассирера и Юкскюлла. Резюме
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